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Full text of "A dictionary of archaic and provincial words, obsolete phrases, proverbs, and ancient customs : from the fourteenth century"

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DICTIONARY 



OF 



ARCHAISMS AND PROVINCIALISMS, 



VOL. I. 



I 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



|^rc|ak m)i lr0hiitcial 9it0ri$, 



OBSOLETE PHRASES, PROVERBS, AND ANCIENT CUSTOMS, 



FROM THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 



BY 

JAMES ORCriARD HALLIWELL, ESQ., F.R.S., 

Honorary Member of the Royal Irisli Academy; Corresponding Member of tlie Koyal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries, of tlie Society of Antiquaries of Scotland , of the Arclueological Society of Stockholm, and the 
Reale Academia di Firenze; Honorary Member of tiie Royal Society of T,iterature, of the Newcastle 
Antiquarian Society, of the Royal Cambrian Institution, of the Ashmolean Society at Oxford, and of the 
Society lor the Study of Gotliic Architecture; Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries; Corresponding 
Member of the Coniit6 des Arts et Monuments, &c. &e. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOL I. A— I. 



IcntI] &Vitmi 



LONDON : 
JOHN EUSSELL SMITH, 36, SOHO SQUAEE. 

MDCCCLXXXI. 




SFP 2 4 194T 



juti 



9 B7^ 



PttlJSTKl> BY J. B. ADLAHD, BAltTHOLOMEW CLObE 



I « 



PREFACE. 



The difficulties proverbially attending the first essay in a literary design of 
any magnitude constitute one of the very few apologies the public are generally 
willing to concede an author for the imperfect A:e*CTition of his undertaking. 
Perhaps no desideratum in our literature could be named which needs this 
indulgence more than a Dictionary of the Early Enghsh language, — a work 
requiring such extensive and varied research, that the labours of a century would 
still leave much to be added and corrected, and one which has been too often 
abandoned by eminent antiquaries for failure to be conspicuous. It is now 
brought to a completion for the first time in the following pages, in some 
respects imperfectly, but comprising a variety of information nowhere else to be 
met with in a collective state, and forming at present the only compilation 
where a reader of the works of early English writers can reasonably hope to find 
explanations of many of the numerous terms which have become obsolete 
during the last four centuries.* 

So far I may be permitted to speak without intrenching on the limits of 
criticism. A work containing more than 50,000 words,f many of which have 
never appeared even in scattered glossaries, and illustrated, with very few 
exceptions, by original authorities, must contain valuable material for the 
philologist, even if disfigured by errors. With respect to the latter contingency, 
I am not acquainted with any glossary, comprising merely a few hundred wordsj 
which does not contain blunders, although in many instances the careful atten- 
tion of the editor has been specially directed to the task. Can I then anticipate 
that in a field, so vast that no single life would suffice for a minute examination 
of every object, I could have escaped proportionate habihties ? That such may 
be pointed out I have little doubt, notwithstanding the pains taken to prevent 

* A Glossary of Archaic and Provincial "Words was compiled about fifty years ago by the Rev. 
Jonathan Boucher, Vicar of Epsom, but only a small portion, extending to Bla, has yet been 
published. The manuscript, which is in the custody of one of the editors of the work, I have not 
seen, but to judge from what has appeared, it probably contains much irrelevant matter. Mr. 
Toonehas given us a small manual of early English words, 8vo. 1832. Nares' Glossary, pubUshed 
in 1822, is confined to the Elizabethan period, a valuable work, chiefly compiled from the notes tj 
the variorum edition of Shakespeare. 

t The exact number of words in this dictionary is 51,027. 

I. h 



Ti PREFACE. 

their occurrence , but it will be manifestly unfair to make them the test of merit, 
or thence to pronounce a judgment on the accuracy of the whole. I may add 
that the greatest care has been taken to render the references and quotations 
accurate, and whenever it was practicable, they have been collated in type with 
the originals. The great importance of accurate references will be fully appre- 
ciated by the student who has experienced the inconvenience of' the many 
inaccurate ones in the works of Nares, Gifford, and others. 

The numerous quotations I have given from early manuscripts will generally be 
found to be literal copies from the originals, without any attempt at remedying 
the grammatical errors of the scribes, so frequent in manuscripts of the fifteenth 
century. The terminal contractions were then, in fact, rapidly vanishing as part 
of the grammatical construction of our language, and the representative of the 
vowel terminations of the Anglo-Saxon was lost before the end of that century. 
It is only within the last few years that this subject has been considered by our 
editors, and it is much to be regretted that the texts of Ritson, Weber, and 
others are therefore not always to be depended upon. For this reason I have 
had recourse in some cases to the original manuscripts in preference to using 
the printed texts, but, generally, the quotations from manuscripts have been 
taken from pieces not yet published. Some few have been printed during the 
time this work has been in the press, a period of more than two years. 

In ascertaining the meaning of those early English words, which have been either 
improperly explained or have escaped the notice of our glossarists, I have chiefly 
had recourse to those grand sources of the language, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo- 
Norman. It appeared to me to be sufficient in such cases to indicate the imme- 
diate source of the word without referring to the original root, discarding in 
fact etymological research, except when it was necessary to develop the right 
explanation. Etymological disquisitions on provincial words have also been 
considered unnecessary ; but in some few instances, where there existed no rea- 
sonable doubt, the root has been mentioned. 

In explaining terms and phrases of the Elizabethan era, I have had the 
advantage not enjoyed in preparing that part of the work which relates to the 
earlier period, of referring to the labours of a predecessor in the same task. The 
Glossary of Archdeacon Nares has here necessarily in some respects been my 
guide, generally a faithful one as far as his explanations are concerned, but still 
very imperfect as a general glossary to the writers of that age. I have attempted 
to supply his deficiencies by more than trebling his collection of words and 
phrases, but my plan did not permit me to imitate his prolixity, and I have there- 
fore frequently stated results without explaining the reasoning or giving the 
reading which led to them. Nares' Glossary is however, notwithstanding its 
imperfections, a work of great merit, and distinguished by the clearness and 



PREFACE. vii 

discrimination with which the collections of the Shakespearian commentatora 
are arranged and discussed. To find him occasionally in error merely illustrates 
the impossibility of perfection in philological studies. 

Having had in view the wants of readers unskilled in early English rather 
than the literary entertainment of professed students, 1 have admitted numerous 
forms the etymologist will properly regard corrupt, and which might easily have 
been reduced to their original sources. I may have carried the system too far, 
but to have excluded corruptions would certainly have rendered the work less 
generally useful ; and it is not to be presumed that every one who consults a 
manual of this kind will despise the assistance thus afforded. There are, too, 
many corruptions the sources of which are not readily perceivable even by the 
most experienced. 

So many archaisms are undoubtedly still preserved by our rural population, 
that it was thought the incorporation of a glossary of provincialisms would 
render the work a more useful guide than one restricted to known archaisms. 
When Ray in 1674 published the first collection of English localisms, he gives 
three reasons for having undertaken the task : " First, because I knew not of 
anything that hath been already done in this kind ; second, because I conceive 
they may be of some use to them who shall have occasion to travel the Northern 
counties, in helping them to understand the common language there ; third, 
because they may also afford some diversion to the curious, and give them occa- 
sion of making many considerable remarks." It is remarkable that Ray seems 
to have been unacquainted with the real value of provincial words, and most of 
his successors appear to have collected without the only sufficient reason for pre- 
serving them, the important assistance they continually afford in glossing the 
works of our early writers. 

Observations on our provincial dialects as they now exist will be found in the 
following pages, but under the firm conviction that the history of provinciahsms 
is of far inferior importance to the illustration they afford of our early language, 
I have not entered at length into a discussion of the former subject. I have 
spared no pains to collect provincial words from all parts of the country, and 
have been assisted by numerous correspondents, whose communications are care- 
fully acknowledged under the several counties to which they refer. These com- 
munications have enabled me to add a vast quantity of words which had escaped 
the notice of all the compilers of provincial glossaries, but their arrangement 
added immeasurably to the labour. No one who has not tried the experiment 
can rightly estimate the trouble of arranging long lists of words, and separating 
mere dialectical forms. 

The contributors of provincial words are elsewhere thanked, but it would 
hardly be right to omit the opportunity of enumerating the more extensive com- 



vm PREFACE. 

munications. I may, then, mention my obligations to Captain Henry Smith, for 
his copious glossary of Isle of Wight provincialisms ; to the Rev. James Adcock, 
to whom I am principally indebted for Lincolnshire words ; to Goddard Johnson, 
Esq. for his valuable Norfolk glossary ; to Henry Norris, Esq. for his important 
Somersetshire collection; to David E. Davy, Esq. for his MS. additions to 
Forby ; to Major Moor, for his collections for a new edition of his Suffolk Words 
and Phrases ; and to the Rev. J. Staunton, for the use of the late Mr. Sharp's 
manuscript glossary of Warwickshire words. Most of the other communications 
have been of essential service, and I cannot call to mind one, however brief, 
which has not furnished me with useful information. My anonymous correspond- 
ents will be contented with a general acknowledgment ; but I have not ventured 
to adopt any part of their communications unsupported by other authority. My 
thanks are also returned to Mr. Toone, for MS. additions to his Glossary, chiefly 
consisting of notes on Massinger ; to Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., for a few notes on 
hunting terms in the earlier letters ; and to Mr. Chaffers, jun. for a brief glossary 
compiled a few years since from Chaucer, Lydgate, &c. But my chief obliga- 
tions are due to Thomas Wright, Esq. M.A., whose suggestions on nearly every 
sheet of this work, as it was passing through the press, have been of the 
greatest advantage, and whose profound knowledge of Anglo-Saxon and Anglo- 
Norman has frequently been of essential service when the ordinary guides had 

been ineffectually consulted. 

J. 0. HALLIWELL. 



Brixton Hill, Surrey, 
Feb. 1st, 1847. 



I 



THE ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



Robert of Gloucester, after describing the Norman Conquest, thus alludes to the change ci 
language introduced by that event : 

And the Normans ne couthe speke tho bote her owe speche. 
And speke French as dude atom, and here chyldrendude also teche. 
So that hey men of this lond, that of her blod come, 
Holdeth alle thulke speche that hii of hem nome. 
Vor bote a man couthe French, me tolth of hym wel lute, 
yic lowe men holdeth to Englyss, and to her kunde speche ^ute, 
Ich wene ther ne be man in world contreyes none, 
That ne holdeth to her kunde speche, bote Engelond one. 
Ac wel me wot vor to conne bothe wel yt ys, 
Vor the more that a man con, the more worth he ys. 
This extract describes very correctly the general history of the languages current in England for 
the first two centuries after the battle of Hastings. Anglo-Norman was almost exclusively the lan- 
guage of the court, of the Norman gentry, and of literature. *' The works in English which were 
written before the Wars of the Barons belong," says Mr. Wright, " to the last expiring remains of an 
older and totally different Anglo-Saxon style, or to the first attempts of a new English one formed 
upon a Norman model. Of the two grand monuments of the poetry of this period, Layamon 
belongs to the former of these classes, and the singular poem entitled the Ormulum to the latter. 
After the middle of the thirteenth century, the attempts at poetical composition in EngUsh became 
more frequent and more successful, and previous to the age of Chaucer we have several poems of 
a very remarkable character, and some good imitations of the harmony and spirit of the French 
versification of the time." After the Barons' Wars, the Anglo-Norman was gradually intermingled 
with the Anglo-Saxon, and no long time elapsed before the mongrel language, English, was in 
general use, formed, however, from the latter. A writer of the following century thus alleges his 
reason for writing in English : 

In Englis tonge y schal 50W telle> 

3yf je so long with me wyl dwelle ; 

Ne Latyn wil y speke ne waste, 

Bot Englisch that men use« maste, 

For that ys joure kynde langage. 

That 5e hafe here most of usage ; 

That can ech man untherstonde 

That is born in Englonde ; 

For that langage ys most schewed, 

Als wel mowe lereth as lewed. 

Latyn also y trowe can nane, 

Bot tho that hath hit of schole tane ; 

Som can Frensch and no Latyne, 

That useth has court and duel It therinne. 

And som can of Latyn aparty, 

That can Frensch ful febylly ; 

And som untherstondith Englisch, 

That nother can Latyn ne Frensch. 

Bot lerde, and lewde, old and '^ong, 

Alle untherstondith Englisch tonge. 

Therfore y holde hit most siker thanne 

To schewe the langage that ech man can ; 

And for lewethe men namely. 

That can no more of clergy, 

Tlio ken tham whare most nede. 

For clerkes can both se and rede 

In divers bokes of Holy W^ritt, 

How they schul lyve, yf thay loke hit : 

Thareforey wylle me holly halde 

To that langage that Englisch ys calde. MS. Sodl. 48, f, ♦^ 



X ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 

The author of the Cursor Mundi thought each nation should be contented with one language, 
and that the English should discard the Anglo-Norman : 

This ilk bok it es translate 

Into Inglis tong to rede, 1 

For the love of Inglis lede, -^ 

Inglis lede of Ingland, 

For the commun at understand. 

Frankis rimes here I redd 

Comunlik in ilk sted. 

Mast es it wroght for Frankis man, 

Quat is for him na Frankis can 9 

Of Ingland the naeion 

Es Inglisman thar in commun ; 

The speche that man wit mast may spede. 

Mast thar wit to speke war nede. 

Selden was for ani chance 

Praised Inglis tong in France ' 

Give we ilkan thare langage, , 

Me think we do tham non outrage. 

MS. Cott. Vespds. A. iii. f. 2. 

In the curious tale of King Edward and the Shepherd, the latter is described as being perfectly 
astonished with the French and Latin of the court : 

The lordis anon to chawmbur went, 1 

The kyng aftur the scheperde sent. 

He was bro3t forth fuUe sone; 
He clawed his hed, his hare he rent. 
He wende wel to have be schent. 

He ne wyst what was to done. 
When he French and Latyn herde. 
He hade mervelle how it ferde. 

And drow hym ever alone : 
Jhesu, he seid, for thi gret grace, 
Bryng me fayre out of this place ! 

Lady, now here my bone ! 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 55. 

In the fifteenth century, English may be said to have been the general language of this coun- 
try.* At this period, too, what is now called old English, rapidly lost its grammatical forms, and 
the English of the time of Henry VIII. , orthography excepted, differs very little from that of the 
present day. A few archaisms now obsolete, and old phrases, constitute the essential 
differences. 

Our present subject is the provincial dialects, to which these very brief remarks on the general 
history of the English language are merely preliminary, — a subject of great difficulty, and one 
w^hich requires far more reading than has yet been attempted to develop satisfactorily, especially 
in its early period. Believing that the principal use of the study of the English dialects consists 
in the explanation of archaisms, I have not attempted that research which would be necessary to 
understand their history, albeit this latter is by no means an unimportant inquiry. The Anglo- 
Saxon dialects were not numerous, as far as can be judged from the MSS. in that language which 
have been preserved, and it seems probable that most of our English dialects might be traced 
historically and etymologically to the original tribes of the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes, not forget- 
ting the Danes, whose language, according to Wallingford, so long influenced the dialect of 
Yorkshire. In order to accomplish this we require many more early documents which bear upon 
the subject than have yet been discovered, and the uncertainty which occurs in most cases of 
fixing the exact locality in which they were written adds to our difficulties. When we come to a 
later period, the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, there being no standard literary form of our 
native language, every MS. sufficiently exhibits its dialect, and it is to be hoped that all English 
works of this period may one day be classed according to their dialects. In such an undertaking, 
great assistance will be derived from a knowledge of our local dialects as they now exist. Hence 
the value of specimens of modern provincial language, for in many instances, as in Robert of 
Gloucester's Chronicle, compared with the present dialect of Gloucestershire, the organic forms of 
the dialect have remained unchanged for centuries. The Ayenbyte of Inwyt is, perhaps, the most 
remarkable specimen of early English MSS. written in a broad dialect, and it proves very satisfac- 
torily that in the fourteenth century the principal features of what is termed the Western dialect 
were those also of the Kentish dialect. There can be, in fact, little doubt that the former was 

* Anne, Countess of Stafford, thus writes in 1438, I «* ordeyne and make my testament in English tonge for 
•ny most profit, ledyng, and understandyng in this wise." 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



» 



I „ nnrrpnt throuffhout the Southem counties, and even extendedin some degree as far as Essex * 
long c^^7"*;''^^"g^'*^' 'f^ earlv English of which the locaHties of composition are known, 

l?miSft';Ss S^^ -"*-y '^'^.'r' Twf ' '"' 

Northern ^the M dS, and the Southern, thelast being that now retained m the \Vestern coun- 
tls But with he feW materials yet pubhshed, I set little reliance on any classification of the 
I ;. If wmav decide from Mr. Wr ght's Specimens of Lyric Poetry, which were written in 
H^reWd hire, o from AuS^ Poems%ritten in Shropshire in the fifteenth century, those 
Hereiorasuire, ui Midland division, rather than to the West or South. 

Th^Lrw fters wlfo h ': entered oX subject of the early Enghsh provincial dialects, have 
adJocateTtStLories without a due consideration of the Probability m many cases the cer- 
tltfof anesent^^^^ distinction between the language of literature and that of the natives of a 
tainty, ot an essenxiai ui. anomaHes. We are not to suppose, 

county. Hence arises a fallacy .hich^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^g .^ 

merely ^^^^^^^^^^^J^^/^i^'f^.^^f ^ There are several MSS. written in Kent of about 

?hrat Ta^: aTthetenb^^^^^^^^^^ have none of the dialectical marks of that curious 

worf Most^f the quotSns here giv^n from early MSS. must be taken with a similar liuuta- 
ta as tf their dialecl Hence the difficulty, from want of authentic specimens of forming a 
cSimcationt w^^^^^^^ led to an alphabetical arrangement of the counties m the following brief 
notices : — 



BEDFORDSHIRE. 
The dialect of this county has been fully in- 
vestigated in Batchelor's Orthoepical Analysis 
of the English Language, 8vo. 1809. Ew takes 
the place of oiv, ea of a, ow of the long o, ot of 
t, &c. When r precedes s and e final, or s and 
other consonants, it is frequently not pro- 
nounced. Ow final is often changed into er ; 
ge final, into dge ; and g final is sometimes 
omitted. 

BERKSHIRE. 
The Berkshire dialect partly belongs to the 
Western, and partly to the Midland, more 
strongly marked with the features of the former 
in the South-West of the county. The a is 
changed into o, the diphthongs are pronounced 
broadly, and the vowels are lengthened. Way 
is pronounced woye ; thik and thak for this and 
that ; he for him, and she for her. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

The language of the peasantry is not very 
broad, although many dialectical words are in 
general use. A hst of the latter was kindly for- 
warded to me by Dr. Hussey. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

There is little to distinguish the Cambridge- 
shire dialect from that of the adjoining counties. 
It is nearly aUied to that of Norfolk and Suffolk. 
The perfect tense is formed strongly, as hit, hot, 
git, sot, spare, spore, e. g. " if I am spore, 
i e spared, &c. I have to return my thanks to 



the Rev. J. J. Smith and the Rev. Charles 
Warren for brief lists of provincialisms current 
in this county. 

CHESHIRE. 
The Cheshire dialect changes I into w, ul into 
w or 00, i into oi or ee, o into u, a into o, o into 
a, u into i, ea into yo, and oa into ivo. Mr. 
Wilbraham has pubhshed a very useful and cor- 
rect glossary of Cheshire words. Second ed. 
12mo. 1836. 

Extract from a Speech of Jtidas Iscariot in the 
Play of Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. 

By deare God in magistie ! 

I am so wroth as I maye be. 

And some waye I will wrecken me. 

As sone as ever I maie. 

My mayster Jesus, as men maye see, 

Was rubbed heade, foote, and linye, 

With oyntmente of more daintie 

Then I see manye a daie. 

To that I have greate envye. 

That he suffrcd to destroye 

More then all his good thrye. 

And his dames towe. 

Hade I of it hade maisterye, 

I woulde have soulde it sone in hie. 

And put it up in tresuerye. 

As I was wonte to doe. 

Whatsoever wes geven to Jesu, 

I have kepte, since I hym knewe. 

For he hopes I wilbe trcwe. 

His purse allwaie I bare. 

Hym hade bene better, in good faye. 

Hade spared oyntmente that daie, 



* This is stated on sufficiently ample authority, but Verstegan appears to hm,t it m his time to the Western 
counUe 1- We see that in soine .everall parts of England itselfe, both the names of things, and pronunt.a- 
dons of wTrds are somewhat different, and that among the country people that never borrow any words out 
V ?K TltTnn'r French and of this different pronuntiation one example in steed of many shal suffice, as this : 
ttonouncing accord!^ say at London, / u^ouM eat more cHeese if J Haa it, the Northern man 

for pronouncing accorui g , Westerne man saith, Chud eat more cheese an chad tt. Lo 

"::?;r">rr.;™r:SLnsrr„tnrc„l.r^ .. one .^.,, .na he^ot ^„y.he,*e e„.p,e. 
might be alleaged."- Fersfei/on's Restitution, 16c>4, p. 193. 



JLii 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



For wrocken I wilbe some waie 

Of waste that was done their ; 

Three hundreth penny worthes it was 

That he let spill in that place ; 

Therefore God geve me harde grace. 

But hymselfe shalbe soulde 

To the Jewes, or that I sitte. 

For the tenth penye of it : 

And this my maister shalbe quite 

My grefFe a hundreth foulde. 

Chester Plays, ii. 12. 

CORNWALL. 

It is almost unnecessary to observe, that the 
ancient Cornish language has long been obso- 
Jete. It appears to have been gradually disused 
from the time of Henry VIII., but it was spoken 
in some parts of the country till the eighteenth 
century. Modern Cornish is now an English 
dialect, and a specimen of it is here given. 
Polwhele has recorded a valuable list of Cornish 
provincialisms, and a new glossary has recently 
been published, in ' Specimens of Cornish Pro- 
vincial Dialect,' 8vo. 1846. In addition to these, 
I have to acknowledge several words, hitherto 
unnoticed, communicated by Miss Hicks, and 
R. T. Smith, Esq. 

Harrison, Description of Britaine, p. 14, thus 
mentions the Cornish language : " The Cornish 
and Devonshire men, whose countrie the Britons 
call Cerniw, have a speach in like sort of their 
owne, and such as hath in deed more affinitie 
with the Armoricane toong than I can well dis- 
cusse of. Yet in mine opinion, they are both 
but a corrupted kind of British, albeit so far de- 
generating in these dales from the old, that if 
either of them doo meete with a Welshman, they 
are not able at the first to understand one an- 
other, except here and there in some od words, 
without the helpe of interpretors." 

In Cornwal, Pembr. and Devon they for to milk 
say milky, for to squint, to squinny, this, thicky, 
&c., and after most verbs ending with consonants 
they clap a y, but more commonly the lower part of 
Pembrokeshire. 

Lhuyd's MS. Additions to Ray, Ashm, Mus 

(1) The Cornwall Schoolboy. 
An ould man found, one day, a yung gentleman's 
portmantle, as he were a going to es dennar ; he 
took'd et en and gived et to es wife, and said, 
•' Mally, here's a roul of lither, look, see, I suppoase 
some poor ould shoemaker or other have los'en, 
tak'en and put'en a top of the teaster of tha bed, 
he'll be glad to hab'en agen sum day, I dear say." 
The ould man, Jan, that was es neame, went to es 
work as beforo. Mally then open'd the portmantle, 
and found en et three hunderd pounds. Soon after 
thes, the ould man not being very well, Mally said, 
'♦ Jan, I'ave saaved away a little money, by the bye, 
and as thee caan't read or write, thee shu'st go to 
scool" (he were then nigh threescore and ten). He 
went but a very short time, and corned hoam one 
day, and said, " Mally, I wain'tgo to scool no more, 
'caase the childer do be lafFen at me ; they can tell 
their letters, and I caan't tell my A, B, C, and I 
wud rayther go to work agen." *• Do as thee wool," 
ses Mally. Jan had not ben out many days, afore 
the yung gentleman came by that lost the port- 
mantle, and said, " Well, my ould man, did'ee see 



or hear tell of sich a thing as a portmantle ?" " Port- 
mantle, sar, was't that un, sumthing like thickey ? 
(pointing to one behind es saddle.) I found one the 
t'other day zackly like that." ** Where es et ?" 
" Come along, I carr'd'en en and gov'en to my wife 
Mally ; thee sha't av'en. Mally, where es that roul 
of lither that I giv'd tha the t'other day >" " What 
roul of lither ?" said Mally. " The roul of lither I 
broft en and tould tha to put'en a top of the teaster of 
the bed, afore I go'd to scool." " Drat tha empe- 
rance," said the gentleman, "thee art betwattled, 
that was before I were born." 

{2) A Western Eclogue. 
Pengrouze, a lad in many a science blest. 
Outshone his toning brothers of the west : 
Of smugling, hurling, wrestling much he knew. 
And much of tin, and much of pilchards too. 
Fam'd at each village, town, and country-house, 
Menacken, Helstone, Polkinhorne, and Groui;e ; 
Trespissen, Buddock, Cony-yerle, Treverry, 
Polbastard, Hallabazzack, Eglesderry, 
Pencob, and Restijeg, Treviskey, Breague, 
Irewinnick, Buskenwyn, Busveal, Roscreague : 
But what avail'd his fame and various art. 
Since he, by love, was smitten to the heart ? 
The shaft a beam of Bet Polglaze's eyes ; 
And now he dumplin loaths, and pilchard pies. 
Young was the lass, a servant at St. Tizzy, 
Born at Polpiss, and bred at Mevagizzy. 
Calm o'er the mountain blush'd the rising day. 
And ting'd the summit with a purple ray. 
When sleepless from his hutch the lover stole. 
And met, by chance, the mistress of his soul. 
And " Whither go'st I" he scratched his skull an<? 

cry'd ; 
" Arrear, God bless us," well the nymph reply'd, 
«• To Yealston sure, to buy a pound o' backy. 
That us and measter wonderfully lacky ; 
God bless us ale, this fortnight, 'pon my word. 
We nothing smoaksbut oak leaves and cue-terd." 

Pengrouze, 
Arrear then, Bessy, ly aloane the backy. 
Sty here a tiny bit and let us talky. 
Bessy, I loves thee, wot a ha me, zay. 
Wot ha Pengrouze, why wot a, Bessy, hae ? 

Bet Polglaze. 
Ah, hunkin, hunkin, mind at Moushole fair 
What did you at the Choughs, the alehouse there ? 
When you stows eighteen pence in cakes and beer. 
To treat that dirty trollup. Mall Rosevear : 
You stuffs it in her gills, and makes such pucker, 
Arrear the people thoft you wid have choack her. 

Pengrouze, 

Curse Mall Rosevear, I says, a great jack whore, 
I ne'er sees such a dirty drab before : 
I stuffs her gills with cakes and beer, the hunk. 
She stuffs herself, she meslin and got drunk. 
Best* drink sure for her jaws wan't good enow. 
So leckert makes her drunk as David's sow ; 
Her feace is like a bull's, and 'tis a fooel, 
Her legs are like the legs o' cobler's stooel ; 
Her eyes be grean's a lick,:}^ as yaffers big, 
Noase flats my bond, and neck so black's a pig. 
Bet Polglaze. 

Ay, but I've more to say ; this isn't ale. 
You deanc'd wy Mall Rosevear 't asartin bale; 
She toald me so, and lefts me wy a sneare — 
Ay ! you, Pengrouze, did deance wy Mall Rosevear. 



* Best drink implies strong beer. 
X Oreen as a leek 



+ Brandy. 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



XUl 



Pengi'ouze. 
Now, Bessy, hire me, Bessy, vath and soale, 
Hire me, I says, and thou shat hire the whoaie ; 
One night, a Wensday night, I vows lo Goade, 
Aloane, a hossback, to Tresouze I roade ; 
Sure Bessy vath, dist hire me, 'tis no lies, 
A d — mnder bale was never seed wy eyes. 
I hires sum mizzick at an oald bearne doore. 
And hires a wondrous rousing on the floore ; 
So in I pops my head ; says I, arreare ! 
Why, what a devil's neame is doing heare ? 
Why deancing, cries the crowder by the wale, 
Whydeancing, deancing, measter— 'tis a bale. 
Deancing, says I, by Gam I hires sum preancers. 
But tell us where the devil be the deancers ; 
For fy the dust and strawze so fleed about, 
I could not, Bessy, spy the hoppers out. 
Atlaste I spies Rosevear, I wish her dead, 
Who meakes medeanceall nite, the stinking jade. 
- Says I, I have no shoose to kick a foote : 

Why kick, says Mall Rosevear, then kick thyboote. 
And, Bet, dist hire me, for to leert us ale, 
A furthing candle wink'd again the wale. 
Bet Polglaze. 
Ah, hunkin, hunkin, I am huge afraid 
That you is laughing at a simple maid. 

Pengrouze. 
Deare, dearest Bet, let's hug thee to my hearte, 
And may us never never never pearte ! 
No. if T I'lPs than, Bessy, than I wishes 
The Shackleheads may never close the fishes ; 
That picky dogs may eat the sceane when fule, 
Eat'n to rags, and let go ale the schule. 

Bet Polglaze. 
Then here's my hond, and wy it teake my hearte. 

Pengrouze, 
Goade bless us too, and here is mines, ods hearte ♦ 
One buss, and then to Pilchard ing I'll packy. 

Bet Polglaze. 
And I to Yealstonefor my master's backy. 

(3) .^ Cornish Song. 
Come, all ye jolly Tinner brrys, and listen to me ; 
I'll tell ee of a storie shall make ye for to see, 
Consarning Boney Peartie, the schaames which he had 

maade 
To stop our tin and copper mines, and all our pilchard 

traade. 
He summonsed forty thousand men, to Polland they 

did goa. 
All for to rob and plunder there you very well do 

knawa ; 
But ten-t\\o\x-sand were killed, and laade dead in blood 

and goare, 
And thirty thousand ranned away, and I cante tell 

where, I'm sure. 
And should that Boney Peartie have forty thousand still 
To maake into an army to work his wicked will. 
And try for to invaade us, if he doent quickly fly — 
Why, forty thousand Cornish boys shall knawa the 

reason why. 
Hurea for tin and copper, boys, and fisheries likewiso ! 
Hurea for Cornish maadens — oh, bless their pretty 

eyes ! 
Hurea for our ould gentrie, and may they never faale ! 
Hurea, hurea for Cornwall! hurea, boys, " one and 

ale !" 

CUMBERLAND. 
The dialects of Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
Northumberland, and Durham may be consi- 



dered to be identical in all essential peculiari- 
ties, the chief differences arising from the mode 
of pronunciation. According to Boucher, the 
dialect of Cumberland is much less uniform than 
that of Westmoreland. In Cumberland, wo is 
in frequent use instead of the long o, as will be 
noticed in the following example. A glossary of 
Cumberland words was kindly forwarded to mJ» 
by Mr. Thomas Sanderson. 

(1) Love in Cumberland. 
Tune, — " Cuddle me, Cuddy." 
Wa, Jwohn, what'n mannishment's 'tis 

'At ton's gawn to dee for a hizzy ! 
Aw hard o' this torrable fiss, 

An'aw's cum't to advise tha', — 'at is ee. 
Mun, thou'U nobbet Iwose teegud neame 

Wi' gowlin an' whingin sea mickle; 
Cockswunturs ! min beyde about heame. 

An' let her e'en ga to auld Nickle. 
Thy plew-geer's aw liggin how-strow. 

An' somebody's stown thee thy couter ; 
Oh faiks ! thou's duin little 'at dow 

To fash theesel ivver about her. 
Your Seymey has broken car stang, 

An' mendit it wid a clog-coaker ; 
Pump-tree's geane aw wheyt wrang. 

An' they've sent for auld Tom Stawker 
Young fiUy'i clur.s onrp the lang stee, 

An' leam'd peer Andrew the theeker ; 
Thee mudder wad sufFer't for tee, 

An haw hadn't happ'n't to deck her. 
Thou's spoilt for aw manner o' wark : 

Thou nobbet sits peghan an' pleenan. 
Odswucke, man ! doff that durty sark. 

An' pretha gi'e way git a clean an ! 
An' then gow to Carel wi' me, — 

Let her gang to knock-cross wid her scwomia. 
Sec clanken at market we'll see, 

A'll up'od ta' forgit her 'or mwornin' ! 

(2) Song, by Miss Blamire. 
What ails this heart o' mine ? 

What means this wat'ry e'e ? 
What gars me ay turn pale as death 

When I tak' leave o' thee ? 

When thou art far awa', 

Thou'll dearer be to me ; 
But change o' place, and change o' ft Ik, 

May gar thy fancy jee. 

When I sit down at e'en. 

Or walk in morning air. 
Ilk rustling bough will seem to say, 

I us'd to meet thee there : 

Then I'll sit down and vvail. 

And greet aneath a tree. 
And gin a leaf fa' i' my lap, 
I's ca't a word frae thee. 

I'll hie me to the bow'r 

Where yews wi' roses tred, 
And where, wi' monie a blushing bud, 

I strove my face to hide ; 

I'll doat on ilka spot, 

Where I ha'e been wi' thee. 
And ca' to mind some kindly look 

'Neath ilka hollow tree. 

Wi' sec thoughts i' my mind. 
Time thro' the warl may gae. 
And find me still, in twenty years. 
The same as I'm to- day : 



XIV 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



'T'': friendship bears the sway, 
And keeps friends i' the e'e ; 
And gin I think I see the still, 
Wha can part thee and me ? 

DERBYSHIRE. 

" This dialect," observes Dr. Bosworth, ** is 
remarkable for its broad pronunciation. In me 
the e is pronounced long and broad, as mee. 
The I is often omitted after a or o, as aw for all, 
caw., call, bowd, bold, coud, cold. Words in ing 
generally omit the g, but sometimes it is changed 
into Jc ; as think for thing, lovin for loving. 
They use con for can ; Conner for cannot ; shanner 
for shall not ; wool, wooner for will, and will not ; 
yo for you, &c." Lists of provincial words pe- 
culiar to this county have been kindly forwarded 
by Dr. Bosworth, Thomas Bateman, Esq., the 
Rev. Samuel Fox, the Rev. William Shilleto, 
Mrs. Butler, and L. Jewitt, Esq. 

A Dialogue between Farmer Bennet and Tummus 
hide. 

Farmer Bennet. Tummus, why dunner yo mend 
meh shoom ? 

Tummus Lide. Becoz, mester, 'tis zo cood, I Con- 
ner work wee the tachin at aw. I've brockn it ten 
times I'm shut to de — it freezes zo hard. Why, 
Hester hung out a smock-frock to dry, an in three 
minits it wor frozzen as stiff as a proker, an I Con- 
ner afford to keep a good fire ; I wish I cud. I'd soon 
mend yore shoon, an uthers tow. I'd soon yarn 
sum munney, I warrant ye. Conner yo find sum 
work for m', mester, these hard times ? I'll doo 
onnythink to addle a penny. I con thresh — I con 
split wood — I con mak spars — I con tliack. I con 
skower a dike, an I con trench tow, but it freezes 
zo hard. I con winner — I con fother, or milk, if there 
be need on't. I woodner mind drivin plowor onnythink. 

Farmer B. I banner got nothin for ye to doo, 
Tummus; but Mester Boord towd me jist now that 
they wor gooin to winner, an that they shud want 
Bumbody to help 'em. 

Tummus L. O, I'm glad on't. I'll run oor an zee 
whether I con help 'em ; bur I banner bin weein the 
threshold ov Mester Boord's doer for a nation time, 
becoz I thoot misses didner use Hester well ; bur I 
duimer bear malice, an zo I'll goo. 

Farmer B. What did Misses Boord za or doo to 
Hester then ? 

Tummus L. Why, Hester may be wor summut to 
blame too; for her wor one on 'em, de ye zee, that 
jawd Skimmerton, — the mak-gam that frunted zum 
o'the gentefook. They said 'twor time to dun wee 
sich litter, or sich stuff, or I dunner know what they 
cawdit; but they wor frunted wee Hester bout it; 
an I said, if they wor frunted wee Hester, they mid 
bee frunted wee mee. This set misses's back up, an 
Hester banner bin a charrin there sin. But 'tis no 
use to bear malice : an zo I'll goo oor, and zee which 
we the winde blows. 

Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary , Introd.p. 31. 

DEVONSHIRE. 
The MS. Ashmole 33 contains an early ro- 
mance, written about the year 1377, which 
appears to have been composed by a clergyman 
living in the diocese of Exeter. Several extracts 
from it will be found in the following pages. 
The MS. i)ossesses great interest, having part of 



the author's original draught of the romance. 
See farther in Mr. Black's Catalogue, col. 15. 

" A Devonshire song" is printed in Wits Inter- 
preter, ed, 1671, p. 171 ; the " Devonshire ditty" 
occurs in the same work, p. 247. The Exmoor 
Scolding and the Exmoor Courtship, specimens 
of the broad Devonshire dialect at the commence- 
ment of the last century, have been lately repub- 
lished. The third edition was published at Exeter 
in 1746, 4to. Mr. Marshall has given a list of 
West Devonshire words in his Rural Economy 
ofthe West of England, 1796, vol. i. pp. 323-32, 
but the best yet printed is that by Mr. Palmer, 
appended to a Dialogue in the Devonshire 
Dialect, 8vo. 1837. A brief glossary is also 
added to the Devonshire Dialogue, Svo. 1839. 
My principal guide, however, for the dialectical 
words of this county is a large MS. collection 
stated in Mr. Thomas Rodd's Catalogue of MSS. 
for 1845 (No. 276) to have been written by Dr. 
Milles, Dean of Exeter, and quoted in this work 
as Dean Milles' MS. I have been since informed 
that it was compiled by the late Rev. Richard 
Hole, but in either case its integrity and value 
are undoubted. Notes of Devonshire words 
have been kindly transmitted by the Rev. John 
Wilkinson, J. H. James, Esq., William Chappell, 
Esq., Mrs. Lovell, and Mr. J. Metcalfe. The 
West Country dialect is now spoken in greater 
purity in Devonshire than in any other county. 

The following remarks on the English dialects 
are taken from Aubrey's Natural History of 
Wiltshire, a MS. preserved in the library of the 
Royal Society: 

The Northern parts of England speake guttu- 
rally ; and in Yorkshire and the bishoprick of Dur- 
ham they have more of the cadence, or Scottish tone 
than they have at Edinborough: in like manner, in 
Herefordshire they have more of the Welch cadence 
than they have in Wales. The Westerne people can- 
not open their mouthes to speak ore rotundo. Wee pro- 
nounce paa^, pale, &c., and especially in Devonshire. 
The Exeter Coll. men in disputations, when they 
allege Causa Causae est Causa Causatt, they pronounce 
it, Caza, Cazte est Caza Cazati very un-gracefuUy. 
Now ^contra the French and Italians doe naturally 
pronounce a fully ore rotundo, and e, and even chil- 
dren of French born in England ; and the farther 
you goe South the more fully, qd. NB. This must 
proceed from the earth or aire, or both. One may 
observe, that the speech (twang or accent— adiantus) 
of ye vulgar begins to alter some thing towards the 
Herefordshire manner even at Cyrencester. Mr. 
Thorn. Hobbs told me, that Sir Charles Cavendish 
did say, that the Greekes doe sing their words (as 
the Hereff. doe in some degree). From hence arose 
the accents, not used by the ancients. I have a 
conceit, that the Britons of the South part of this isle, 
e. g. the Trinobantes, &c., did speak no moreguttu- 
rall, or twangings, than the inhabitants doe now. 
The tone, accent, &c., depends on the temper of the 
earth (and so to plants) and aire. 

(1) A Lovers' Dialogue. 

Rah. I love dearly. Bet, to hear the tell ; but, good 
loving now, let's tell o'zummet else. Time slips 
away. 

Bet. I, fegs, that it dith. I warnis our vokes wou- 
der wliat the godger's a come o me, I'll drive hom<>. 
I wish thee good neart. 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



IV 



Rab. Why there now. Oh, Bet ! you guess what 
I ha to tell about, and you warnt hear me. 

Bet. I, say so, co ; — a fiddle-de-dee— blind mares. 
Rab. There agen ! — did ever any boddy hear the 
like ? Well, soce, what be I to do ? 

Bet. I wish, Rab, you'd leave vetting me. Pithee, 
let's here no more o'at. 

Rab. Woll, I zee how 'tis. You'll be the death 
o'me, that's a zure thing. 

Bet. Dear hart, how you tell ! I the death o' 
thee ! — no, not vor the world, Rab. Why I'd ne'er 
the heart to hurt thee nor any kindest thing in all 
my born days. What whlmzies you have ! Why do 
ye put yourself in such a pucker ? 

Rab. Why, because the minnet I go about to 
break my meend, whip soce, you be a-go, and than I 
coud bite my tongue. 

Bet. Why than will you veass me away when you 
know I can't abide to hear o'at ? Good-now, don't'ee 
zay no more about et. Us have always been good 
friends — let us bide so. 

B.ab. I've now began, and I want let thee go till 
thee hast a-heard me out. 

Bet. Well, I woll, but don't'ee cream my hand zo. 

Rab. I don't know what I do nor what I zay ; — 
many many nearts I ha'n't a teen'd my eyes vor 
thinking o'thee. I can't live so, 'tis never the neer 
to tell o'at ; and I must make an end o'at wan way 
or t'other. I be bent upon't ; therefore don't stand 
shilly-shally, but lookeedezee, iv thee disn't zay thee 
wid ha me, bevore thicca cloud hath heal'd every 
fheen o' the moon, zure an double-zure I'll ne'er 
ax thee agen, but go a soger and never zee home 
no more. Lock! lock ! my precious, what dist cry vor? 

Bet. I be a cruel moody-hearted tiresome body ; 
and you scare wan, you do zo. I'm in a sad quan- 
dory. Iv I zay is, I may be sorry ; and if I zay no, 
I may be sorry too, ziinmet. I hop you widn't use 
me badly. 

Rab. Dist think, my sweeting, I shall e'er be 
maz'd anew to claw out my own eyes ? and thee art 
dearer to me than they be. 

Bet. Hold not so breach now, but hear first what 
I've to zay. You must know, Rab, the leet money 
I've a croop'd up I be a shirk'd out o', but 'twill 
never goodee way an. I'll tell thee how I was 
«. '•need. 

Rab. Good-now, lovey, don'tee think o'at. We 
shall fadgee and find without et. 1 can work, and 
will work, an all my carking and caring will be for 
thee, and everything shall bee as thee woud ha'et. 
Thee shall do what thee wid. 

Bet. I say so too. Co, co, Rab, how you tell ! 
Why, pithee, don't'ee thmk I be such a ninny-ham- 
mer as to desire et. If 'tis ordained I shall ha thee, 
I'll do my best to make tha a gude wife. I don't 
want to be cocker'd. Hark 1 hark ! don't I hear the 
bell lowering for aight ? — 'tis, as I live. I shall ha 
et whan I get home. 

Rab. If I let thee go now, will meet me agen to- 
morrow evening in the dimmet ? 

Bet. No. To-morrow morning at milking time 
I woll. 

Rab. Sure. 

Bet. Sure and sure. So I wish thee good neart. 

Rab. Neart, neart, my sweeting ! 

(2) John Chawbacon and his w{fe Moll, cum up 
f Exeter to zee the railway opened, May \, 1844. 

'• Lor Johnny ! lor Johnny ! now whativver es that, 
A urning along like a boss upon wheels ? 

•Tis as bright as yer buttons, and black as yer hat. 
And jist listen, Johnny, and yer how 'a squeals !" 



" Dash my buttons, Moll — I'll be darn'd if I know •, 

Us was vools to come yerr and to urn into danger , 
Let's be off — 'a spits vire ! lor, do let us go — 

And 'a holds up his head like a gooze at a stranger, 
•' I be a bit vrighten'd — but let us bide yerr ; 

And hark how 'a puffs, and 'a caughs, and 'a blows , 
He edden unlike the old cart-hoss last yer — 

Broken-winded ; — and yet only zee how 'a goes ( 
" 'A urns upon ladders, with they things like wheels^ 

Or hurdles, or palings, put down on the ground , 
But why do they let 'un stray out of the veels ? 

'Tis a wonder they don't clap 'un into the pound." 
" 'A can't be alive, Jan — I don't think- a can." 

" I bain't zureo' that, Moll, for jist look'ee how 
'A breathes like a boss, or a znivell'd old man : — 

And hark how he's bust out a caughing, good now. 
** 'A never could dra' all they waggins, d'ee zee, 

If 'a lived upon vatches, or turmets, or hay ; 
Why, they waggins be vill'd up with people — they be; 

And do 'ee but look how they'm larfin away ! 
" And look to they childern a urning about, 

Wi' their mouths vuU of gingerbread, there by the 
zhows ; 
And zee to the scores of vine ladies turn'd out ; 

And gentlemen, all in their best Zunday clothes. 

•' And look to this houze made o' canvas zo zmart ; 

And the dinner zet out with such bussle and fuss ; — • 
But us brought a squab pie, you know, in the cart. 

And a keg of good zider — zo that's nort to us. 

" I tell ee what 'tis, Moll — this here is my mind, 
The world's gone quite maze, as zure as you'm born, 

'Tis as true as I'm living — and that they will vind. 
With their bosses on wheels that don't live upon corn. 

' ' I wouldn't go homeward b'mbye to the varm 
Behind such a critter, when all's zed and dun, 

We've a travell'd score miles, but we never got harm, 
Vor there's nort like a market cart under the zun." 

DORSETSHIRE. 

" The rustic dialect of Dorsetshire," observes 
Mr. Barnes, " is, with little variation, that of 
most of the Western parts of England, which 
were included in the kingdom of the West Saxons, 
the counties of Surrey, Hants, Berks, Wilts, and 
Dorset, and parts of Somerset and Devon." The 
Dorset dialect, however, has essential features 
of that of the Western counties which are not 
heard in Surrey or Hants, as will be sufficiently 
apparent from the specimens here given. ThA 
language of the south-east part of Dorsetshire 
is more nearly allied to that of Hants. 

" In the town of Poole," according to Dr. 
Salter, " there is a small part which appears to 
be inhabited by a peculiar race of people, who 
are, and probably long have been, the fishing 
population of the neighbourhood. Their man- 
ner of speaking is totally different from that of 
the neighbouring rustics. They have a great 
predilection for changing all the vowels into 
short M, using it in the second person, but without 
a pronoun, and suppressing syllables, e. g, caf,'n 
car't, can you not carry it, &c." Mr. Vernon, 
in remarking upon these facts, observes, " the 
language of our seamen in general is well worth 
a close investigation, as it certainly contains not 
a few archaisms ; but the subject requires time 
and patience, for in the mouths of those who 



jrvi 



ENGLISH PKOVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



call the Bellerophon and the Ville de Milan, the 
Billy Ruffian and the Wheel-em-along, there is 
nothing 

" But doth suffer a sea-change 
Into something new and strange." 
This must be received with some limitation, and 
perhaps applies almost entirely to difficult mo- 
dern terms not easily intelligible to the unedu- 
cated. Many of the principal English nautical 
terms have remained unchanged for centuries. 

Valuable lists of Dorsetshire words have been 
liberally sent me by the Rev. C. W. Bingham, 
James Davidson, Esq., Samuel Bagster, Esq., 
Dr. Salter, and G. Gollop, Esq. ; but my prin- 
cipal references have been made to the glossary 
attached by Mr. Barnes to his ** Poems of Rural 
Life in the Dorset Dialect," 8vo. 1844. The 
same work contains a dissertation on the dialect, 
with an account of its peculiar features. The 
change of o into a, so common in Dorsetshire, 
completely disappears as we proceed in a westerly 
direction towards "Worcestershire. 

(1) ^ Letter from a Parish Clerk in Dorsetshire 
to an absent Vicar, in the Dialect of the 
County. From 'Poems on several Occasions, 
formerly written by John Free, D.D.,' 8vo. 
Lond. 1757, p. 81. 

Measter, an't please you, I do zend 

Theaz letter to you as a vriend, 

Hoping you'll pardon the inditing, 

Becaz I am not us'd to writing, 

And that you will not take unkind 

A word or zo from poor George Hind, 

For I am always in the way, 

And needs must hear what people zay. 

First of the house they make a joke. 

And zay thechimnies never smoak. 

Now the occasion of these jests, 

As I do think, where zwallows nests. 

That chanc'd the other day to vaal 

Into the parlour, zut and aal. 

Bezide, the people not a few 

Begin to murmur much at you. 

For leaving of them in the lurch. 

And letting straingers zerve the church. 

Who are in haste to go agen, 

Zo, we ha'nt zang the Lord knows when. 

And for their preaching, I do know 

As well as moost, 'tis but zo, zo. 

Zure if the call you had were right, 

You ne'er could thus your neighbours slight. 

But I do fear you've zet your aim on 

Naught in the world but vilthy mammon, &c. 

(2) Axen Maidens to goo to Fiair. 
To-marra work so hard's ya can, 
An' git yer jobs up under han', 
Var Dick an' I, an' Poll's young man 

Be gwain to fiair ; an' zoo 
If you'll tiake hold ov each a yarm 
Along the road ar in the zwarm 
O' vo'ke, we'll kip ye out o'harm, 

An' gi ye a fiairen too. 
We woon't stay liate ther ; I'll be boun' 
We'll bring our shiadesback out o' town 
Zome woys avore the zun is down. 

So long's the sky is clear ; 
An' zoo, when al yer work's a-done, 
^ er mother cant but let ye run 
An' zee a little o* the fun 

Wher nothin is to feat. 



The zun ha' flow'rs to love his light. 
The moon ha' sparklen brooks at night. 
The trees da like the playsome flight 

Ov ayer vrom the west. 
Let zome like empty sounds to mock 
Ther luonesome vaice by hill or rock, 
But merry chaps da like t' unlock 

Ther hearts to maidens best. 
Zoo you git ready now, d'ye hear ? 
Ther's nar another fiair so near. 
An' thiese don't come but twice a year. 

An' you woon't vind us spiaren. 
We'll goo to al the zights an' shows, 
O' tumblers wi' ther spangled cloa's. 
An' conjurers wi' cunnen blows. 

An' raffle var a fiairen. 

(3) The Woodlands. 

spread agen your leaves an' flow'rs, 
Luonesome woodlands ! zunny woodlands 

Here underneath the dewy show'rs 

O' warm-iir'd spring-time, zunny woodlands 
As when, in drong ar oben groun', 
Wi' happy buoyish heart I voun' 
The twitt'ren birds a-builden roun' 

Your high-bough'd hedges, zunny woodlands 
Ya gie'd me life, ya gie'd me jay, 

Luonesome woodlands ! zunny woodland* ! 
Ya gie'd me health as in my play 

1 rambled droo ye, zunny woodlands ! 
Ya gie'd me freedom var to rove 

In airy mead, ar shiady grove ; 
Ya gie'd me smilen Fanny's love. 

The best ov all o't, zunny woodlands 

My vust shill skylark whiver'd high, 

Luonesome woodlands! zunny woodlands' 

To zing below your deep-blue sky, 

An' white spring-clouds, O zunny woodlands , 

An' boughs o' trees that oonce stood here, 

Wer glossy green the happy year 

That gie'd me oon I lov'd so dear. 

An' now ha lost, O zunny woodlands ! 

O let me rove agen unspied, 

Luonesome woodlands ! zunny woodlands ! 
Along your green-bough'd hedges' zide. 

As then I rambled, zunny woodlands ! 
An' wher the miss^n trees oonce stood, 
Ar tongues oonce rung among the wood, 
My memory shall miake em good. 

Though you've alost em, zunny woodlands • 

(4) The Weepen Liady. 
When liate o' nights, upon the green. 
By th'ik wold house, the moon da sheen, 
A liady there, a-hangen low 
Her head's a-wak-en to an' fro 
In robes so white's the driven snow ; 
Wi' oon yarm down, while oon da rest 
Al lily-white upon the breast 
O thik poor weepen liady. 

The curdlen win' an' whislen squall 

Do shiake the ivy by the wall. 

An' miake the plyen tree-tops rock, 

But never ruflle her white frock, 

An' slammen door an' rottlen lock 
That in thWn empty house da sound, 
Da never seem to miake look round 
rZ/ik downcast weepen liaday, 

A liaday, as the tiale da goo. 

That oonce liv'd there, an' lov'd too true. 

Wer by a young man cast azide 

A mother sad, but not a bride ; 

An' then her father in his pride 



i 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



XVTl 



An' anger offer'd oon o' two 
VuU bitter things to undergoo 
To tJiik poor weepen liady. 

That she herzuf should leave his door. 

To darken it again noo muore, 

Ar that her little playsome chile, 

A-zent awoy a thousand mile, 

Should never meet her eyes to smile, 
An* play again, till she inshiame 
Should die an' leave a tarnish'd niame, 
A sad varsiaken liady. 

" Let me be lost," she cried, " the while, 
I do but know var my poor chile ;" 
An' left the huome ov al her pride. 
To wander droo the wordle wide, 
Wi' grief that vew but she ha' tried. 

An' lik' a flow'r a blow ha' broke, 

She wither'd wi' thi\s. deadly stro)<e. 
An' died a weepen liady. 
An' she da keep a-comen on. 
To zee thik father dead an' gone, 
As if her soul could have noo rest 
Avore her teary chiak's a-prest 
By his vargiv-en kiss : zoo blest 

Be they that can but live in love. 

An' vine a pliace o' rest above, 
Unlik' the weepen liady. 

DURHAM. 

The Durham dialect is the same as that spoken 
in Northumberland and the North Riding of 
Yorkshire, the former being more like Scotch, 
and the latter more like English, but each in a 
very slight degree. The Durham pronunciation, 
though soft, is monotonous and drawling. See 
the ' Quarterly Review' for Feb. 1836, p. 358. 

No glossary of Durham words has yet ap- 
peared, but Kennett has recorded a considerable 
number in his MS. Glossary. I have been en- 
abled to add many unknown to that author, 
derived from communications by the Rev. R. 
Douglas, George B. Richardson, Esq., Miss 
Portus, E. T. WarburtOn, Esq., and Mr. S. Ward. 

If the following anecdote be true, Southern 
English is but little known amongst some of 
the lower orders in Durham : 

*♦ John," said a master tanner in South Durham, 
the other day, to one of his men, " bring in some 
fuel." John walked oflf, revolving the word in his 
mind, and returned with a pitchfork ! " I don't 
want that," said the wondering tanner; " I want fuel, 
John." " Beg your pardon," replied the man, " I 
thought you wanted something to turn over the skins." 
And oflf he went again, not a whit the wiser, but 
ashamed to confess his ignorance. Much meditating, 
he next pitched upon the besom, shouldering which, 
he returned to the counting-house. His master was 
now in a passion. " What a stupid ass you are, John," 
he exclaimed; " I want soaie sticks and shavings to 
light the fire." '' O-h-h-h 1" rejoined the rustic, " that's 
what you want, is it ?" Why couldn't you say so at 
first, master, instead of using a London dictionary 
word ?" And, wishful to show that he was not alone 
In his ignorance, he called a comrade to the tanner's 
presence, and asked him if he knew what '' fuel" was. 
*♦ Aye I" answered Joe, " ducks an' geese, and sike 
.ike !" — Gateshead Observer. 

ESSEX. 
The dialect of Essex is closely allied in some 
parts of the county to that of Kent, and in 
Others to that of Suffolk, though generally not 



so broad, nor spoken with the strong Suffolk 
whining tone. Mr. Charles Clark has given a 
glossary of Essex words at the end of ' John 
Noakes and Mary Styles, or an Essex Calf's 
Visit to Tiptree Races,' 8vo. 1839, and I am in- 
debted for many others to the kindness of the 
Rev. W. Pridden and Mr. Edward T. Hill. A 
list of Essex words is given in the Monthly 
Magazine for July, 1814, pp. 498-9. 

(1) From a Poem of the fifteenth century, hy the 
Vicar of Maldon. 
Therfor, my lefFe chyld, I schalle teche the, 
Herken me welle the maner and the gyse, 
How thi sowle inward schalle aqueyntyd be 
With thewis good and vertw in alle wysse ; 
Rede and consey ve, for he is to dispice. 
That redyth ay, and noot what is ment, 
Suche redyng is not but wynde despent. 
Pray thi God and prayse hym with alle thi hart, 
Fadir and modyr have in reverence. 
Love hem welle, and be thou never to smert 
To her mennys consayle, but kepe the thens, 
Tylle thu be clepid be clene wlthowjt offence : 
Salyw gladly to hym that is moor dygne 
Than art thiselfe, thu schalt thi plase resygne. 
Drede thi mayster, thy thynge loke thu kepe, 
Take hede to thy housold, ay love thy wyff, 
Plesaunte wordes oujt of thi mowth schalle crepe ; 
Be not irous, kepe thi behest os lyfF, 
Be tempryd, wy^te, and non excessyff ; 
Thy wyves wordes make thu noon actorit^. 
In folisclepe no moor thanne nedyth the. 

MS. Harl.271,{. 26 
(2) CocJc-a^Bevis Hill. 
At Tottum's Cock-a-Bevis Hill, 

A sput suppass'd by few. 
Where toddlers ollis haut to eye 

The proper pritty wiew ; 
Where people crake so ov the place. 

Leas-ways, so I've hard say ; 
An' frum its top yow, sarteny. 

Can see a monsus way. 
'Bout this oad Hill, I warrant ya. 

Their bog it nuver ceases ; 
They'd growl shud yow nut own that it 

Beats Danbury's au' to pieces. 
But no sense ov a place, some think. 

Is this here hill so high, — 
Cos there, full oft, 'tis nation coad. 

But that don't argufy. 
Yit, if they their inquirations maake 

In winter time, some will 
Condemn that place as no great shakes. 

Where folks ha' the coad-chill ! 
As sum'dy, 'haps, when nigh the sput, 

May ha' a wish to see't, — 
From Mauldon toun to Keldon 'tis. 

An* 'gin a four releet, 
Where up the road the load it gooB 

So lugsome an' so stitF, 
That bosses mosly kitcha whop, 

Frum drivers in a tiff. 
But who'd pay a boss when tugging on ? 

None but a tetchy elf: 
Tis right on plain etch chap desarve* 
A clumsy thump himself. 

Haul'd o'er the coals, sich fellarse'er 

Shud be, by Martin's Act ; 
But, then, they're rayther muggy oft» 

So with um we're not zact. 



X\TU 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



But thusslns, 'haps, to let uni oat* 

Is wrong; becos etch carter. 
If maade to smart, his P's and Q's 

He'd mine for ever arter. 

At Cock-a-Bevis Hiil, too, the 

Wiseacres show a tree. 
Which if yow clamber up, besure, 

A precious way yow see. 

I dorn't think I cud clime it now, 

Aldoe I uster cud ; 
I shudn't warsley loike to troy. 

For guelch cum down I shud. 

My head 'ood swim, — I 'oodn't do'it 

Nut even for a guinea : 
A naarbour ax'd me, tother day, 

" Naa, naa," says I, " nut quinny." 
At Cock-a-Bevis Hill, I was 

A -goon to tell the folks, 
Some warses back— when I bargun — 

In peace there lived John Noakes. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 
It has been already remarked that the orga- 
nic forms of the Gloucestershire dialect have 
remained unchanged for centuries, and are to be 
traced in Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle. 
Many Anglo-Saxon words are here preserved in 
great purity. " He geunne it him," he gave it 
him, the verb geunne being in general use 
amongst the peasantry. The dialect is more 
similar to that of Somersetshire than of the 
adjoining counties, though not so strongly 
marked as a Western dialect. They change o 
into a, s into z,f into v, t into d, p into b, short 
a into i or aoy, long e into eea, long i into ey, 
long into ooa. The A.-S. termination en is 
still preserved ; thee is used for thou and you ; 
thilk is in constant use ; her is put for she, she 
for her, /for me, and ou for he, she, or it. Com- 
munications of Gloucestershire words have been 
received from the Rev. H. T. EUacombe, Miss 
Shipton, and Mr. E.Wright, 

George Ridler^s Oven. 
Thestwons that built George Ridler's oven. 

And thauy qeum from the Bleakeney's quaar; 
And George he wur a jolly old mon, 

And his yead it graw'd above his yare. 

One thing of George Ridler I must commend, 

And that wur not a notable theng ; 
He mead his braags avoore he died, 

Wi' any dree brothers his zons zs'hou'd zeng. 
There s Dick the treble and John the mean, 

Let every mon zing in his auwn pleace ; 
And George he wur the elder brother, 

And therevoore he would zing the beass. 
Mine hostess's moid (and her neaum 'twur Nell) 

A pretty wench, and I lov'd her well ; 
I lov'd her well, good reauzon why. 

Because zshe lov'd my dog and I. 
My dog is good to catch a hen, 

A duck or goose is vood for men ; 
And where good company I spy, 

O thethcr gwoes my dog and I. 
My mwother told I when I wur young, 

If I did vollow the strong-beer pwoot ; 
That drenk would pruv my auverdrow, 

And meauk me wear a thzread-bare cwoat 



My dog has gotten zitch a trick. 
To visit moids when thauy be zick; 

When thauy be zick and like to die, 
O thether gwoes my dog and I. 

When I have dree zispences under my thumb, 
O then I be welcome wherever I come j 

But when I have none, O then I pass by, 
'Tis poverty pearts good company. 

If I should die, as it may hap. 

My greauve shall be under the good yeal tap, 
In vouled earms there wool us lie. 

Cheek by jowl my dog and I ' 

HAMPSHIRE. 
The romance of Octovian, according to Mr. 
D'Israeli, " is in the Hampshire dialect nearly 
as it is spoken now." Although somewhat 
doubtful as to the literal correctness of this 
opinion, an extract from it may be compared 
with a modern specimen of the dialect. A short 
glossary of Hampshire words is given in Warner's 
collections for that county. The dialect of the 
west of the county is similar to that of Wiltshire, 
f being changed into v, and th into d; and un 
for him, her, it. It is a common saying, that in 
Hampshire every thing is called he except a tom- 
cat which is called she. 

(1) Extract from the early romance of Octovian 
Imperator. 

The knyjtys logh yn the halle. 

The mantellys they yeve menstrales alle ; 

Lavor and basyn they gon calle 

To wassche and aryse, 
And syth to daunce on the walle 
Of Parys. 

Whan the soudan thys tydyng herde. 
For ire as he wer wod he ferd ; 
He ran with a drawe swerde 

To hys mamentrye, 
And alle hys goddys ther heamerrede 

With greet envye. 

Asterot, Jopyn, and Mahoun 
He alle to-hew with hys fachoun. 
And Jubiter he drew adoun 

Of hys autere ; 
He seyde, hy nere worth a scaloune 

Alle y-fere. 

Tho he hadde hys goddys y-bete. 

He was abated of alle hys hete. 

To sende hys sendys nolde he najt lete, 

Tho anoonryjt. 
To Babylonye after lordes grete 

To help hym fy5t. 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ii. f. 28. 

^ Letter to the Editor of the Times, from a poor 
Man at Andover, on the Union Workhouse. 

Sir, — Hunger, as I've heerd say, breaks through 
Stone Walls ; but yet I shodn't have thought of let- 
ting you know about my poor Missus's death, but 
all my neibours say tell it out, and it can't do you 
no harm and may do others good, specially as Par- 
liament is to meet soon, when the Gentlefoke will be 
talking about the working foke 

I be but a farmers working man, and was married 
to my Missus 26 years agone, and have three Chil- 
dern living with me, one 10, another 7, and t'other 
3. I be subject to bad rumatiz, and never earns no 
more, as you may judg<- han to pay rent and keep 



ITNGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



XIX 



our bodies and souls together when we be all well. 
I was tended by Mr. Westlake when he was Union 
Doctor, but when the Guardians turned him out it 
was a bad job for all the Poor, and a precious bad 
job for me and mine. 

Mr. Payne when he come to be our Union Doctor 
tended upon me up to almost the end of last April, 
but when I send up to the Union House as usual, 
Mr. Broad, the Relevlng Officer, send back word 
there was nothing for me, and Mr. Payne wodnt 
come no more. I was too bad to work, and had not 
Vittals for me, the Missus, and the young ones, so I 
was forced to sell off the Bed, Bedstead, and furni- 
ture of the young ones, to by Vittals with, and then 
I and Missus and the young ones had only one bed 
for all of us. Missus was very bad, to, then, but as 
we knowd twere no use to ask the Union for nothink 
cept we'd all go into the Workhouse, and which 
Missus couldn't a bear, as she'd bin parted from the 
childern, she sends down to tell Mr. Westlake how 
bad we was a doing off, and he comes to us directly, 
and tends upon us out of charity, and gives Missus 
Mutton and things, which he said, and we know'd 
too well, she wanted of, and he gives this out of his 
own Pocket. 

Missus complaint growd upon her and she got so 
very bad, and Mr. Westlake says to us, I do think 
the guardians wouldn't let your wife lay here and 
starve, but would do something for you if they 
knowed how bad you wanted things, and so, says he, 
I'll give you a Sertificate for some Mutton and 
things, and you take it to Mr. Broad, the releving 
officer. Well, I does this, and he tells me that hed 
give it to the guardians and let me know what they 
said. I sees him again, and O, says he, I gived that 
Sertificate to the Guardians, but they chucked it a 
one side and said they wouldnt tend to no such 
thing, nor give you nothing, not even if Missus was 
dying, if you has anything to do with Mr. Westlake, 
as they had turned him off. 

I told my Missus this, and then says she we must 
try to get their Union Doctor, Mr. Payne, as we can't 
go (m for ever taking tilings from Mr. Westlake's 
Pocket, and lie turned out of Place, and so good to 
many poor folks besides us. So we gets Mr. Payne 
after a bit to come down ; and he says to Missus 
you're very bad, and I shall order the Union to send 
you Mutton and other things. Next Week Mr. 
Payne calls again, and asks Missus did she have the 
things he'd ordered for her to have ? She says I've 
had a shillings worth of Mutton, Sir. Why, says 
he, you wants other things besides Mutton, and I 
ordered them for you in the Union Book, and you 
ought to have them in your bad state. This goes on 
for 5 or 6 weeks, only a shillings worth of Mutton a 
Week being allowed her, and then one Week a little 
Gin was allowed, and after that as Missus couldnt 
get out of bed a Woman was sent to nurse and help 
her. 

I didnt ask Mr. Payne to order these ere things, 
tho' bad enof God knows they was wanted ; but in 
the first week in last November I was served with a 
summons to tend afore our Mayor and Justices under 
the Vagrance Act ; I think they said twas cause I 
had not found these things for Missus myself; but 
the Union Doctor had ordered em of the Guardians 
on his sponsibility. Well, I attends afore the 
Justices, and there was nothing against me, and so 
they puts it off, and orders me to tend afore em 
again next week, which I does, and then there wasnt 
enof for em to send me to Gaol, as the Guardians 
vranted, for a Month, and they puts it off again for 
another Week, and says I must come afore em again. 



and which I does ; and they tells m.e theres nothing 
proved, that I could aford to pay for the things, and 
I mite go about my business. 

I just loses three days* work, or pretty handy, by 
this, and that made bad a good bit worse. Next Day 
Mr. Payne comes again, and Missus was so out- 
dAceous bad, she says cant you give me som^-thing 
tv do me good and ease me a bit ; says Mr. Payne, I 
dont see you be much worse. Yes, I be, says Missus, 
and I wish you'd be so good as to let me send for 
Mr. Westlake, as I thinks he knows what'd make me 
easier, and cure the bad pains I do suffer. Mr. Payne 
abuse(i my Poor Missus, and dared her to do any- 
thing of that sort, and so we were feared to do it, 
lest I should be pulled up again afore the Justices, 
and lose more days work, and prhaps get sent to 
Gaol. Eight days after this Mr. Payne never having 
come nist us, and the Union having lowd us nothing 
at all, my poor Missus dies, and dies from want, and 
in agonies of pain, and as bad off as if shed been a 
Savage, for she could only have died of want of them 
things which she wanted and I couldnt buy if she'd 
been in a foreign land, were there no Parsons and 
People as I've heard tell be treated as bad as dogs. 

Years agone, if any body had been half so bad as 
my Missus, and nobody else would have tended to 
her, there'd been the clergyman of the parish, at all 
events, who'd have prayed with her, and seen too 
that she didn't die of starvation, but our Parson Is 
in favor of this here new Law, and as he gets 60Z. a 
year from the Guardians, he arnt a going to quarrel 
with his Bread and Cheese for the likes of we, and 
so he didnt come to us. Altho' he must have knowed 
how ill Missus was ; and she, poor creature, went 
out of this here world without any Spiritual consi- 
lation whatsomever from the Poor Man's Church. 

We'd but one bed as I've telled you, and only one 
Bedroom, and it was very bad to be all in the same 
Room and Bed with poor Missus after she were 
dead ; and as I'd no money to pay for a Coffin, I 
goes to Mr. Broad, then to Mr. Majer, one of the 
Guardians, and then to the overseers, and axes all 
of 'em to find a Coffin, but 'twere no use, and so, 
not knowing what in the World to do, off I goes to 
tell Mr. Westlake of it, and he was soon down at the 
House, and blamed me much for not letting he know 
afore Missus died, and finding we'd no food nor fire, 
nothing for a shrowd cept we could wash up some- 
thing, and that we'd no soap to do that with, he 
gives us something to get these ere things, and tells 
me to go again to the Releving Officer and t'others 
and try and get a Coffin, and to tell un Missus ought 
to be hurried as soon as possible, else t'would make 
us all ill. This I does as afore, but get nothing, 
and then Mr. Westlake give me an order where to 
get a Coffin, and il he had not stood a friend to me 
and mine, I can't think what would have become of 
em, as twas sad at Nights to see the poor little things 
pretty nigh break their hearts when they seed their 
poor dead mother by their side upon the Bed. 

My troubles wasnt to end even here, for Strang to 
tell the Registrer for Deaths for this District dont 
live in this the largest Parish with about 5000 inha- 
bitants, but at a little Village of not more than 400 
People and 5 Miles off, so I had to walk there and 
back 10 miles, which is very hard upon us poor folk, 
and what is worse when I got there the Registrer 
wasnt up ; and when he got up he wouldnt tend to me 
afore hed had his breakfast, and I was aforced to wait 
about until hed had done breakfast, and it seemed as 
'twas a very long time for a poor chap like me to be 
kept a waiting, whilst a man who is paid for doing 
what I wanted won't do such little work as that 



XX 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



afore here made hisself comfortable, tho' I telled 
him how bad I wanted to get back, and that I should 
loose a Day by his keeping me waiting about. 

That this is mostly the fault of the Guardians 
rather than anybody else is my firm beleif, tho' if 
Mr. Payne had done his duty hed a been with Missus 
many times afore she died and not have left her as 
he did, when he knowed she was so bad, and hed a 
made un give her what she wanted ; but then he 
must do, he says, just what the Guardians wishes, and 
that arnt to attend much on the Poor, and the Re- 
leving Officer is docked if what he gives by even the 
Doctors orders arnt proved of by the Guardians 
aterward, and he had to pay for the little Gin the 
Doctor ordered out of his own Pocket, and, as the 
Newspaper says, for the Nurse, as this was put in 
our Paper by I'm sure I don't know who, but I be- 
lieves tis true, last week. 

And now, Sir, I shall leave it to you to judge 
whether the Poor can be treated any where so bad 
as they be in the Andover Union, 

HEREFORDSHIRE, 

The pronoun a is used for he, she, or it. Strong 
preterits are current, chrab, clomb, heave, hove, 
pick, puck, shake, shuck, squeeze, squoze, &c. 
The dialect of this county must be classed as be- 
longing to the Midland division. The word just 
is used in rather a peculiar manner. Instead of 
saying, I have but just returned, they say I re- 
turned but just. A list of Herefordshire words 
is given in Duncumb's History of Hereford, and 
a more extended one has recently been sepa- 
rately pubhshed, 8vo. 1839. I am indebted for 
many words not to be found in either of these to 
lists given me by Sir S. R. Meyrick, T. W. Lane, 
Esq., and Mr. Perry. 

[l) From Maximon, a tale in a MS. written in 
Herefordshire of the time of Edward II. 
Herkne to my ron, 
As ich ou telle con. 

Of elde al hou yt gos, 
Of a mody mon, 
Hihte Maxumon, 

Soth withoute les. 
Clerc he was ful god. 
So moni mon understod. 

Nou herkne hou it wes, 

Ys wille he hevede y-noh, 
Purpre and pal he droh. 

Ant other murthes mo. 
He wes the feyrest mon, 
With-outen Absolon, 

That seththe wes ant tho. 
Tho laste is lyf so longe. 
That he bigan unstronge. 

As mony tides so. 
Him con rewe sore 
Al is wilde lore. 

For elde him dude so wo ; 

So sone as elde him com 
Ys boo an honde he nom, 

Ant gan of reuthes rede 
Of his herte ord 
He made moni word. 

Ant of is ly ves dede. 
He gan mene is mone ; 
60 feble were is bone. 



Ys hew bigon to wede. 
So clene he was y-gon, 
That heu ne hade he non ; 

Ys herte gan to blede. 

Care and kunde of elde 
Maketh mi body felde, 

That y ne mai stonde upriht ; 
Ant min herte unbolde. 
Ant mi body to colde. 

That er thou wes so lyht. 
Ant mi body thunne. 
Such is worldes wunne, 

This day me thinketh nyht. 

MS. Hurl. 2253, f. 82. 

(2) From an English translation of Macer de 
virtutibus herbarum, made by John Lelamour, 
scolemaister of Herforde, 1373. 

Mowsere growith lowe by the grownde, and berith 
a yellowe floure. Drinke the juis with wyne other 
ale, and anoynte the reynes and the bak with the 
blode of a fox, for the stone. Also stampe him and 
mylfoly togadyr, and drinke that juis with white 
wyne, and that wille make one to pisse. Also drinke 
the juis with stale ale, a sake man that is woundid, 
and yf he holdithe that drinke he shalle lyfe, and yf 
he caste hit he shalle dye. Also drinke the juis of 
this erbe for the squynancy. MS. Sloane 5, f . 35. 

HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 

There seem to he no peculiarities of dialect 
here which are not common to the adjoining 
county of Cambridgeshire. They say mort for 
a quantity ; a mort of people, a mort of rain. 
To-year for this year, like to-day or to-morrow. 
Wonderful for very ; his pain were wonderful 
great. To get himself ready, for to dress him- 
self ; he is too weak to get himself ready. If a 
disorder or illness of any kind be inquired for, 
they never say it is better or worse, but thafs 
better, or that's worse, with an emphasis on that. 
The Rev. Joseph Horner kindly favoured me 
with a list of the few provincial words which 
may be peculiar to this county. 

ISLE OF WIGHT. 

The dialect of the native inhabitants of this 
island diflfers in many respects from the county 
to which it is opposite. The accent is rather 
mincing than broad, and has little of the vulgar 
character of the West country dialects. The 
tendency to insert y in the middle of words may 
be remarked, and the substitution of vioi /is 
not uncommon among the peasantry, but by n 
means general. The pronunciation may gene- 
rally be correctly represented by the duplicati n 
of the vowels. 

No printed glossary of Isle of Wight provin- 
cialisms has yet appeared, but a very valuable 
one in MS., compiled by Captain Henry Smith 
was most kindly placed at my disposal by his 
relative, Charles Roach Smith, Esq. f.s.a. It 
has been fully used in the following pages. Use- 
ful communications have also been received 
from E. J. Vernon, Esq., Dr. Bromfield, and 
Dr. Salter. 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



1X1 



Specimen of the Isle of Wight dialect. 
Jan. What's got there you ? 
Will. A blastnashun straddlebob craalun about in the 

nammut bag. 
Jan, Straddlebob! "Whereded'st leyarn to caal'n by 

that neyam ? 
Will, Why, what shoud e caal'n ? tes the right neyam 

esn ut ? 
Jan, Right neyam, no I why ye gurt zote vool, easn't 

zee tes a Dumbledore ? 
Will, I knows tes, but vur aal that Straddlebob's zo 

right a neyam vorn as Dumbledore ez. 
Jan. Come, I'll be deyand if I doant laay thee a quart 

o' that. 
Will. Done ! and I'll ax meyastur to night when I 

goos -whooam, bee't how 't wool. 
(Accordingly rr.eyastur was applied to by Will, 
who made his decision known to Jan the 
next morning.; 
Will. I zay, Jan ! I axed meyastur about that are 

last night. 
Jan. Well ! what ded 'ur zay i 
Will. Why a zed one neyam ez jest zo vittun vorn as 

tother, and he louz a ben caald Straddlebob 

ever zunce the island was vast meyad. 
Jan, The devvul a hav I if that's the keeas I spooas I 

lost the quart. 
Will. That thee has' t lucky ! and we'll goo down to 

Arverton to the Ked Lion and drink un ater 

we done work. 

KENT. 

The modern Kentish dialect is slightly broad, 
indeed more so than that of Surrey or Sussex. 
Daiy, plaiy, waiy, for day, play, way, &c. They 
say who for how, and vice versa. Mate, instead 
of boy or lad, is the usual address amongst 
equals. The interchange of v and w is common 
here as well as in the metropolis. As in most 
parts of England, the pronunciation of names of 
places differs very much from the orthography, 
e. g. Sunnuck for Sevenoaks, Bairn for Darenth, 
Leusum for Lewisham, &c. No glossary of 
Kentish words has yet been published, unless we 
may so style a .short list of words in Lewis's 
History and Antiquities of the Isle of Tenet, 
1736, pp. 35-39, but I have received valuable 
communications from the Rev. M. H. Lloyd, 
John Brent, Esq., the Rev. Thomas Streatfeild, 
the Rev. L. B. Larking, John Pemberton Bart- 
lett, Esq., the Rev. Dr. Hussey, Thomas Wright, 
Esq., Miss Cotterell, J. R. Hughes, Esq., and 
A. J. Dunkin, Esq. An early song in this dia- 
lect occurs in Ravenscroft's Melismata, 1611. 

We have a most curious specimen of the 
Kentish dialect of the fourteenth century (1340) 
in the Ayenbyte of Inwyt, a MS. in the Arundel 
collection. An extract from it will be found at 
p. 801, and another is here given. The change 
of/ into I?, and s into z, are now generally pecu- 
har to the West country dialect, but appear at 
this early period to have extended over the 
South of England. In the next century, the 
broadness of the dialect was not so general. At 
least, a poem of the fifteenth century, in a MS. 
at Oxford, written in Kent, is remarkably pure, 
although the author excuses himself for his 
language : 



And though myn English be sytnpill to myn entent, 
Hold me excusid, for I was borne in Kent. 

MS. Laud. 416, f. 49. 

The principal peculiarity in this MS. seems to 
consist in e being the prefix to the verb instead 
of i or y. For a long period, however, the dia- 
lect of the Kentish peasantry was strongly 
marked. In a rare tract entitled, " How the 
Plowman lerned his Paternoster," a character is 
thus mentioned : 

He was patched, torne, and all to-rente ; 

It semed by his langage that he was borne in Rente. 
ReliquitB Antiquoi, vol. i. p. 46. 

The following very curious passage from 
Caxton will further illustrate this fact: 

And certaynly our langage now used varyeth 
ferre from that whiche was used and spoken whan J 
was borne, for we Englysshemen ben borne under 
the dumynacyon of the mone, whiche is never stcd- 
faste, but ever waverynge, wexynge one season, and 
waneth and dyscreaseth another season ; and thai 
comyn Englysshe that is spoken in one shyre varyeth 
from another, insomoche that in my dayes happened 
that certayn marchauntes were in a shippe in 
Tamyse for to have sayled over the see into 
Zelande, and for lacke of wynde, thei taryed atte 
Forlond, and wente to lande for to refreshe them. 
And one of theym, named Sheffelde, a mercer, cam 
into an hows and axed for mete, and specyally he 
axyd after eggys ; and the goode wyf answerde that 
she coude speke no Frenshe, and the marchaunt was 
angry, for he also coude speke no Frenshe, but wolds 
have hadde egges, and she understode hym not; 
and thenne at laste another sayd that he wolde have 
eyren. Then the good wyf sayd that she understod 
hym wel. Loo, what sholde a man in thyse dayes 
now wryte egges or et/r en .' Certaynly it is harde to 
playse every man, bycause of dyversite and chaunge 
of langage. Caxton's Eneydos, 1490. 

(1) Extract from the Ayenbyte of Inwyt, MS. 
Arundel 57, ff. 86-87. 
Me ret ine lives of holy vaderes thet an holy man 
tealde hou he com to by monek, and zede hou thet 
he hedde y-by ane payenes zone, thet wes a prest to 
the momenettes. And tho he wes a child on time 
he yede into the temple mid his vader priveliehe : 
ther he yzej ane gratne dyevel thet zet ope ane 
vyealdinde stole, and al his mayne aboute him. 
Ther com on of the princes, and leat to him ; tho he 
him aksede the ilke thet zet ine the stole huannes 
he com, and he ansuerede thet he com vram 3D.f 
londe huer he hedde arered and y-mad manye vGrron 
and manye vi3tinges, zuo thet moche voJk wercn 
y-ssla3e, and moche blod ther y-ssed. The mayster 
him acsede ine hou moche time he hette thety-do, 
and % ": ansuerede ine thritli dajes. He him zede, 
Ine zv> moche time best zuo lite y-do ? Tho he 
het thethawer rijt wel y-beate, and evele y-draje. 
Efter than com another thet alsuo to him leat ase 
the verste. The raayster him acsede huannes ha 
com. He ansuerede thet he com vram the ze huei 
he hedde y-mad manye tempestes, vele ssipes to- 
broke, and moche volk adreyct. The maister acsedr. 
ine hou long time. He ansuerede ine tuenti dajes 
He zayde, ine zuo moche time best zuo lite y-do? 
Efterward com the thridde, thet ansuerede thet \tt 
com vram ane cite huer he hedde y-by at ane 
bredale, and ther he hedde arered and y-mad cheaste* 
and striif, zuo thet moche volk ther were y-slaje, 
and ther-to he hedde y slare thane hosebounde. TU 



xxu 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



malster Ijim acsede hou long time he zette thet vor 
to done. He ansuerede thet ine ten dajes. The he 
het thet he were wel y-byate vor thet he hedde zuo 
longe abide thet to done without more. Ate lasten 
com another to-vore the prince, and to him b« beaj ; 
and he him acsede, huannes comst tb^M? He 
ansuerede thet he com vram the erraiiage hue? he 
hedde y-by vourti yer Tor to voodi ane mocek cf 
fornicacion, thet is the zenne c'^. Ificherie, and zuo 
moehe ich habbe y-do thet ine valise nyjt ich hine 
habbe overcome, and y-do liim valia into the zennc. 
Tho Ihip op the mayster, and him keste and be- 
clepte, and dede the corouneope his he^ed, an dede 
him zitte bezide him, and to him zede thai he hedde 
grat thing y-do and grat prowesse. Tho zayde the 
guode man thet huanne he hedde thet y-hyerd and 
thet y-zoje, he tho3te thet hit were grat thing to by 
monek, and be tho encheysoun he becom monek. 

(2) Extract from MS. Laud. 416, written hy 
a native of Kent about 1460. 
Also use not to pley at the dice ne at the tablis, 
Ne none maner gamys uppon the holidais ; 
Use no tavernys where be jestis and fablis, 
Syngyng of lewde balettes, rondelettes, or virolais ; 
Nor erly in mornyng to fecche home fresch mais, 
For yt makyth maydins to stomble and falle in the 

breirs, 
And afterward they telle her councele to the freirs. 

Now y-wis yt were wele done to know 

The dyflerence bytwene a damselle and a maide, 

For alle bene lyke whan they stond in a row ; 

But I wylle telle what experience said, 

And in what wyse they be entyrid and araied ; 

Maydyns were callis of silk and of thred, 

And damsellis kerchevis pynnid uppon ther hed. 

Wyffis may not to chirch tille they be entyred, 
Ebridyllidand paytrellid, to shew her aray, 
And fetyd alle abowte as an hacony to be hyred ; 
Than she loky th aboute her if eny be so gay ; 
And oon thyng I comend, which is most to my pay, 
Ther kerchef hanggyth so low, that no man can 

a-spye. 
To loke undirnethe oons to shrew her eie. 

Jangelyng in chirche among hem is not usid. 
To telle alle her howswyfry of the weke by fore ; 
And also her husbondis shallenot be accusid. 
Now crokyd and crabbed they bene ever more ; 
And suche thyngges lo ! they can kepe no store. 
They bene as close and covert as the horn of 

Gibriclle, 
Thai wylle not be herd but from hevyn to helle. 

^^3) From Dick and Sal, a modern poem in the 
Kentish dialect. 
Ya see, when Middlemas come roun, 

I thought dat Sal and I 
Ud go to Canterbury town, 

To see what we cud buy. 
Fer when I llv'd at Challock Leys, 

Our Secont-man had been : 
An wonce, when we was carrin peas. 

He told me what ke'd sin. 

He said dare was a teejus fair, 

Dat lasted for a wick ; 
An all de ploughmen dat went dare, 

Must car dair shining stick. 
An how dat dare was nable rigs. 

Ai> Merriandcr's jokes ; 
9iJuft-ii»oxes, shows, an whirligigs, 

Aa housed Bights a folks. 



But what queerM nie, he sed 'twas kej» 

All roun about de chur'^h ; 
An how dey had him up de steps, 

An left him in de lurch. 

At last he got into de street, 

An den he lost his road ; 
An Bet an he come to a gate. 

Where all de soadgers stood. 

Den she ketcht fast hold av his ban. 

For she was rather scar'd ; 
Tom sed, when fust he see 'em stan. 

He thought she'd be a-fared. 

LANCASHIRE. 

The dialect of Lancashire is principally known 
by Collier's Dialogue, published under the name 
of Tim Bobbin. A glossary of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, written in Lancashire, is preserved in MS. 
Lansd. 560, f. 45. A letter in the Lancashire 
dialect occurs in Braithwaite's Two Lancashire 
Lovers, 1640, and other early specimens are 
given in Heywood's Late Lancashire Witches, 
4to. 1634, and Shadwell's Lancashire Witches, 
4to. 1682. The glossary at the end of Tim 
Bobbin is imperfect as a collection for the county, 
and I have been chiefly indebted for Lancashire 
words to my father, Thomas Halliwell, Esq. 
Brief notes have also been received from the 
Rev. L. Jones, George Smeeton, Esq., the Rev. 
Dr. Hume, G. R. Spencer, Esq., and Mr. R. 
Proctor. The features of the dialect will be 
seen from the following specimens ; o and ou are 
changed into a, ea into o, al into au, g into k, 
long into oi, and d final into t. The Saxon 
termination en is retained, but generally mute. 

(1) Extract from Tim Bobbin's Dialogue 

between Tummus and Meary. 

M. Odds-fish ! boh that wur breve. I wou'd I'd 
bin eh yore Kele. 

T. Whau whau, boh theawst hear. It wur o dree 
wey too- to; heawe'er 1 geet there be suse o'clock, 
on before eh opp'nt dur, I covert Nip with th' 
Cleawt, ot eh droy meh nese weh, t'let him see heaw 
I stoart her. Then I opp'nt dur; on whot te dule 
dust think, boh three little tyney Bandyhewits coom 
weaughing os if th' little ewals wou'd o worrit me, 
on after that swallut me whick : Boh presontly 
there coom o fine wummon ; on I took her for a hoo 
justice, hoor so meety fine : Fir I heard Ruchott 
o' Jack's tell mehmeastor, that hoo justices awlus 
did th' mooast o'th' wark : Heawe'er, I axt hur if 
Mr. justice wur o whoam ; hoo cou'd naw opp'n hur 
meawth t'seyeigh, or now; boh simpurt on sed iss, 
(the dickkons iss hur on him too) —Sed I, I wuddi.Vn 
tell him I'd fene speyk to him. 

(2) A Letter printed and distributed in the 
procession that was formed at Manchester in 
commemoration of free trade. ] 

Bury, July 15th, 1846. 

To MK Lawrd Jhon Russell, — Well, me 
Lawrd, yoan gett'n ut last up to th' top o' th' lad- 
thur, un th' heemust stave asnt brokk'u wi yo this 
time us it did afore. Wayst see i' t'neaw wethur yo 
kun keep yur stonnin ur not; awm rayther fyert ut 
yoan find it slippy unnoan safe footin ; but, heaw- 
sumevvur, thirs nawt like thryin. 

But wot'r yo fur dooiu ? Yo seeran to think ut o 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



XXlll 



vast dyel o things wants mendin, un yo thinkn reet, 
for they dun :— but kon yo mannidge um ? Yur fust 
job '11 be a twofFun ; un tho it'll be o sweet subjek, 
it'll ha sum seawr stuff obeawt it. But seawr ur not 
yo mun stick likebreek, un not let that cantin, 
leawsy stutt obeawt "slave-groon un free-groon" 
stop yo. Bless me life, mon ! its anoof togie won 
th' bally wratch to yer o set o gawnblins uts beyyin, 
unspinnin, un weyvin, un warin slave-groon kottn 
eitch day o thir lives, tawk obeawt thir konshunsus 
not lettin um sweetn thir faybry pie fur th' chilthur 
wi o bit o slave-groon shugur. It's oa humbug, me 
Lawrd, un tell um aw say so. Stick yo fast to the 
skame o' having oa th' dewties olike : but yo may 
Blip eawt thoos twothrey yer ut yore fur keepin up o 
diiFerunce, us soon us ynn o mind. We kun spare 
cm wen wer bizzy. 

Sum o yur skames ur weel onoof : but th' main 
thing '11 be for yo to ta care to spend us little brass 
us yo kon, un giv us o gud thrade. 

Yoan lettn Sur Robbut (yoa knoan he's a Berry 
muffun we're sharp chaps) — aw say yoan lettn Sur 
Robbut get howd o yur tools and wurtch wi um 
wonst, wi not beein sharp onoofF. He made o gud 
hondlin on um, too uns gettn t'wajus for his wark, 
tho' t'skame wuryoars, un iv yo dunnut mind he'll 
do t'same Oi^en. He'll let yo get th' patthurns reddy, 
and make t'kestins, un t'bowts, un t'skrews, un 
sitchn : but he'll put t'mosheen togethur, un dray 
th' wage ut th' Sethurde neet, iv yo annut yur eeii 
obeawt yo. 

Dunnot be fyert, mon, but rap eawt wi awt uts 
reet, un us Berry foke '11 elp yo us ard as we kon. 
Wayn helpt Kobdin, un wayn elp yo, if yoan set 
obeawt yur wark gradely. 

Wayre havvin o greyt stur to day heer for us 
wurtchin foke, un wayre to have doance o Munday 
neet. Aw nobbut wush ut yo k'd kum deawn un 
see us — yoad see sitch o seet un yer sitch sheawtin 
yua ne'er seed nur i yor life. They konnut sheawt 
i Lunnon— its nobbot gradely butthermilk un por- 
ritch Lankeshur lads ut kun sheawt woth koin 
shtawtin. 

But yo mun ne'er hec-d, Lawrd John. Dunnot 
be fyert, us aw sed ofore, but ston up for wots reet, 
un iv t' parlyment winnit let yo ha yer oan rode, 
kum eawt, un let t' gangway kawves thry how thay 
kun seawk t' public pap. 

Awm noan yust to ritin, un aw feel tyert, so aw 
mun lyev awt moor ut aw av to say tell me hoiist's 
restut itsel. So aw remain, me Lawrd, 
Yours for evvur, 

BURY MUFF. 

(3) A Lancashire Ballad. 

JIow, aw me gud gentles, an yau won tarry, 
lie tel how Gilbert Scott soudn's mare Berry. 
He soudn's mare Berry at Warikin fair ; 
When heel be pade, hee knows not, ere or nere. 
Soon as hee coom whoom, an toud his wife Grace, 
Hon up wi th' kippo, an swat him ore th' face ; 
Hoo pickdt him oth' hilloc, wi sick a thwack, 
Thathoo had whel ni a brokken his back. 
Thou hooer, quo hee, wo't but lemme rise, 
Ilegi thee auth' leet, wench, that imme lies. 
Thou u(igit, quo hoo, but whtr dus hee dwel ? 
Belakin, quo hee, but I connan tel. 
I tuck him to be sum gud greslmou's son ; 
He spent too pense on mee when hee had doon. 
He gin mee a luiich'n o denty snig py. 
An shaukdt mee bith' haundt most lovingly. 
Then Grace, hoo prompdt hur, so neeatan so nc. 
To Waf'kin hoo went, o Wensday betime. 



An theer too, hoo stade ful fivemarklt days. 

Til th' mon, wi th' mare, were coom to Raunley 

Shaw's. 
As Grace was restin won day in hur rowm, 
Hoo spydt th' mon a ridin o th' mare down the town. 
Bounce gus hur hart, an hoo wer so glopen 
That out o th' windo hoo'd like fort loptn. 
Hoo staumpdt, an hoo star'dt, an down stairs hoo 

run, 
Wi' th' hat under th' arm, an windt welly gon. 
Hur hed gear flew off, an so did hur snowd, 
Hoo staumpdt, an hoo star'dt, as an hoo'd been 

wood. 
To Raunley's hoo hy'd, an hoo hove up th' latch, 
Afore th' mon had teed th' mare welly too th' cratch. 
Me gud mon, quo hoo, frend, hee greets yau merry. 
An desires yau'd send him money for Berry. 
Ay, money, quo hee, that I connan spare : 
Belakin, quo hoo, but then He ha th' mare. 
Hoo poodt, an hoo thromperdt him, shaum't be 

seen ; 
Thou hangmon, quo hoo, He poo out thin een ; 
He mak thee asompan, baud thee a groat 
Ileoth'r ha' th* money, or poo out the throat; 
'Tween them they made such a wearison din, 
That lor t' intreat them, Raunly Shaw coom in, 
Coom, fy . fy, naunt Grace, coom, fy, ari a doon ; 
What, deel, ar yau monkeen, or ar yau woon ? 
Belakin, quo hee, yau lane so hard on — 
1 think now that th' woman has quite spoildt th 

mon. 
Coom, fy, fy, naunt Grace, coom, fy, an a doon ; 
Yaust ha' th' mare, or th' money, whether yau won 
So Grace got th' money, an whoomwardt hoo'sgon, 
Hoo keeps it aw, »n gees Gilbert Scott non. 

LEICESTERSHIRE. 
The dialect of this county has been entirely 
neglected, with the exception of a few brief 
remarks in Macaulay's History of Claybrook, 
1791 ; but it deserves a careful study. A valu- 
able glossary of Leicestershire words was given 
me by Mr. John Gibson, but too late to be used 
in the early part of the work. 

The dialect of the common people, though broad, 
is sufficiently plain and intelligible. They have a 
strong propensity to aspirate their words ; the letter 
h comes in almost on every occasion where it ought 
not, and is as freqviently omitted where it ought to 
come in, The words fine, mine, and such like, aie 
pronounced as if they werespelt/ome, woiwe; place, 
face, &tc. as if they were spelt pleace, feace ; and in 
the plural sometimes you hear plencen ; closcn for 
closes I and many other words in the same style of 
Saxon termination. The words there and wnere 
are generally pronounced thus, theere, wheere ; the 
words mercp, deserve, «kc. thus, marcy, deso.rve. The 
following peculiarities of pronunciation are likewise 
observable: uz, sroncly aspirated, for ma-, tvur for 
was, meed for maid, faiilier for father, e'ery for eoery- 
hrig for bridge, thurrongh for furrow, Iiaivf for half, 
ca.tt-rit for rut, mulefactory for manufactory, inuc, 
tious for a/i.iioua. 

Macaulay's Claybrook, 1791, PP- 120-8 

LINCOLNSHIRE. 

Tlie river Witham may be considered with 
tolerable accuracy the boundary line between 
the Northern atid Southern dialects of the 
county, which ditfer considerably froa each 



ixiv 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



©ther ; the former being more nearly allied to 
that of Yorkshire, the latter to the speech of 
East Anglia, hut neither are nearly so broad as 
the more Northern dialects. Many singular 
phrases are in use. They say, Very not well, 
I used to could, You shouldn't have ought, &c. 
The Lincolnshire words were partially collected 
by Skinner in the seventeenth century, but no 
regular glossary has yet appeared. This defi- 
ciency, however, as far as the present work is 
concerned, has been amply supplied by as many 
I as nineteen long communications, each forming 
a small glossary by itself, and of peculiar value, 
from the Rev. James Adcock of Lincoln, to 
whom I beg to return my best acknowledg- 
ments. I have also to acknowledge assistance 
from Sir E. F. Bromhead, Bart., the Rev. Dr. 
Oliver, Robert Goodacrfc» Esq., T. R. Jackson, 
Esq., Mr. E. Johnson, and papers kindly inserted 
at my suggestion in the Lincoln Standard. 

(1) Extract from MS. Dighy 86, written in 
Lincolnshire, temp. Edw. I. 

Nijtingale, thou havest wrong, 
Wolt thou me senden of this lond, 

For ich holde with the rijtte ; 
I take witnesse of sire Wawain, 
That Jhesu Crist 3af mijt and main, 

And strengthe for to fijtte. 

So w'ide so he hevede i-gon, 
Trewe ne founde he nevere non 

Bi daye ne bi nijtte. 
Fowel, for thi false mouth, 
Thi sawe shal ben wide couth, 

I rede the fle with mijtte. 

Ich habbe leva to ben here, 
In orchard and in erbere. 

Mine songes for to singe ; 
Herdi nevere bi no levedi. 
Bote hendinese and curteysi, 

And joye hy gunnen me bringe. 

Of muchele murthe hy telleth me. 
Fere, also I telle the, 

Hy liveth in longinginge. 
Fowel, thou sitest on hasel bou, 
Thou lastest hem, thou havest wou, 

Thi word shal wide springe. 

Hit springeth wide, wel ich wot, 
Hou tel hit him that hit not. 

This sawes ne bethnout newe; 
Fowel, herkne to mi sawe, 
Ich wile the telle of here lawe. 

Thou ne kepest nouthem, I knowe. 

Thenk on Constantines quene. 
Foul wel hire semede fow and grene, 

Hou sore hit son hire rewe : 
Hoe fedde a crupel in hire hour, 
And helede him with covertour, 

Loke wai ■nlmmen ben trewe. Reliq. Antiq. 

(2; From " Neddy and Sally ; a Lincolnshire 
taley by John Brown. 12mo. n. d. 

Cum, Sail, its time we started now 
Yoii's Farmer Haycock's lasses ieadv 

And maister says he'll feed the cow. 
He didn't say so,— did he Neddy 



Yees, that he did, so make thee haste. 

And git thee sen made smart and pretty* 
We yaller ribbon round the waist, 

The same as oud Squire Lowden's Kitty* 
And I'll go fetch my sister Bess, 

I'm sartin sure she's up and ready. 
Come gie's a bus, thou can't do less. 

Says Sally, No, thou musn't, Neddy. 
See, yonder's Bess a cummin cross 

The fields, we lots o' lads and lasses. 
All haim be haim, and brother Joss 

A shouting to the folks as passes. 
Odds dickens. Sail, we'll hev a spree, 

Me heart's as light as ony feather. 
There's not a chap dost russel me. 

Not all the town's chaps put together, 

MIDDLESEX. 
The metropolitan county presents little in its 
dialect worthy of remark, being for the most 
part merely a coarse pronunciation of London 
slang and vulgarity. The language of the lower 
orders of the metropolis is pictured very faith- 
fully in the works of Mr. Dickens. The inter- 
change of V and m; is a leading characteristic. 
Some of the old cant words, mixed with nume- 
rous ones of late formation, are to be traced in 
the London slang. 

The Thimble Atg. 
"Now, then, my jolly spoitsmen ! I've got 
more money than the parson of the parish. Those 
as don't play can't vin, and those as are here harnt 
there! I'd hold any on you, from a tanner to a 
sovereign, or ten, as you don't tell which thimble 
the pea is under." " It's there, sir." " I barr tell- 
ings." "I'll go it again." " Vat you don't see 
don't look at, and vat you do see don't tell. Ill 
hould you a soveren, sir, you don't tell me vitch 
thimble the pea is under." «« Lay him, sir, (in a 
whisper) ; it's under the middle'un. I'll go you 
halves." " Lay him another ; that's right." «« I'm 
blow'd but we've lost; who'd a thought it ?" Smack 
goes the flat's hat over his eyes ; exit the confederates 
with a loud laugh. 

NORFOLK. 
" The most general and pervading charac- 
teristic of our pronunciation," observes Mr. 
Forby, " is a narrowness and tenuity, precisely 
the reverse of the round, sonorous, mouth-filliuf'- 
tones of Northern English. The broad and open 
sounds of vowels, the rich and full tones of 
diphthongs, are generally thus reduced." The 
same writer enters very minutely into the sub- 
ject of the peculiarities of this dialect, and his 
glossary of East Angliai words, 2 vols. 8vo. 
1830, is the most complete publication of the 
kind. A brief list of Norfolk words is given in 
Brown's Certain Miscellany Tracts, 8vo. 1684, 
p. 146. A glossary of the provincialisms of the 
same county occurs in Marshall's Rural Economy 
of Norfolk, 1 787, and observations on the dialect 
in Erratics by a Sailor, 1809. In addition to 
these, I have had the advantage of using com- 
munications from the Rev. George Munford, tlie 
Very Rev. F. C Ilusenbeth, Mrs. Robins, and 
Goddard Johnson, Esq. 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



XXT 



A vocabulary of the fifteenth century, written 
in Norfolk, is preserved in MS. Addit. 12195, 
but the Promptorium Parvulorum is a much 
more valuable and extensive repository of early 
Norfolk words. A MS. of Capgrave's Life of 
St. Katherine in the Bodleian Library, MS. 
Rawl, Poet. 118, was written in this county. It 
would appear from the following passage that 
Norfolk was, in early times, one of the least re- 
fined parts of the island : 

I wende riflynge were restitucion, quod he, 

For I lerned nevere rede on boke ; 

And I kan no Frensshe, in feith. 

But of the fertheste ende of Northfolk. 

Piers Plotighman, ed. Wright, p. 91. 

(1) Old Measures of Weight. 
From MS. Cotton, Claudius E. viii. fol. 8, of the four- 
teenth century, written at Norwich. 

Sex waxpunde makiet .j. ledpound. .xlj. led- 
punde .j. fotmel. .xxiiij. fotmel .j. fothir of Bris- 
touwe, ys haved .cc. and .xxviijt'. wexpound. 

Sex waxpunde msikiet.j. leeclpound. .xviij. leed- 
pund .j. leed bole, .xvlij. leed boles, j. fothir of the 
Northleondeg, ys haat .xc. and .xiiij. leed punde, 
that beeth .xix. hundryd and foure and fourti wex- 

punde, and ys avet niore bi six and leed 

punde, that beeth to hundred and sextene wexpunde. 

Sevene waxpund tnaklet onleve ponde one waye, 
twelf weyen on fothir, thisaveit two thousand and 
.ix. score and foure wexpund, that beeth thre hun- 
dryd and twelfve leedpound, this his more than that 
of the Norethland be foure and thritti more of leed- 
poundes, that beeth foure and twenti lasse. 

(2) Norfolk Degrees of Comparison. 
Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 



Little 


. Less . . 


Least 




Lesser . . 


Lessest. 




Lesserer . 


Lessereat 




Lesserer still 


Lessest oi 




Littler . . 


Littlest. 


Tiny 


Tinier . • 


Tiniest. 


Titty 


Tittier 


Tittitst. 



NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 
A midland dialect, less broad and not so 
similar to the Northern as Warwickshire. I have 
to acknowledge communications on the dialect 
of this county from the Rev. J« B. P. Dennis, 
and Charles Young, Esq. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. 
Northumberland has a dialect the most broad 
of all the English counties, nearly approaching 
the Scotch, the broadest of all English dialects. 
The Scottish bur is heard in this county and in 
the North of Durham. A large number of spe- 
cimens of the dialect have been published, and 
the provincial words have been collected by Mr. 
Brockett, but no extensive glossary of words 
peculiar to the county has been published sepa- 
rately. A short list, however, is given in Ray's 
Enghsh Words, ed. 1691 ; and others, recently 
Lollected, were sent me by George B. Richardson, 
Esq. and the Rev. R. Douglas. An early speci- 
men of the Northumberland dialect occurs in 
Bullein'a Dialogue, 1564, reprinted in Waldron's 
notes to the Sad Shepherd, p. 187. 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE 

Formerly belonged in dialect to the Northern 
division, but may now, I believe, be included in 
the Midland. I speak, however, with uncer- 
tainty, no work on the Nottinghamshire dialect 
having yet appeared. 

From a Treatise on the Fistula in ano, by Joh:* 
Arderne, of Newark. 

Johan Arderne fro the first pestelence that was in 
the yere of our Lord 1349> duelled in Newerke in 
Notinghamschire unto the yere of our Lorde 1370, 
and ther I heled many men of fistula in ano ; of 
which the first was Sir Adam Everyngham of Laxtor; 
in the Clay byside Tukkesford, whiche Sir Adam 
for sothe was in Gascone with Sir Henry that tymp 
named herle of Derby, and after was made Duke ol 
Lancastre, a noble and worthy lord. The forsaid 
Sir Adam forsoth sufFerend fistulam in ano, made for 
to aske counsell at alle the lechez and corurgienz that 
he myght fynd in Gascone, at Burdeux, at Brig- 
gerac, Tolows, and Neyybon, and Peyters, and many 
other placez, and al!e forsoke hym for uncurable ; 
whiche y-se and y-herde, the forsaid Adam hastied 
for to tome home to his contree, and when he come 
home he did of al his knyghtly clothings, and cladde 
mournyng clothes in purpose of abydyng dissolving 
orlesyng of his body beyng nyj to hym. Atthelaste 
I forsaid Johan Arderne y-s(i3t, and covenant y-made, 
come to hyme and did my cure to hym, and, our 
Lorde beyng mene, I heled hyme perfitely within 
halfe a yere, and afterward hole and sound he ledde 
a glad life 30 yere and more. For whiche cure I gate 
myche honour and lovyng thurj alle Vnglond ; and 
the forsaid Duke of Lancastre and many other gen- 
tilez wondred therof. Afte[r]ward I cured Hugon 
Derlyng of Fowick of Balne by Snaythe. Afterward 
I cured Johan Schefeld of Rightwelle aside Tekille. 
MS. Sloane 563, f. 124. 

OXFORDSHIRE. 

The provincial speech of this county has none 
of the marked features of the Western dialect, 
although many of the Gloucestershire and Wilt. 
shire words are in use. The Oxfordshire dialect 
may be described as rather broad, and at the 
same time sharp, with a tendency to contrac- 
tion. Us is used instead of /, as in some other 
counties. There are not a large number of 
words quite peculiar to the county, and no glos- 
sary has yet been published. Kennett has pre- 
served many now obsolete, and I am indebted 
for several to Mr. A. Chapman, and Francis 
Francillon, Esq. In the sixteenth century, the 
Oxfordshire dialect was broad Western. In 
Scogin's Jests, we have an Oxfordshire rustic 
introduced, saying ichior I, dis for this, vayior 
fay, chill for I will, vor for for, &c. 

RUTLANDSHIRE. 

The dialect of Rutlandshire possesses few, if 
any, features not to be found in the adjoining 
counties. It would appear to be most similar to 
that of Leicestershire, judging from a communi- 
cation on the subject frara the Rev. A. S. 
Atcheson. 



XZVl 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



SimOPSHIRE. 
In the modern dialect of this county, a is fre- 
quently changed into o or e ; c into g, co into gu ; 
(I final is often suppressed or commuted into t in 
the present tenser e is sometimes lengthened at 
the commencement of a word, as eend, end, and 
it is frequently changed into a ; ^is often omitted 
before h; the h is almost invariably wrongly 
used, omitted where it should be pronounced, 
and pronounced where it should be omitted ; i 
is changed into ei or e ; I into w ; ois generally 
lengthened ; r when followed by s is often drop- 
ped, the s in such cases being doubled ; t is en- 
tirely dropped in many words where it precedes 
s, and is superseded by e, especially if there be 
any plurality ; y is prefixed to a vast number of 
words which commence with the aspirate, and is 
substituted for it. See further observations in 
Mr. Hartshorne's Shropshire glossary appended 
to his Salopia Antiqua, 8vo. 1841, from which 
the above notices of the peculiarities of the 
dialect have been taken. To this work I have 
been chiefly indebted for Shropshire words, but 
many unknown to Mr. Hartshorne have been 
derived from Llhuyd's MS. additions to Ray, a 
MS. glossary compiled about 1780, and from 
communications of the Rev. L. Darwall and 
Thomas Wright, Esq. 

A translation of the Pars Oculi in English 
verse, made by John Mirkes, a canon of Lille- 
shul,in Shropshire, is preserved in MS. Cotton. 
Claud. A. ii. and MS. Douce 60, 103, manuscripts 
of the fifteenth century. The poem commences 
as follows : 

God seyth hymself, as wryten we fynde, 

That whenne the blynde ledeth the blynde. 

Into thedyche they fallen boo. 

For they ne sen whare by to go. 

MS. Cott. Claud. A. ii. f. 127- 

God seith himself, as writen y fynde, 

That whan the blynde ledeth the blynde. 

Into the diche they falleth bo, 

For they ne seen howe they go. 

MS. Douce 60, f. 147. 

It should not be forgotten that the dialect of a 
MS. is not necessarily that used by the author 
himself. It oftener depended on the scribe. 
We have copies of Hampole's Prick of Conscience 
written in nearly every dialect. 

The poems of John Audelay, a monk of 
Haghmon, who wrote about 1460, afford a 
faithful specimen of the Shropshire dialect of 
that period. A small volume of his poetry was 
printed by the Percy Society, 8vo. 1844 : 
As I lay seke in my langure. 
In an abbay here be West, 
Thisboke I made with gret dolour, 

When I myjt not slep ne have no rest ; 
Offt with my prayers I me blest. 
And sayd hyl6 to heven kyng, 
1 knowlache, Lord, hit is the best 

Mekel^ to take thi vesetyng, 
Ellis wot I wil that I were lorne 
Of al lordis be he blest ! 
Fore al that je done is fore the best. 
Fore in thi defav/te was never mon lost, 
Thsit ii here of women borne. 



Mervel 36 not of this makyng 

Fore I me excuse, hit is not I ; 
This was the H0I6 Gost wercheng. 

That sayd these wordis so faythfully ; 
Fore I quoth never hot hye foly, 

God hath me chastyst fore my levyng ! 
I thong my God my grace treuly 

Fore his gracious vesityng. 
Beware, serls, I joue pray. 

Fore I mad this with good entent, 
In the reverens of God omnipotent ; 
Prays fore me that beth present. 
My name is Jon the blynd Awdlay. 
The similarities between the dialect of Aude- 
lay's poems and that of modern Shropshire are 
not very easily perceptible. The tendency to 
turn into a, and to drop the h, may be recog- 
nized, as aid for hold, &c. / is still turned into 
e, which may be regarded as one of Audelay's 
dialectical peculiarities, especially in the prefixes 
to the verbs ; but the ch for sh or sch, so com- 
mon in Audelay, does not appear to be still 
current. There is much uncertainty in reason- 
ing on the early provincial dialects from a single 
specimen, owing to the wide difference between 
the broad and the more polished specimens of 
the language of the same county ; and Audelay's 
poems can be by no means considered as affording 
an example of the broadest and purest early Salo- 
pian dialect. 

SOMERSETSHIRE: 

The Parret divides the two varieties of the 
dialects of Somersetshire, the inhabitants of the 
West of that river using the Devonshire lan- 
guage, the difference being readily recognized by 
the broad ise for I, er for he, and the terminati(in 
th to the third person singular of the present 
tense of the indicative mood. The Somersetshire 
dialect changes th into d, s into z, f into v, in- 
verts the order of many of the consonants, and 
adds y to the infinitive of verbs. It also turns 
many monosyllables into words of two syllables, 
as ayer, air, booath, both, fayer, fair, vier, fire, 
stayers, stairs, shower, sure, &c. See Jennings' 
Observations on some of the Dialects in the West 
of England, 1825, p. 7. 

A singularly valuable glossary of Somerset- 
shire words was placed in my hands at the com- 
mencement of the present undertaking by Henry 
Norris, Esq., of South Petherton. It was com- 
piled about fifty years since by Mr. Norris's 
father, at the suggestion of the late Mr. Boucher, 
and Mr. Norris has continually enriched it with 
additions collected by himself. To this I am 
indebted for several hundred words which 
would otherwise have escaped me ; and many 
others have been derived from lists formed by 
my brother, the Rev. Thomas -» . awell, of 
Wrington, Thomas Elliott, Esq.. kiss Elizabeth 
Carew, the Rev. C. W. Bingham, Mr. Elijah 
Tucker, and Mr. Kemp. 

Numerous examples of the Somersetshire 
dialect are to be found in old plays, in which 
country characters are frequently int?oduced, 
and in other early works. It should, however, 
be remarked that many writers hate unhesi- 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



XXVU 



tatingly assigned early specimens, containing 
the prevailing marks of Western dialect, to this 
county, when the style might be referred to 
many others in the South and West of England ; 
and on this account I have omitted a list of 
pieces stated by various authors to be specimens 
of Somersetshire dialect. We have already seen 
that though the essential features of the present 
West country dialect may be found, they may 
possibly suit specimens of the South, Kent, or 
even Essex dialects, in the state the latter ex- 
isted two or three centuries ago. 

(1) The Peasant in London, from a work of the 

seventeenth century. 
Our Taunton-den is a dungeon, 

And yvaith cham glad cham here ; 
This vamous zitty of Lungeon 

Is worth all Zomerset-zhere ; 
In wagons, in carts, and in coaches, 

Che never did yet zee more horse, 
The wenches do zhine like roches. 

And as proud as my fathers vore horse. 

Fairholt'a Lord Mayors' Pageants, ii, 217. 

(2) John's account of his Trip to Bristol, on the 

occasion of Prince Albert's visit, to his 
Uncle Ben, 1843. 

Nunk ! did ever I tell thee o' my Brister trip, 

Ta zee Purnce Albert an' tha gurt irn ship ? 

How Meary goo'd wi' me (thee's know Meary mi wife) 

An' how I got vrighten'd maust put o' mi life ? 

IMif usniver did'n, 'ch 'eel tell thee o'tnow ; 
An' be drat if tid'n true iv'ry word, I da vow ! 
Vor Measter an* Miss war bwoth o' m along ; 
Any one o 'm ool tell thee nif us da zay wrong. 

We goo'd to Burgeoter wi' Joe's liddle 'oss ; — 
Thee's know thick us da meanne, tha da call'n wold 

Boss: 
An' a trotted in vine style ; an' when we got there. 
The voke was sa thick that 'twas jiss lik a vair. 

We did'n goo droo et, but goo'd to tha station — 
There war gurt irn 'osses all in a new yashion ; 
An' there war gurt boxes ta 'old raoor'n a thousan', 
Za long as all Petherton, an' za high as tha houzen. 

Ther war gennelmens' sarvants a-dressed all in blue, 
Wi' rud-coUar'd quoats, an' a lot o' em too ; 
An' all o' em number 'd — vor one us did zee 
War mark'd in gurt viggers, a hunderd an' dree. 

Hem war nation aveard when tha vuss put hem in 
Ta the grut ooden box, maust sa big's a corn binn ; 
T'had two gurt large winders wi' 'oles vor tha glass ; 
Tha lock'd op tha doors, an' there hem war vass. 

Hem had'n bin there more'n a minnit or zoo, 
Vore zumbody wussell'd, an' off us did goo ! 
My eyes ! how hem veel'd ! — what a way vor ta ride ! 
Hem dra'd in her breath, an' hem thought hem'd a 
died. 

Vore ever us know'det us'oUer'd out '• stap !" 
Hem opp'd wi' es bond an' catch'd wuld o' es 'at ; 
All the voke laugh'd at hem, an' that made hem mad ; 
But thof a' zed nothin, hem veel'd cruel bad. 

When vust hem look'd out, hem war vrighten'd still 

moor; 
Hem thoft 'twar tha '* wuld one" a-draggin, vor sure ; 
Vor narry a 'oss, nor nothin war in et ; 
'11 be (iurn'd if we did'n goo thirty miles in a minit. 



Tha cows in tha veels did cock up their tailSj 
An' did urn vor their lives roun' tha 'edges an' rails ; 
Tha 'osses did glowy, an' tha sheep glowied too. 
An' the jackasses blared out " ooh— eh — ooh !" 

About a mile off hem zeed a church-steeple. 
An* in less 'an a minnit a zeed all the people ; 
Us war glowing right at 'em ta zee who hem cou'd vind, 
But avore hem cou'd look, tha war a mile behind. 

Thee'st bin to a vare where the conjerers ply — • 
" Pristo Jack an' begone !" and tha things vleeawy ; 
Dash my wig ! an' if 'twad'n the same wi' tha people, 
Wi' the waggins an' 'osses, tha church an' tha steeple. 

Gwain auver a brudge, athurt a gurt river, 
Tha dreyv'd jis sa hard an' sa ventersom's iver ; 
An' rummell'd lik thunder ; hem thoft to be ground 
All ta pieces, an' smash'd, an' murder'd, an* drown'd. 

Oh dear ! my poor hed ! when us think o' et now. 
How us ever got auver't hem can't tell thee 'ow ; 
Mi hed did whirdlely all roun' and roun' — 
Hem cou'd'n ston' op, nor hem cou'd'n zit down. 

When us got in ta Brister — But hem wo'n't tell 

the now, 
(Vor I da zee thee art vidgetty now vor ta goo) 
How hem zeed tha Queen's husbbnd tha Pirnce, an* 

hes train ; 
How tha Pirnce an' tha ship war buoth catch'd in 

tha rain. 

Uch *1 tell'ee tha rest o*et zum other time, 

Vor hem promised hem's wife hem'd be woam ?»ore 

nine ; 
An' now tha clock's hattin a quarter past teu; 
Zo gee us thi bond, an' good night, Nuncle Bee ? 

(3) Mr. Gut/ and the Roibers. 

Mr. Guy war a gennelman 

O' Huntspill, well knawn 
Asa grazier, a hirch one, 

Wi' Ions o' hiz awn. 
A oten went ta Lunnun 

Hiz cattle vor ta zill ; 
All tha bosses that a rawd 

Wiver minded badge or hill. 
A war afeard o' naw one ; 

A niver made hiz will, 
Like wither vawk, avaur a went 

Hiz cattle vor ta zill. 
One time a'd bin ta Lunnun 

An zawld iz cattle well ; 
A brought awa a power o'gawld. 

As I've a hired tell. 
As late at night a rawd along 

All droo a unket ood, 
A ooman rawze vrom off tha groun^ 

An right avaur en stood. 
She look'd za pitis Mr, Guy 

At once hiz boss's pace 
Stapt short, a wonderin how, at night. 

She com'd in jitch a place. 
A little trunk war in her hon ; 

She zim'd vur gwon wi' chile. 
She ax'd en nif a'd take er up 

An cor er a veo mile. 
Mr. Guy, a man o' veelin 

Vor a ooman in distress,' 
Than took er up behind en ; 

A cood'n do na less. 
A corr'd er trunk avaur en. 

An by hiz belt ©'leather 
A bid er hawld vast : on tha rawd 

Athout much tak, together 



X> til 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



Not vur thd went avaur she gid 

A whissle loud an long. 
Which Mr. Guy thawt very strange; 

Er voice too zim'd za strong ! 
She'd lost er dog, she zed ; an than 

Another whizzle blaw'd. 
That stortled Mr. Guy ;— a stapt 

Hiz hoss upon tha rawd. 
Goo on, zed she ; bit Mr. Guy 

Zum rig beginn'd ta fear : 
Vor voices rawze upon tha wine, 

An zim'd a comin near. 
Again tha rawd along ; again 

She whissled. Mr. Guy 
Whipt out hiz knife an cut tha belt. 

Than push'd er off ! — Vor why .' 
Thaoomanhe took up behine, 

Begummers, war a man ! 
Tha rubbers zaw ad lad ther plots 

Our grazier to trepan. 
I shoU not stap ta tell what zed 

Tha man in ooman's clawze ; 
fiit he, an all o'm jist behine, 

War what you mid suppawze, 
Thacust, tha swaur, tha dreaten'd too. 

An ater Mr. Guy 
Thagallop'd all ; 'twar niver-tha-near . 

Hiz ho.ss along did vly. 
Auver downs, droo dales,awa a went, 

'Twar da-light now amawst, 
Till at an inn a stapt, at last, 

Ta thenk what he'd a lost. 
A lost ? — why, nothin — but hiz belt ! 

A zummet moor ad gain'd : 
Thic little trunk a corr'd awa — 

Itgawld g'lorecontain'd ! 
NifMr. Guy war hirch avaur, 

A now war hireher still : 
Tha plunder o' tha highwimen 

Hiz coffers went ta vill. 
[n safety Mr- Guy rawd whim , 

A Oten tawld thastorry. 
Ta meet wi' jitch a rig myzel 

I shood'n, soce, be zorry. 

STAFFORDSHIRE. 
Kennett has recorded numcious Staffordshire 
provincialisms, most of which are probably now 
obsolete, and would have escaped me but for his 
valuable collections. A valuable MS. glossary 
by Mr. Clive, but extending no further than B 
in the part seen by me, was also found of use, 
and a few words in neither of these MSS. were 
given me by Miss L. Marshall and Mr. Edward 
T. Gooch. The following specimen of the dia- 
lect, taken from Knight's ' Quarterly Magazine,' 
1823, will sufficiently exhibit its general charac- 
ter. The lengthening of the vowel i appears 
very common. In the collieries surnames are 
very frequently confused. It constantly hap- 
pens that a son has a surname very different 
from that of his father. Nicknames are very 
prevalent, e. g. Old Puff, Nosey, Bullyhed, Loy- 
a-bed, Old Blackbird, Stumpy, Cowskin, Spindle- 
shanks, Cockeye, Pigtail, Yellow-belly, &c. 

Dialect of the Bilston Folk. 
The dialect of the lower order here has frequently 
"een noticed, as well as the peculiar countenance of 
Jie real •• Bilston folk." We noticed ourselves (up 



on the excursion) the following:— " Thee shatn't," 
for «' you sh'a'nt ;" *• thee cost'na," for " you can't ;" 
" thee host aff, surry, or oil mosh thoi yed fur thee," 
for "take yourself away, sirrah, or I'll crush your 
head ;" " weear bist thee ?" for " where are you ?" 
•• in a cazulty wee loik," for "by chance;" with 
*♦ thee bist, thee shonna ;" " you are, you sha'n't." 
A young woman turned round to address a small 
child crying after her upon the threshold of the 
hovel, as^she went off towards the mine, " Ah, be 
seized, yung'un if thee dos'n'r knoo' my bock as well 
as thee knoo-ast moy fee-as." Some of the better 
apparelled, who affect a superior style, use words 
which they please to term " dicksunary words," 
such as " easement, convinciated, abstimonious, 
timothy" (for timid). One female, in conversation 
with a crony at the " truck-shop" door, spoke of 
" Sal Johnson's aspirating her mon's mind soo'a, and 
'maciating his temper," and " I never seed a senti - 
ment o' nothin* bod till it took Tum all at once't," 
(sentiment here used for symptom) speaking of in- 
disposition. — Wanderings of a Pen and Pencil. 

Conversation between a Staffordshire Canal 
Boatman and his Wife. 

Lady. Dun yo know Soiden-mouth, T'-immy ? 

Gent. Eees ; an' a' neation good feller he is tew. 

Lady. A desput quoietmon ! But he loves a sup 
o' drink. Dun yo know his woif? 

Gent. Know her ! ay. Her's the very devil when 
her sperit's up. 

Lady. Her is. Her uses that men sheamful — 
her rags him every neet of her loif. 

Gent. Her does. Oive known her come into the 
public and call him all the neames her could lay her 
tongue tew afore all the company. Her oughts to 
stay till her's got him i'the boat, and then her mit 
say wha her'd a moind. But her taks alter her 
feyther. 

Lady. Hew was her feyther ? 

Gent. Whoy, singing Jemmy. 

Lady. Oi don't think as how Oi ever know'd sing- 
ing Jemmy. Was he ode Soaker's brother I 

Gent. Eees, he was. He lived a top o' Hell Bonk. 
He was the wickedest, swcarninst mon as ever I 
know'd. I should think as how he was the wickedest 
mon i' the wold, and say he had the rheumatiz so 
bad. 



SUFFOLK. 

The characteristics of the Suffolk dialect are 
in all essential particulars the same as those of 
the Norfolk, so carefully investigated by Mr. 
Forby. The natives of Suffolk in speaking ele- 
vate and depress the voice in a very remarkable 
manner, so that " the Suffolk whine" has long 
been proverbial. The natives of all parts of 
East Angha generally speak in a kind of sing- 
song tone. The first published list of Suffolk 
words is given in CuUum's History of Hawsted, 
1784, but no regular glossary appeared till the 
publication of Major Moor's Suffolk Words and 
Phrases, 8vo. 1823, a very valuable collection of 
provincialisms. With the greatest liberality, 
Major Moor kindly placed in my hands his in- 
terleaved copy of this work, containing copious 
and important additions collected by him during 
the last twenty years ; nor have I been less for- 
tunate in the equally liberal loan of most valu- 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



xxlx 



able and numerous IVfS. additions to Forby's 
East Anglia, collected in Suffolk by D. E.Davy, 
Esq. Brief lists have also been sent by Miss 
Agnes Strickland and the Rev. S. Charles. 

An early book of medical receipts, by a per- 
son who practised in Suffolk in the fifteenth 
century, is preserved in MS. Harl. 1735 ; an 
English poem, written at Clare in 1445, is in 
MS. Addit. 11814; and Bokenham's Lives of 
the Saints in MS, Arundel 327, transcribed in 
1447, is also written in the Suffolk dialect. 

(1) Extract from a MS. of English poetry of the 
fifteenth century, written in Suffolk, in the 
possession of W. S. Fitch, Esq. 

Herketh now forther at this frome. 

How this sheperd wolde come ; 

To Abraham the tydyngus comyn. 

The prophetys hit uiidernorayn. 

That is Moyses and Jonas, 

Abacuc and Elias, 

Ant Dan yell and Jeromie, 

And Davyd and I-saye, 

And Elisenand Samuell, 

Thei seyn Goddys comyng ry^ht well. 

Long it were of hem alle to telle. 

But herkynth how Ysay con spelle, 

A child that is i-boryn to us. 

And a sone i-jetyn us, 

That shalle upholden his kyndome, 

And alle this shall byn his nome, 

"WondurfuU God and of myjht, 

And rewfuU, and fadur of ryjht. 

Of the world that hereaftur shall byn. 

And Prince of Pes men shalle him seyn : 

These buth the nomes as 36 mowe i-leven. 

That the prophetys to hym. jevyn. 

(2) From Bokenam^s Lives of the Saints, written 

in 1447. 
Whylom, as the story techyth us, 
In Antyoche, that grete cyte, 
A man ther was clepyd Theodosius 
Wych in gret state stood and dignyte, 
For of paynymrye the patryark was he. 
And had the reule and al the governaunce, 
To whom alle prestys dede obecyaunce. 

This Theodosius had a wyf ful mete 

To hys astate, of whom was born 

A doughtyr fayr, and clepyd Margarite, 

But ryht as of a ful sharp thorn, 

As provyded was of God beforn, 

Growyth a rose bothe fayr and good ; 

So sprong Margrete of the hethene blood. 

MS. Arundel 327, f- 7- 

(3) A Letter in the Suffolk Dialect, written in 

the year 1814. 
Dear Frinkd, 

I was axed some stounds agon by Billy P. 
our 'sesser at Mulladen to make inquiration a' 

yeow if Master had pahd in that there money 

into the Bank. Billy P. he fare kienda unasy 
about it, and when I see him at Church ta day he 
sah timmy, says he, prah ha yeow wrot — so I kienda 
weft um off— and I sah, says I, I heent hard from 

Squire D as yit, but I dare sah, I shall 

afore long — So prah write me some lines, an send 
mewahd, wutha the money is pahd a' nae. I dont 
know what to make of our Mulladen folks, nut 1 — 
but soir.ehuw qt nnoihcr, theyre alius in dibles, an 



I'll be rot if I dont begin to think some on em all 
tahn up scaly at last; an as to that there fulla— he 
grow so big and so purdy that he want to be took 
down a peg — an I'm glad to hare that yeow gintit 
it em properly at Wickhum. I'm gooin to meet the 
Mulladen folks a' Friday to go a bounden, so prah 
write me wahd afore thennum, an let me know if 
the money be pahd, that I may make Billy P. asy. 
How stammin cowd tis nowadays — we heent no feed 
no where, an thesKck run blorein about forwittles 
jest as if twa winter — yeow mah pend ont twool be 
a mortal bad season for green geese, an we shant ha 
no spring wahts afore Soom fair. I clipt my ship 
last Tuesday (list a' me — I mean Wensday) an tha 
scringe up their backs so nashunly I'm afeard 
they're wholly stryd— but 'strus God tis a strange 
cowd time. I heent got no news to tell ye, only 
we're all stammerily set up about that there corn 
bill — some folks dont fare ta like it no matters, an 
tlia sah there was a nashun noise about it at Norrij 
last Saturday was a fautnit. The mob thay got 
3 efijis, a farmer, a squire, an a mulla, an strus 

yeowre alive thay hung um all on onejibbit so folks 

sah. Howsomever we are all quite enough here, 
case we fare to think it for our good. If you see 
that there chap Harry, give my sarvice to em. 

SUSSEX. 

The dialect of the East of Sussex is very 
nearly the same as that of Kent, while that of 
the West is similar to the Hampshire phrase- 
ology. " In Sussex," says Ray, English Words, 
ed. 1674, p. 80, '* for hasp, clasp, wasp, they 
pronounce hapse, elapse, wapse, &c. ; for neck, 
nick ; for throat, throttle ; for choak, chock ; 
let'n down, let'n stand, come again and fet'n 
anon." These observations still hold good. In 
East Sussex day is pronounced dee, and the pea- 
santry are generally thstinguished for a broad 
strong mode of speaking. They pronounce ow 
final as er, but this habit is not peculiar; and 
they often introduce an r before the letters d 
and t. A " Glossary of the Provincialisms in 
use in the County of Sussex," by W. D. Cooper, 
was printed in 1836, a neat little work, a copy 
of which, with numerous MS. additions, was 
kindly sent me by the author. Several Sussex 
words, not included in Mr. Cooper's list, were 
sent to me by M. A. Lower, Esq., the Rev. 
James Sandham, Colonel Davies, and M. T. 
Robinson, Esq. ; and Mr. HoUoway's General 
Dictionary of Provincialisms, 8vo. 1838, con- 
tains a considerable number. 

(1) Tom Cladpole^s Journey to Lunnun, the 
first seven stanzas. 

Last Middlemus I 'member well, 

Wlien harvest was all over ; 
Us cheps had hous'd up all de banes. 

An stack'd up all de clover. 

I think, says J, I'll take a trip 

To Lunnun, dat I wol. 
An see how things goo on a bit, 

Lest I shu'd die a fool ! 
Fer sifter Sal, five years agoo. 

Went off wud Squyer Brown; 
Housemaid, or summ\it; don't know what* 

To live at Lunnun town. 



XXX 



ENGLISH PEOVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



Dcy'hav'd uncommon well to Sal, 

An ge ur clothes an dat ; 
So Sal 'hav'd nashun well to dem. 

An grow'd quite tall an fat. 
I ax'd or Ben to let me goo. 

Hem rum ol' fellur he, 
He scratch'd his wig, < To Lunnun, Tom ?' 

Den turn'd his quid, ' I'll see.' 
So strata to mother home goos I, 

An thus to ur did say. 
Mother, I'll goo an see our Sal, 

Fer measter says I may. 
De poor ol' gal did shake ur head. 

Ah ! Tom, twant never do, 
Poor Sal is gone a tejus way. 
An must I now loose you ? 

(2) A Dialogue between two Farm-labourers in 

Sussex. 

Tom. Why, Jim, where a bin ? 

Jim. Down to look at the ship. 

Tom. Did ye look at the stack ? 

Jim. Umps, I did, and it roakes terrible! 

Tom. Why didn't ye make a hole in it ? 

Jim. I be guain to it. 

Tom. It's a pity, 'twas sieh a mortal good 'un. 

Jim. Es sure ! Well, it's melancholy fine time 
for the crops, aint it? 

Tom. Ah ! it'll be ripping time pretty soon now. 

Jim. Ah ! I shan't do much at that for the 
rumatiz. 

Tom. What be guain to do with that ere jug ? 
You'd better let it bide. Do you think thecliimbley 
•weeper will come to-day ? 

Jim. Iss! he's safe to come, let it be how t'wull, 

Tom. Which way do you think he'll come ? 

Jim. He'll come athirt and across the common. 

Tom. What, cater ways, aye? 

Jim. Iss, Did you mind what I was a telling of > 

Tom. To be sure; but dang ye if I could sense it 
oonld you ? ' 

Jim. Lor, yis. I don't think it took much cute- 
ness to do that ! 



WARWICKSHIRE, 
The following observations on the dialect of 
this county are taken from a MS. glossary of 
Warwickshire words, compiled by the late Mr. 
1. bharp, and kindly communicated to me bv 
Mr. Staunton, of Longbridge House, near- 
Warwick : " The diphthong ea is usually pro- 
nounced like ai, as mait, ait, plaise, paise, walk 
say, for meat, eat, please, weak, sea. The vowel 
gives place to u, in sung, lung, amung, for 
song, long, among ; wunst for once ; grun fun 
and pun, for ground, found, and pound. Shownd 
IS also frequent for the imperative of show A 
and are often interchanged, as drap, shap, 
vander, for drop, shop, gonder;md (per contra) 
hoinmer, rot, and gonder, for hammer, rat, and 
gander. J is substituted for d, in iuke iell 
jeth and jed, for du/ce, deal, death, and dead'- 
whilst jmce IS often pronounced duce. I) is 
added to words ending in own, as drownded and 
gownd for drowned and gown. E is sometimes 
converted into a, as batty, laft, fatch, for betty, 
^-ft, ^M fetch. The nom. case and the ace. are 
perpetually and barbarously confounded in 



such phrases as, "They ought to have ji 
we ; her told him so : he told she so ; us i 
hurt, will us > This is one of our most 
provincialisms." This MS. glossary h 
tully used in the following pages. I ha 
received communications from Mr Per 
W. Reader, the Rev. W. T. Bree,"the 
Staunton, Mr. J. T. Watson, and 
Haslewood, Esq. The modern dialect . 
wickshire contains a very large propor 
North country words, more than migh 
been expected from its locality. They 
for gate,/eM/, fool, sheeam, shame, weeat. 
Yethard, Edward, Jeeams, James, leeai 
rooad, road, wool, will, p-yaaper, paper 
face, cooat, coat, &c. 

WESTMORELAND. 
" A bran new Wark bv William de ^h 
containing a true Calendar of his thought 
cermnggood nebberhood," 12mo. Kendal, 
pp. 44, IS a good specimen of the Westmo'i 
dialect, but of great rarity. This dialect i 
similar to that of Cumberland. 

iV) A Westmoreland Bialonue 
Sarah. What yee hev hard hee yan ev my 
harts. Lord! This ward is brimful a 1 
sartan. 
! Jennet. Aye, thears lees enow, but I recko 

Sarah. Yee may be mistaan as weel as 
iowk ; yee mun know I went to Arnside taw,, 
aur Breaady toth Bull, an she wod nit stand b 
off an run up Tawer-hill, an throoth loan o 
Middle Barra plane, an I hefter he, tul I wer I 
brosen. Dick wor cumin up frae Silver dal 
tornd her, helpt me wie her toth bull, an then 
heaam wie me, an while ea leev I'll niwer tak a 
mair. Ise sure its a varra shamful s.irvis to 
onriy young woman on, en what I think nicomi 
IS dun ea nae spot but Beothans parish. Eni 
this nebbors ses we er sweelharts. 

(2) A " Grahamed" Letter. 

TET HEDDITUR RJ KENDAL MERCURY 

Sur,-Es as sea oft plaagin ye aboot summi 

udder. It njiaks me freetend et ye'll be gittin oo 

o pashens, but, ye kna, et wer varra unlarne 

oor dawle, en, therefore, obleiged when in a bit 

difficultee to ax sumbody et can enleeten uc 

Aw whope, hooiver, et this'en el be't last time . 

hev occashun for yer advice; for if aw can ma, 

to git hoad uv this situwashun et aw hev uv m. 

al be a gentelman oot days uv me life. Noo 

see, Mr. Hedditur, yaw day befowre t'rent com 

aw meen afowre ftime et fader was stinted to p 

in ; for't landlawrd wiv mickle perswadin gev hi 

week or twa ower ; but he telled him plane enuf i 

dudent stum up that he wad send t'Bumball 

seez fsticks en turn byath fader en mudder m 

oot barns, tut duer. O, man, thur landlavlrds 

hard-hart d chaps. Aw beleev he wad du'it tu 

yan niver sees him Iuke plissant, especialle et 

for o'lts et best condishun, en we've lade sur 

p 'ir";?'^^""* ™^""er et they co' Guanney 

(Fadderhkestobeliket'neabers). Sartenly it 

for yaw year, en theer's sum varra bonnie crops 

Us been lade on middlin thick; but it we'at 



icse 

fa 
m 

i 

SI 

w! 

Sti 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



XXXI 



n t'«od es weel e» a good foad midden. Whiah, Mr. 
/ Hedditur, es aw was gangen to say, yaw day afowre 
t'timeet Fader hed ta pay't rent he sent me wid a 
coo en a stirk tuv a girt fare, they co Branten Fare, 
rar Appelby, en aw was to sell them if anybody bad 
me out, for brass he mud hev, whedder aw gat ther 
woorth ur nut. When aw was ut fare aw gat reet 
intuit middel uv o'at thrang, whor aw thout aw 
cudnt help but meet wid a customar ; but aw was 
was farely cheeted, for aw stude theer nar o't day 
we've me hands uv me pockets, en neabody es mickle 
es axd me what awd gayne aboot, en ye ma be sure 
b, aw pood a lang fa wee, tell a gude-looken gentleman 
, like feller com up tuv me, and nea doot seen aw was 
• sare grhevd, began ta ax me es to whea aw was ? 
whor aw coo fra ? hoo me Fadder gat his leeven, en 
a deel mare sec like questions. Ov coorse, aw telld 
him nout but truth, for, ye kna, aw niwer like ta 
tell a lee ta neabody, en aw dudnt forgit, et saame 
time to let him kna hoo badly off Fadder was, en hoo 
it wud put him aboot when aw hedrit selt beeas. 
T'gentleman, puer feller ! was a varra feelen man, 
for he seemed a girt deel hurt, en gev me what aw 
wanted for me coo en stirk, widoot iver a wuid ov 
barteren. Efthr o' was sattled, en we'ed gitten eacler 
a glass, aw axed him for his nyame to tak ta Fadder, 
en he wrayate me't doon wid a wad pensel, ont back 
uv a lall green card ; but unfortunatele aw put it 
intul me wayscowt pocket en't name gat rubbed not 
afowre aw gat hyame. Ont tudder side et card, Mr. 
Hedditur, was an advertisement, ov which this is a 
wurd forwurd copy: 

" WANTED IMMEDIATELY, 
A Man of Good Charactkr, 
At a Salary of £500 per Annum, 
To Mind his ovv^n Business, 
And a further sum of £500, 
To leave other Pjeoplk's aione ! 
03' For further particulars enquire of the Secre- 
tary for the Home Department." 
Et first aw dudnt tak mickle noutice ont ; but sen 
"^ aw've been consideren that me Fadder is sare fashed 
we've sea mony ov us, en, as aw snppowse, all hev 
as gude a chance a gitten a situwashun es onybody 
else, aw want to kna, Mr. Hedditur, hoo aw mun 
gang aboot it. Aw cannet tell what sud ale me gitten 
ont, for aw've alias bourne a gude carickter, en thats 
t'sort uv a chap they want, en aw've nea doot aw 
cud sune lam t'trade. Aw see it coms ta nar twenty 
pund a week, throot yer, en its a grand thing for a 
puer body. T'laborin fowks aboot here cant hardlys 
mak hofe es mony shillens. O man, t'fowk hes sare 
shift to git a putten on, noo o' days. But besides o' 
that, aw can tell ye summet mare underneath, et 
maks me want ta gang ta Lunnen sea mickle es aw 
suppowse its whare this situwationis. Ye kna, Mr. 
Hedditur, me sweethart Nanny (es like ta sham we 
tellen ye, but ye munnet menshion four agen for 
awt worl) es aw was a saing me sweethart Nanny 
went up ta Lunnen ta be a Leddies made, en aw 
sud like varra we'el to see her et times. Es we ur 
sea far ofif taen t'other, we rite letters back en forrett 
ivery noo en then es udder fowk does ; but theers 
laytly been sum queer stowries in oor dawle aboot a 
feller they co Jammy Graam. They sa he's been 
j-eepen intul oat letturs et gang up ta Lunnen, en 
then tellen oot en maken oot mischeef et iver he can. 
By gum ! if aw thout he'ed been breken fseals ov 
my letturs es aw sent ta Nanny— first time aw met 
y-m aw wad giv him sic a thumppen es he niver gat 
In his life befowre. Aw wonder they hev'nt kick'd 
5«c a good-for-nout feller oot uv t'Post lang sen, 
Whon hes gilty uv sec like sneeken lo-lif 'd tricks es 



them. Me hand's beginning ta wark, en aw mun 
finish we beggin ov ye ta tell rne o' ye kna aboot 
situwashun, for es Jetarmend ta heft, en aw dunnet 
kna whea Secretary of t'Home Department is, en 
theerfowre es at a loss whea ta apply tu. 
Yer effecshunet frind, 

Jacob Stubbs, 

29th July, 1844. fra t'Dawle. 

PS. — T'wedder's nobbetbeen varra bad thur twea 
ur thre days back, en thunner shooers hev been fleen 
aboot. 

WILTSHIRE. 

The dialect of this county is so nearly related 
to that which is deuonuiiated the West-Country 
dialect, that the distinction must be sought for 
in words peculiar to itself rather than in any 
general feature. The Saxon plural termination 
€71 is still common, and oi is generally pronounced 
as ivi. Instances of their perfects may be '^"ed, 
snap, snopt, hide, hod, lead, lod, scrape, sciope, 
&c. iSome of their phrases are quaint. Thafs 
makes me out, puzzles me ; a kind of a middling 
sort of a way he is in, out of sorts, &c. Mr. 
Britton published a glossary of Wiltshire words 
in his Topographical Sketches of North Wilts, 
vol. iii, pp. 369-80 ; and a more complete one by 
Mr. Akerman has recently appeared, 12mo. 
1842. Many words peculiar to this county Avill 
be found in the following pages which have 
escaped both these writers, collected chiefly from 
Kennett, Aubrey, and MS. lists by the Rev. Dr. 
Ilussey, Dr. S. Merriman, the Rev. Richard 
Crawley, and Mr. M. Jackson. The Chronicon 
Vilodunense, edited by W. ^. Black, fol. 1830, 
is a specimen of the Wiltshire dialect in the fif- 
teenth century. It is so frequently quoted in 
this work that any further notice is unnecessary. 
The following clever pieces in the modern dia- 
lect of the county are from the pen of Mr. 
Akerman. 

(1) The Harnet and the Bit tie. 

A harnet zet in a hoUur tree, — 

A proper spiteful twoad was he; 

And a merrily zung while he did zet 

His stinge as shearp as a bagganet : 
Oh, whoso vine and bowld as I, 
I vears not bee, nor wapse, norvly . 

A bittleup thuck tree did clim. 
And scarnvully did look at him ; 
Zays he, " Zur harnet, who giv thee 
A right to zet in thuck there tree ? 

Vor ael you zengs zo nation vine, 

I tell 'e 'tis a house o* mine." 

The harnet's conscience velt a twinge. 
But grawin* bowld wi his long stinge, 
Zays he, " Possession's the best laaw ; 
Zo here th' sha'snt put a claaw ! 
Be off, and leave the tree to me, 
The mixen's good enough for thee J" 

Just then a yuckel, passin' by. 
Was axed by them the cause to trv : 
" Ha ! ha ! I zee how 'tis !" zays he, 
" They'll make a vamous nunch vor me I"* 
His bill was shearp, his stomach loar, 
Zo up a snapped the caddlin pair I 



XAXll 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



MORAL. 

Ael you as be to laaw inclined, 

This leetle stwory bear in mind ; 

Vor if to iaaw you aims to gwo. 

You'll vind theyll alius zar e zo : 

You 11 meet the vate o these here two. 
They'll take your cwoat and carcass too • 

(2) The Genuine Remains of William Little, a 
Wiltshire man. 

I've alius bin as vlush o' money as a twoad is o' 
veathers ; but if ever I gets rich, I'll put it ael in 
Ziszeter bank, and not do as owld Smith, the miller, 
did, comin'whoam vrom market one nite. ^artal 
avraid o' thieves a was, zo a puts his pound-bills and 
ael th' money a'd got about un in a hole in the wall, 
and the next marnin' a' couldn't remember where- 
abouts 'twas, and had to pull purty nigh a mile o' 
wall down before a' could vind it. Stoopid owld 
wosl)ird ! 

(Jwld Jan Wilkins used to zay he alius cut's stakes, 
when a went a hedgin', too laiig, bekaze a' cou'd 
easily cut 'em sharter if a' wanted, but a' couMnt 
make um langer if em was too shart. Zo zays I : 
zo I alius axes vor more than I wants. Iv I gets that, 
well and good ; but if I axes vor little, and gets less, 
it's martal akkerd to ax a zecond time, d'ye kneow ! 

Piple zay as how they gied th' neam o' moonrukers 
to us Wiltshire vauk bekasea passel o" stupid bodies 
one night tried to rake the shadow o' th' moon out o' 
th' bruk, and tuk't vor a thin cheese. But that's 
th' wrong ind o' th' stwory. The chaps az was doin' o' 
this was smugglers, and they was a vishin' up some 
kegs o' sperrits, and only purtended to rake out a 
cheese ! Zo the exciseman az axed 'em the question 
had his grin at -em ; but they had a good laugh at he 
when -em got whoame the stuff. 

Owld Molly Sannell axed Molly Dafter to gie her 
a drap o' barm one day. " I ha'n't a got nam !" says 
she ; " bezides, I do want un mezelf to bake wi'." 

Measter Goddin used to zay as how childern costed 
a sight o' money to breng um up, and 'twas all very 
well whilst um was leetle, and zucked th' mother, but 
when um began to zuck the vather, 'twas nation 
akkerd. 

Measter Cuss and his zun Etherd went to Lonnun 
a leetle time zence, and when um got to their jour- 
ney's ind, Measter Cuss missed a girt passel a carr'd 
wi'un to th'cwoach. "Lard, vather!" aays Etherd, 
" I zeed un drap out at Vize !" (Devizes.) 

(3) North Wiltshire eloquence. 
" Now, do'e plaze to walk in a bit, zur, and rest'e, 
and dwont'e mind my measter up ag'in th' chimley 
earner. Poor zowl on hin, he've a bin despert ill 
ever zence t'other night, when a wur tuk ter'ble bad 
wi' th' rheumatiz in's legs and stummick. He've a 
bin and tuk dree bottles o' doctor's stuff, but I'll be 
whipped if a do simbly a bit th' better var't. Lawk, 
zur, but I be main scrow to be ael in zich a caddel, 
ael alang o'they childern. They've a bin a leasiri', 
and when um coomed whoame, they ael tuk and 
drowed the cam aelamang th' vire stuff, and zohere 
we be, ael in a muggle like. And you be lookin' 
middiinish, zur, and ael as if'e was shrammed. I'll 
take and bkow up th' vire a mossel : but what be 
them bellises at ? here they be slata-two ! and here's 
my yeppurn they've a' bin and searched, and I've 
agot narra 'nother 'gin Zunday besepts thisum !" 
This elegant sample of North Wiltshire elo- 
quence was uttered nearly in a breath, by Mis- 
tress Vargcs, the wife of a labourer with a large 



family, as the poor man's master entered the 
cottage to inquire after his health, and whether 
he would be soon able to retain to his work. 

WORCESTERSHIRE. 

In Worcestershire, the peculiarity of speech 
most striking to a stranger is perhaps the inter- 
change of her and she, e. g. " her's going for a 
walk with she." This perversion is even used 
in the genitive, '■ she's bonnet." As in Glouces- 
tershire and Herefordshire, the pronoun which 
is constantly used to connect sentences, and to 
act as a species of conjunction. At a recent 
trial at Worcester, a butcher, who was on his 
trial for sheep-steaUng, said in defence, " I 
bought the sheep of a man at Broomsgrove fair, 
which he is a friend of the prosecutor's, and 
won't appear ; which I could have transported 
the prosecutor ever so long agoo if I liked." As 
in many other counties, the neuter is frequently 
invested with the masculine gender. A more 
striking feature is the continual dropping of the 
i in such words as stair, fair, pronounced star, 
far, &c. ; and the letter r is sometimes sounded 
between a final vowel, or vowel-sound, and an 
initial one. No works on the dialect of this 
county have yet appeared, and the majority of 
the words here quoted as peculiar to it have 
been collected by myself. I have, however, re- 
ceived short communications from J. Noake, 
Esq., Jabez Allies, Esq., Miss Bedford, Mrs. 
John Walcot, Thomas Boulton, Esq., Mr. R. 
Bright, and Mr. William Johnson. The follow- 
extract is taken from a MS. in my possession. 

Extract from a MS. of medical receipts written 
by Sj/r Tomas Jamys, Vicar off Badseye, about 
the year 1450. 

For the skawle a gode medcyn. Take pedylyon 
to handfulle ever thai he be flowryd, and than he 
ys tendur, and than take and sethe hym welle in a 
potelle of stronge lye tille the to halfe be soddyn 
awey, and than wesche the skallyd hede in stronge 
pysse that yshoote, and thansehave awey the schawle 
clene, and let not for bledyng; and than make a 
plasture of pedylyon, and ley it on the hede gode 
and warme, and so let it ly a day and a nyth, and 
than take it awey, and so than take thy mele and 
ronnyng vvatur of a broke, and therof make theke 
papelettes, and than sprede them on a clothe that 
woUe cover al the soore, and so ley it on the sore 
hede, and let it ly iij. dayys and iij. nythtes ever it 
be remeveyd, and than take it of, and wesche the 
hede welle in strong pysse ayenne, and than take and 
schave it clene to the flesche, and than take rede 
oynownee as mony ase woUe suffyee for to make a 
plasture over the sore, and boyle them welle in wa- 
ture, and than stampe them, and temper them with 
tlie softe of calamynte, and old barow grese that 
ys maltyne clene, and so use this tylle the seke be 
hole. 

YORKSHIRE. 

There are numerous early MSS. still preserved 
which were written in various parts of Yorkshire, 
most of them containing marks of the dialect of 
tlje county. The Towneley Mysteries, which 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



^xm 



haTC been printed by the Surtees Society, were 
written in the neighbourhood of Wakefield. An 
Enghsh commentary on the Psalms, translated 
from the Latin work by Hampole, a MS. in Eton 
College Library, was also written in this county, 
the writer observing, " in this werke I seke no 
strange Inglyshe hot the lightest and the comon- 
est, and swilke that es maste like til the Latyn, 
so that thas that knawes noght the Latyn by the 
Inglyshe may come to many Latyn wordes." 
A metrical translation of Grosthead's Chasteau 
d' Amour, in MS. Egerton 927, was made by a 
** munke of Sallay," who calls it " the Myrour of 
lewed Men." To these may be added MS. Harl. 
1022, MS. Harl. 5396, MS. Coll. Sion. xviii. 6, 
and the Thornton MS. so often quoted in the 
following pages. 

Higden, writing about 1350, says " the whole 
speech of the Northumbrians, especially in York- 
shire, is so harsh and rude that we Southern men 
can hardly understand it ;" and Wallingford, 
who wrote long before, observes that " there is, 
and long has been, a great admixture of people of 
Danish race in that province, and a great simi- 
larity of language.^' See the ' Quarterly Review,' 
Feb. 1836, p. 365. There seem to be few traces 
of Danish in the modern Yorkshire dialect. 

So numerous are modern pieces in the York- 
shire dialect, that it would be difficult to give a 
complete list. The rustic of this county has even 
had a newspaper in his native dialect, the ' York- 
shire Comet,' the first numl)er of which appeared 
in March, 1844 ; but in consequence of certain 
personal allusions giving offence, the publisher 
was threatened with a prosecution, and he relin- 
quished the work after the publication of the 
seventh number, andrefused to sell the objection- 
able parts. The most complete glossary of York- 
shire words was compiled by Mr. Carr, 2 vols. 
8vo. 1828, but it is confined to Craven, the dialect 
said to be used by Chaucer's North country 
scholars. See Mr. Wright's edition, vol. i. p. 
160. Dr. Willan's list of words used in the 
mountainous district of the West-Riding, in the 
Archseologia, vol. xvii. pp. 138-167, should also 
be noticed; and long previously a Yorkshire 
glossary appeared at the end of the Praise of 
Yorkshire Ale, 12mo. 1697. Thoresby's Mst of 
West-Riding words, 1 703, was published in Ray's 
Philosophical Letters ; and Watson gives a 
*' Vocabulary of Uncommon M'^ords used in Hali- 
fax Parish" in his History of Halifax, 1775. 
These latter have been reprinted in the Hallam- 
shire Glossary, 8vo. 1829, a small collection of 
words used in the neighbourhood of Sheffield. 
The Sheffield dialect has been very carefully in- 
vestigated in an Essay by the Rev. H. H. Piper, 
12mo. 1825. In addition to the printed glos- 
saries, I have had the advantage of using MS. 
lists of Yorkshire words communicated by Wm. 
Turner, Esq., William Henry Leatham, Esq., 
Henry Jackson, Esq., Dr. Charles Rooke, the 
Rev. P. Wright, Mr. M. A. Denham, Mr. Thomas 
Sanderson, John Richard Walbran, Esq., Mr. 
Banks, and N. Scatcherd, Esq. 



(1) A charm for the Tooth-ache, from thv 

Thornton Manuscript, f. 176. 

A charme for the tethe-werke. — Say the charmu 
thris, to it be sayd ix. tymes, and ay thrys at a 
charemynge. 

I conjoure the, laythely beste, with that ilkespere. 
That Longyous in his hande ganebere. 
And also with ane hatte of thorne. 
That one my Lordis hede was borne. 
With alle the wordis mare and lesse. 
With the Office of the Messe, 
With my Lorde and his xii. postiHes, 
With oure Lady and her x. maydenys, 
Saynt Margrete, the haly quene, 
Saynt Katerin, the haly virgyne, 
ix. tymes Go.ldis forbott, thou wikkyde wo'me, 
Thet ever thou make any rystynge, 
Bot awaye mote thou wende. 
To the erde and the stane ! 

(2) Dicky Dickeson's Address toH knawn world, 
from the first number of the Yorkshire Comet, 
published in 1844. 

Dear Ivverybody, 

Ah sud'nt wonder bud, when some foaks hear 
o' me startin' on a Paper, they'll say, what in't 
world hez maade Dicky Dickeson bethink hiz^cn o' 
cummin' sich a caaper as that? Wah, if ye'll nob- 
but hev hauf o't paatience o' Joab, Ah'U try ta tell 
ya. Ve mun knaw, 'at aboot six year sin', Ah wur 
i' a public-hoose, wheare ther wur a feller as wur 
braggin' on his larnin', an' so Ah axed him what he 
knawed aboot onny knawledgement, an' he said he 
thowt he'd a rare lump moare information i' his 
heead, ner Ah hed i' mine. Noo, ye knaw. Ah 
sudn't ha' been a quarter as ill mad, if ther hedn't 
been a lot o' chaps in't plaaee 'at reckoned ta hev 
noa small share o* gumption. Soa, as sooin as Ah 
gat hoame that neet, Ah sware ta oor Bet, 'at as 
suare as shoo wur a match-hawker, Ah wud leearn 
all't polishments 'at Schooilmaister Gill could teich 
ma. Varry weel, slap at it Ah went, makkin' pot- 
hukes, an' stroakes, an' Ah hardly knaws what ; an' 
then Ah leearnt spelderin', readin', i' fact, all 'at 
long-heeaded Schooilmaister Gill knew hizsen ; so 
'at, when Ah'd done wi' him. Ah wur coonted as 
clever a chap as me feyther afore ma, an' ye mun 
consider 'at Ah wur noa small beer when Ah'd come 
ta that pass, for he could tell, boot lukm', hoo mich 
paaper it wud tak' ta lap up an ooiice o' 'baeca. 
Weel, as sooin as Ah'd gotten ta be sa wonderful 
wise, d'ye see ? Ah thowt - an' it wur a bitter thowt, 
tew!— what a pity it wor 'at ivverybody couldn't 
dew as mich as Ah could. More Ah studied aboot 
it, an' war it pottered ma, Ah'il assuare ya. Wun 
neet, hooivver, as oor Bet an' me wur set be't fire- 
side, shoo turned hersen suddenly roond, an' said, 
" Thoo'safooil, Dicky !" " What ! Bet, does thoo 
really meean tasay Ah'zafooil ?" " Ah dew," shoo 
said: " thoo's a real fooil !" " Hoo does ta mak' 
that oot, Bet ?" said Ah, for Ah wurnoane hauf 
suited aboot it. •• Ah'll say it ageean an' ageean," 
says shoo; •* thoo's a fooil, an' )f ta's onny way 
partikelar ta knaw, Ah'll tell tha hoo Ah maks it 
oot. In't first plaaee, luke what braa»s thoo hez 
as starlin' as onny 'at ivver thease f,«.i men hed 
an' yet, like a foi;il as Ah say thoo is, thoo taks it 
as eeasy as a pig in't muck." •• Weel, weel," Ah 
continid, '• what wod tn ha' ma ta dew, lass f Tel. 
us,an' Ah'lldew't." •' Then," says shoo, " start a 
paaper i' thee awn naative tor.gue, an call it 
t'Vorshar C«met. Ah'll be bun for't it'll pay m 



xxxiv 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



weel as lv\er gooid coin did." Noo, then, as sooin 
as Ah heeard oor Bet's noations, Ah wur ommust 
stark mad ta carry 'em oot ; for Ah thowt, as shoo 
did 'at it wod pay capital, an' beside, Ah sud maybe 
be improovin't staate o' saciaty, an't morals o't 
vicious. Ye doan't need ta thlnlc 'at Ah'z nowt bud 
an ignarant mushrum, for, though Ah say't mysen. 
Ah can tell ya 'at Dicky Dickeson's as full o'knaw- 
ledge as a hegg's full o' meeat. Nut 'at Ah wants 
ta crack o' mysen, nowt o't soart ; it isn't what Ah 
says an' thinks o' mysen, bud what other foaks says 
a»' thinks o' ma ; an' if ye ha' no objections, ye's 
just read a letter 'at Ah gat fro' Naathan Vickus 
aboot a year an' a hauf sin', when all that talk wur 
agate relatin' ta Otley gerrin' franchised. It ran as 
foUers : 

•« Pig-Coit Farm, Octoaber, 1842. 

«» Dear Dicky, 

" Ah mun confess 'at Ah've heeard some talk 
aboot oor toon sennin' two Members ta Parlement, 
an' if ivver it sud come ta pass, thoo ma be suare'at 
Naathan Vickus '11 stick to tha up hill an' doon 
daale. Ah'z noane sa thick, Dicky, bud what Ah 
knaws pretty near what a chap is be't cut on his jib, 
thoo unnerstans; an', depend on't, lad, that's what 
Ah judges thee by. Thoo's a man 'at '11 dew honour 
to't toon wheareivver ta goes, an' if ther's onny 
feathers for onnybody's cap, it's Dicky Dickeson 'at's 
boon ta get 'em, or else Ah's a fooil of a judge o' 
human flesh, that's all. Ah hev varry gurt pleasure 
i' offerin' tha my voate, an' oor Toby's in't bargain ; 
an' Ah dew promise tha, 'at if ivvery pig, mule an' 
cauf aboot my farm wur receavable as common 
sense creaturs, thoo sud fin' a supporter i' ivvery 
one on 'em. Wi' a bucket o' compliments ta the 
sister Bet an't rest o't breed, 

•' Ah is, dear Dicky, 

" Moast respectful thine, 

" Naathan Vickus." 

Ta Mr. Dickeson, Esq. 

Noo, then, Ah ax ageean, is ther onny o' ya, dear 
readers, as wod hev't leeast bit o' doot o' yer minds 
noo? Is ther, Ah say ' Noa : An fancies Ah can 
hear some o' ya chucklin', an' sayin', " Hurra for 
Dicky Dickeson ! he flogs all 'at's goane afore him !" 
An' let ma tell ya, 'at so Ah meeans ta dew ; an' if 
onny of ya is trubbled wi' sects o' ghoasts or dull 
thowts, Ah'll guarantee ta freeten 'em oot o' ya, an' 
that's what noa soul afore ma's done yet. Bud Ah 
mun gi' ower writin' tul ya at present, for oor Bet 
tells ma 'at me porridge hez been waitin' this hauf 
boor, an', as a matter in coarse, they're stiff" wi' stan- 
nin*. Ah can nobbut beg on ya ta read t'Yorshar 
Comet ivvery week, an', bedewin'soa, tak' my word 
for't, ye'll saave monny a poond i't yeear i' pills, 
boalusses, an' all sich belly-muck as tha are. 

Bet joins wi' ma i' luv ta ya all, (shoo's a deacent 
lass, is Bet!) an' wi' a thoosand hoapes 'at ye'll in- 
courage ma. 

Ah is, dear Ivverybody, 

Yer varry humble sarvant, 

Dicky Dickkson. 

T'Editor's Study. 

(3) A Leeds Advertisement. 
MISTRESS BIDDY BUCKLEBEWIT, 
Laate Haup'ny Cheesecaake-Makker tul Her Majesty, 

Begs ta inform t'public 'at shoo hez just 

SETTEN UP FOR HERSEN l' THAT LINE, 

26, Paastry Square, Leeds, 

Wheare sha carries on 

ALL THEM EXTENSIVE BUSINESSES 

O' tart-uiakker, honest brandy-snap baaker, treeaclc- 

stick boiler, humbug importer, spice-pig traader,aii' 



univarsal deeaf-nut, breead, cheese, bunnack, an 
giner-beer deealer ; an' fro't. experience 'at shoo's 
hed i' them lines o' genius wal wi' her Majesty, shoo 
begs ta assuare t'inhabitants 'at shoo's t'impedence 
ta think here's noabody '11 gi' more for t'brass^ or 
sich inconceeavable qualaty as shoo will. 

Biddy Bucklebewit alsoa desires ta noatice, 'at as 
for punctualaty, noabody can be more soa ner her- 
sen ; for shoo awlus hezt'oven boat, an' what's better, 
keeps a wheelbarrow for t'express i)urpose o' des- 
patchin* articles ta all t'paarts o't gloabe. 

P.S.— I' consequence o't immense saale an' supe- 
rioraty o* B. B 's goods, lots o' unprincapled foaks 
hez been induced ta adopt her receapts like, an' ta 
defraud her ; ta prevent which t'Honarable Commis- 
sioners o' Stamps hez ordered 'at all B. B.'s stuff be 
figured wi' a billy-gooat's heead, (ihcm animals bein' 
tremendous fond o' lollipop) soa 'at noane i' futur '11 
be ge-nu-ine but what is ornamented as afore parti- 
calarized. Be suare ta think on 

No. 26, Paastry Square, Leeds. 

(4) Sci'aps from Newspapers. 

Fraud. — Felix Flibberton hed a sad roond wi' his 
wife this week, caused, as we're teld, be Mistress 
Flibberton bein' guilty on a piece o' roguery, t'like 
o' which we seldom hear tell on. It's said, when 
Felix taasted on his teea, t'last Thursday mornin', 
he fan it oot 'at it worn't ower strong, but, on't 
contraary, wur considerably weaker ner common. 
O' this fact comin' ta leet, he called his wife tut 
scratch, an' axed as lovinly as ha wur aable, hoo it 
happened 'at his teea wur i' that pickle. Noo, Felix 
an' his wife's coffee an' sich like, wur aullus pre- 
paared i' separate pots, — Ah meean tea-pots; an', 
that mornin'. Mister Flibberton hevin' ligged ray- 
ther long i' bed, his wife hed thowt proper ta gulp 
her brekfast afore he landed doon. T'question wor, 
hed t'mistress ta'en t'biggest shaare o't teea, as theare 
wur noane in t'canister then ? T'poor woman said, 
ther wur precious little ta mak' t'brekfast on ; bud 
what ther wor, shoo divided fairly, leeavin' her hus- 
band be far t'bigger hauf. Nut chusin' ta believe all 
'at his wife spluttered oot, Felix shooted o't sarvant, 
whoa depoased 'at when shoo gat up, shoo wur suare 
'at theare wur then plenty i't canister ta mak' six 
rare strong cups. Efter adeeal o' cross-examinaation 
between t'mistress an't sar%'ant, t'former began o' 
roarin', an' confessed 'at shoo hed defrauded her law- 
ful partner, devoatin' tul her awn use three, wal tul 
her husband shoo nobbut left one an' a hauf spooin- 
ful o' teea. Felix wodn't grant noa pardon then, 
bud bun her ower ta keep t'peeace for three months ; 
an', suppoasin' 'at shoo brak it ageean, he threeat- 
ened sendin' a brief o't whoale caase ta Maister 
Wilkins, barrister, an' ta tak' sich steps as he mud 
advise. 

A Munificeiit Gift. — Dr. Swabbs, Physician extra- 
ordinary ta ivverybody 'at wants poisonin', hez once 
more come oot ov his shell, an' letten t'world knaw 
'at he's t'saame Dr. Swabbs still 'at ivver ha wor. 
O' Tuesday nnet, wal t'doctor wur smookin' his 
pipe, an' swillin' his tummler o' brandy an' wattcr, 
a depitation o'maad-sarvants, consistin' o't cooks an' 
seven or eight hoose an' chaamer-maads, waated on 
him wi' a Roond Robin, petitionin' for a small do- 
naation i' order ta buy amixtur ta poison t'mice wi', 
as they wur gcrrln varry impedent i' ther walks in- 
tut kitchen an' cupboard; i' fact, as't trustwarthy 
cook said, one on 'em hed t'bare-faacedness ta come 
an' wag his tail i* her chocolate, and then as bare- 
faacfdly maadc his escaape, wi'oot stoppln' ta be 
wallopped for't. T'doctor wursoamuvtHl be itieose 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



XXX7 



argements, 'at he threw doon his pipe, brekkin' on't, 
as t'hoose-maaid teld ma, thrusted his hand intul his 
pocket, an' drew sixpence. What a blessin' wod it 
be if men genarally wod nobbut foller Dr. Swabbs's 
example ! 

A Litarary Saciaty. — A Litarary Saciaty hez been 
formed i' Otley be some perseverin' an' common- 
sense young men, 'at's ov apinion 'at it's nowt bud 
reight 'at they sud hev as mich larnin' as tha can 
afford ta pay for. A committee's been maade, con- 
sistin' o' seven o't wisest o' ihease conspirators tut 
owerthraw o' ignarance, an' rules drawn up an' 
printed i' a hexcellent style, varry creditable boath 
tut author an* tut printer thereon, Ah's suare. we've 
just seen a catalogue o't books they've already got- 
ten, an' as it could'nt miss but speik volums i' ther 
faavour, we beg ta subjoin t'naames on a to- three o't 
principal warks ;— Jack t'Giant-Killer, Tom Thumb, 
Cock Robin, Mother Hubbard, Jumpin' Joan, Puss 
i' Booits, Tom t'Piper's Son, an' a splendid haup'ny 
edition o' Whittin'ton an' his Cat. This is a grand 
opportunaty for lovers o' soond mathamatical, an' 
other litarary pursuits, ta come forrard, an'suppoart 
an' sustaan a novelty fro' which tha ma gether all 
t'informaation ther minds is on t'luke oot for. 

(5) Deborah Duckiton^s Advice Corner. 

Ifyatuke noatice, ye would see, 'at t'latter end 
o' March, i't first quarter, t'mooin wurlaad ov her 
back, a suare sign o* stormy weather. Ye'U all 
knaw, 'at theare's been part frost an' snaw sin' ; an', 
if my judgment isn't awfully wrong, we's ha' some 
more. Weel, noo, i' frosty weather, ye're aware, 
it's rayther daangerous walkin', becos o't varry gurt 
slapeness o't rooads an't flegs ; Ah'z quite posative 
on't, for even i* my time Ah've seen more ner one 
long-legged coavey browt ov a level wi't grund, an' 
Ah've seen monny a stoot an'respectable woman, tew. 
Let me prescribe a remady, then, for all sich misfor- 
tuns. Shaadrach Scheddul, — a celebraated horse- 
shooer i' oor toon, propoased ta sharpen barns for 
three-haupence a heead ; lads an' lasses, fro' ten ta 
sixteen year o' aage, thruppance ; an' all aboon that 
owdness, whether tha've big feet, little feet, or noa 
feet at all, fowerpenee. 

N.B. Ivvery allooance '11 be maade for wooden 
legs ; an' o' them 'at honestly doesn't wish ta be 
blessed wi't last-naamed articles o' weear, it'smoast 
respectfully requested 'at they'll avaal thersens o't 
sharpenin' invention. Shaadrach Scheddul alloos 
five per cent, off for ready brass, or six months' 
credit ; — auther '11 dew. 

Ah advise all laadies 'at doesn't wish ta hev ther 
husbands' stockins ootraageously mucky on a wesh- 
in'-day, nut ta alloo 'em t'privilege o' spoartin' 
knee-breeches, them hevin' been proved, be varry 
clever philosophers, ta be t'leeadin' cause theareof, 
an't principal reeason why t'leg o't stockin' doesn't 
last as long as t'fooit. 

[jo) Visits ta Dicky Dickeson. 
O' Friday, Dicky Dickeson wur visited i' his 
study be't Marquis o' Crabbum, an', efter a deeal o' 
enquiries aboot t'weather, an' monny remarks con- 
sarnin' this thing an' that, t'latter praceeded la ex- 
plaan what ha'd come for, soapin' an' smilin' tut 
lamed editor, as it's genarally knawn all thease top- 
inarkers dew— when tha've owt ta ger oot on him. 
It appears 'at t'aim o't Marquis wur ta induce Mr. 
Dickeson, as a capitalist o' some noate, ta join wi' 
him i' buyin' in all t'paaper shaavins 'at tha can lig 
ther hans on, soa as ta hev all t'traade ta thersens. 



Mr. Dickeson agreed, an' t'fire-leetin' an' shaav!n>< 
deealin' world is lukin' wi' mich terror an' intrest 
tut result. 

Immediately efter t'Marquis o' Crabbum hed 
maade his exit, a gentle rap wur heeard at t'dcor o't 
study, an' when Mr, Dickeson bad 'em walk forrard, 
in popped a bonny, blue-e'ed, Grecian-noazed, 
white-tooithed lass o' eighteen, an' be't way i' which 
t'editor smacked her roasy cheeks wi' his lips, here's 
na doot bud it wur Nanny Tract. Shoo'd browt two 
ooatcaakes, 'at shoo'd newly baaked, ye knaw. Mr. 
Dickeson set tul ta eit 'em, an' Nanny set tul ta 
watch him ; an' when t'first hed finished his per- 
formance on't ooat-caakes, here's na need ta say 'at 
he began o' squeazin't latter ; ay, an' ye ma say 
what ya've a mind aboot t'modesty o't laadies, bud 
Nanny squeeazed him as weel, an' wor ther owt 
wrong in't, think ya ? Shallywally ! Bud, hoo- 
ivver, t'editor hedn't been long at this gam', afore 
ha heerd another noise,— a shufflin', slinkin' noise. 
Ah meean, an' nut areg'lar rap,— ootside o't door ; 
soa, takkin' his shoes off, he crept nicely tut spot, 
an', be gow ! if ha didn't fin't printer's divil lissenin* 
theare, here's be nowt for tellin' ya on't. Mr. 
Dickeson, ommust choaked wi' madness at this 
turn-up, (for wheare's ther onnybody 'at likes ta her 
ther love-dewins heeard an' seen )) shoved him intut 
middle on his study; an' commandin' Nanny ta hod 
him a minute, (which saame shoo did ta perfection,) 
he went tut other end o't plaace, an' puttin' on a 
middlin'-sized clog, tuke a run pause at t'posteriors 
o't impedent printer's divil, an' theareby makkln' 
bim sing " God saavet'Queen" i' sich prime style, 'at 
delicate Nanny wur ta'en wi' a fit o' faantin*. 
T' music hevin' ceeased as sooin as t'performer wur 
turned oot, Nanny bethowt hersen ta come roond ; 
bud, shaameful ta say, her an' Dicky didn't paart 
wal fower i't efternooin, at which time t'lass wur 
wanted up at hoame ta darn stockins an' crimp 
frills. 

(7) Miscellanies. 

Men an' women is like soa monny cards, played 
wi' be two oppoanents. Time an' Eternity : Time 
get's a gam noo an' then, an' hez t'pleasure o' keep- 
in' his caards for a bit, bud Eternity's be far t'better 
hand, an' proves, day be day, an' boor be boor, 'at 
he's winnin' incalcalably fast. 

Whenlvver ya see one o' thease heng-doon, black 
craape thingums 'at comes hauf doon a woman's 
bonnet an' faace, be suare 'at shoo's widowed, an' 
» Ta Let.'" 

It's confidently rumoured in t'palitical world, 'at 
t'tax is goin' ta be ta'en oflE' leather-breeches, an 
putten on white hats. 

Why does a young laady i' a ridin'-habit resemmle 
Shakspeare ? Cos shoo's (offen) miss-cooated (mis- 
quoted). 

A lad i' Otley, knawn be t'inhabitants forhis odd 
dewins like, an' for his modesty, tew, wun day went 
a errand for an owd woman 'at tha called Betty 
Cruttice : an' he wur sa sharp ower it, an' did it sa 
pleasantly beside, 'at Betty axed him ta hev a bit o^" 
apple pie for his trouble. "Noa, thenk ya," said 
t'lad. " Thoo'd better, Willy," said Betty. " Noa, 
thenk ya," repeeated t'lad ; an' off he ran hoame, 
an' as sooin as ha gat intut hoose, burst oot a-roarin' 
an' sobbin' as if his heart Wod brek. "Billy, me 
lad," says his mother, " what's t'matter wi' tha ?" 
" Wah," blubbered poor Billy, "Betty Cn;ttice 
axed ma ta hev a bit o' apple-pie, an' Ah »aid, Noa» 
thenk ya!" 



XXX VI 



ENGLISH PROVINCIAL DIALECTS. 



Poakers is like brawlin' tongues — just t'thiags ta 
stir up fires wi'. 

Why doesa inland sea resemmle a linen-draaper's 
shop ? Cos it contaans surges an' bays (serges an' 
baize) . 

' What's said for thease remarkable articles ?" 
shooted an auctioneer at a saale to three week sin'. 
♦' Here's a likeness o' Queen Victoria, ta'en in t'year 
seventeen ninety-two, a couple o' pint pots/at's 
been drunk oot on be't celabraated Bobby Burns, an' 
a pair o' tongs 'at Genaral Fairfax faaght wi' at 
t'battle o* Marston Moor, all i' wun lot : ay, ay, an' 
here's another thing ta goa vri' 'em, a hay-fork 'at 
Noah used ta bed doon his beeasts wi' when ha wur 
in I'ark, sometime i' fowerteen hundred. Bud, 
hooivver, it maks na odds tut year. Fower articles 
here, all antiquaties ; what's said for 'em ? Sixpence 
is said for 'em, laadies an' gennlemen — eightpence is 
said for 'em — ninepence, tenpence, a shillin's said 
for 'em, laadies and gennlemen, an' thenk ya for yer 
magnanimaty. Are ya all done at a shillin'? Varry 
weel, then. Ah sahn't dwell ; soo thease three ar- 
ticles is goin'." " Ye're reight, maaster," shooted 
a cobbler fro't crood, '♦ they are goin', tew ; for if 
my e'es tell ma reight, theare's na hannles on't pots, 
na noase on't pictur, an' na legs on'i tongs." 

" Hoo sweet — boo varry sweet — is life!" as t'flee 
said when ha wur stuck i' treeacle. 

Why does a lad, detected i' robbin' a bee-hive, 
ger a double booty be't ? Cos he gets boath honey 
an' whacks (wax). 

A striplin' runnin' up tul a paaver, 'at wur ham- 
merin' an' brayin' soa at his wark, 'at t'sweeat fair 
ran doon his cheeks, began o' scraapin't sweeat off 
his faace intul a pot wi' a piece o' tin. " Hollow !" 
shoots t'man, rubbin' his smartin' featurs wi' his 
reight hand, "what meeans tha ta be comin' ta 
scraape t'skin off a man's coontenance ?" '* Nay, 
nay," said t'lad, " Ah worn't scraapin't skin off, noo, 
but nobbut t'sweeat, which wur o' noa use ta ye, 
maaster, wal it war ta me, as Ah've been all ower, 
an' couldn't get na gooise- gmense onnywheare till E 
saw ye." 



(8) J Falle. 
I't' Fable book, we read at school, 
On an owd Frosk, an arrand Fooyl ; 

Pride crack'd her little bit o'Srain ; 
(T' book o' me Neyve, Mun) we a pox, 
Shoo'd needs meytch Bellies we an Ox ; 

Troath, shoo wor meeghtily mistayne. 
Two on bur young ons, they pretend 
Just goane a gaterds we a Friend, 

Stapisht an' starin', brought her word — 
'♦ Mother, we've seen for suer, To-neeght, 
•• A hairy Boggard ! sich a seeght ! 

" As big ! as big ! eeh Loord ! eeh Loord !" 
Shoo puffs, and thrusts, and girns, and swells, 
[Th' Bairns thowt sho' or dooin' summot else] 

To ratch her Coyt o'speckl'd Leather ; — 
«♦ Wor it as big, my Lads, as me ?" 
" Bless us," said Toan, " as big as ye, 

" Voar but a Beean anent a Blether !" 
No grain o' Marcy on her Guts, 
At it ageean shoo swells and struts. 

As if the varry hangmen I bad her. 
Thinkin' ther Mother nobbut joak'd, 
Th' young Lobs wi* laughin', wor hawf choak'd ; 

A thing which made her ten times madder. 
Another thrust, and thick as Hops, 
Her Pudding's plaister'd all their Chops, 

'Mess there wor then a bonny slurring ; 
Deead in a Minute as a Stoane 
All t'Hopes o' t' Family worgooane 

And not a six-pince left for t' burying. 
We think, do ye see, there's no small chonce 
This little hectoring Dog o' Fronce 

May cut just sitch another Caper; 
He'll trust, for sartin, ol a pod 
Ye,— mortal Tripes can never hod 

Sitch heaps o' wind, an' reek, .n' vapor. 
What's bred i' t' Booane, an' runs i' t' Blooyd, 
If nought, can niver come to gooyd, 

Loa Mayster Melville's crackt his Pitcher, 
Mooar Fowk are sweeatin', every Lim', 
A feeard o' being swing'd like him, 

Wi' Sammy Whitbread's twinging switch'r. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



ARCHAISMS AND PROVINCIALISMS, 



A The followhig are the principal obsolete and 
. provincial uses of this letter. 

(1) Ah! (^.-A:) 

A ! swete sire, I seide tho. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 355. 
A! Lorde, he saide, fulle wo es me. 
So faire childir als I hafede thre. 
And nowe ame I lefte allone ! 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 112. 

(2) He. a for he is common in our old drama- 
tists, in the speeches of peasants or ilHterate 
persons, and in the provincial dialects. See 
Apology for the Lollards, p. 120; King 
Alisaunder, 7809. In the western counties, it 
is also used for she, and occasionally for it. 

By Seynt Dynys, a swer is oth. 

That after that tyme a nolde 

Fte ne drynke no more that day. 

For none kynnes thynge. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 2. 

Wyth ys rijt hond a blessid him than, 

And pryketh ys stede and forth he nam. lb. f. 48. 

(3) They. Salop. 

(4) A is sometimes used in songs and burlesque 
poetry to lengthen out a line, without adding 
to the sense. It is often also a mere expletive 
placed before a word, 

(5) Prefixed to verbs of Anglo-Saxon origin, A 
has sometimes a negative, sometimes an inten- 
sative power. See Wright's Gloss, to Piers 
Ploughman, in v. 

(6) All. Su- F. Madden says, " apparently an 
error of the scribe for al, but written as pro- 
nounced." Compare 1. 936. 

He shal haven in his hand 

A Denemark and Engeland. Havelok, 610. 

(7) Sometimes prefixed to nouns and adjectives 
signifying of the, to the, on the, in the, and at 
the. See Middleton's Works, i. 262 ; Morte 
d' Arthur, ii. 87 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 340. 

Martha fel a-doun a Crois, 
And spradde anon to grounde. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 

(8) Before a noun it is often a corruption 
of the Saxon on. See Havelok, p. 213 : Rob 
Glouc. p. 353. 

And that hii a Lammasse day myd her poer come 
Echone to Barbesflet, and thes veage nome. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 200. 

^9) Have. Few provincial expressions are more 
common than " a done" for have done. So in 



Peblis to the Play, st. 10, ap. Sibbald, Chron. 
Sc. Poet. i. 132, "a done with ane mischaunce," 
which is quoted as an " old song" by Jamieson, 
Supp. in V. A. 

Richard might, as the fame went, a saved hymself, , 
if he would a fled awaie; for those that were about 

hym suspected treason and willed hym to flie. 

Supp. to Hardy ng, f. 105. 
A don, seris, sayd oure lordynges alle. 
For ther the nold no lenger lend. 

MS. Rawl. C. 86, f. 178. 

(10) One. See Mr. Wright's note to the Alh- 
terative Poem on the Deposition of Richard II. 
p. 54. In the passage here quoted from the 
copy of the Erie of Tolous in the Lincoln MS. 
Ritson's copy reads oon, p. 100. 

Hyre lord and sche be of a blode. 

MS. Ashmole 61, f. 65. 
He wente awaye and syghede sore; 
A worde spake he no more. 
Bot helde hym wondir stylle. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 115 
Thre persones in a Godhede, 
Als clerkys in bokys rede. 

MS. Ashmole 61, f. 83. 
Hir a schanke blake, hir other graye. 
And alle hir body lyke the lede. 

True Thomas, MS. Lincoln, f. 150 

(11) Always ; ever. Cumd. " For ever and a" 
is an expression used by old nistics. 

A the more I loke theron, 
A the more I thynke I fon. 

Towneletj Mysteries, p. 229. 

(12) At. Suffolk. Major Moor gives it the va- 
rious meanings of, he, or, our, if, on, at, have, 
and of, with examples of each. 

Have ye nat perkus and chas ? 
What schuld ye do a this place ? 

Sir Degrevant, 36». 
Yes. Somerset. 

And. Somerset. See Havelok, 359. 
Wendyth home, a leve youre werryeng. 
Ye Wynne no worshyp at thys walle. 

MS. Harl. 2252, f. 121. 
Chapes a cheynes of chalke whytte sylver. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 8(, 
An interrogative, equivalent to what! 
What do you say ? Far. dial. 
(W) If. Suffolk. 

And yit, a thow woldyst nyghe me nye, 
Thow ihalt wele wete I am not slayn. 

MS. Harl. 2252, f. iW 
1 



(13) 
(14) 



(15) 



AAL 



AAT 



(17) In. 

Quod Bardus thanne, a Goddes half 
The thridde tyme assaye I schalle. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq, 134, f. 15». 
As hy cam to the ney3entende vers^ 

As the corsynge endeth y-wis.. 
That hoc opus eorum 

A Latyn y-clepiid is. MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 
Hammering this in his heade, on he went to the 
smith's house: Now, smith, quoth hee, good mor- 
ro\v, is thy wife up? No, quoth the smith, but she 
is awake; go up and carry your linnen, a Gods 
name. Cobler of Canterburie, 1608. 

(18) Sometimes repeated with adjectives, the 
substantive having gone before and being un- 
derstood. See Macbeth, iii. 5, and the notes 
of the commentators. It is also occasionally 
prefixed to numeral adjectives, as a-ten, a- 
twelve, &c. and even a-one, as in Macbeth, iii. 4. 

Somers he lette go byfore. 

And charyotes stuffede with store, 

Wele a twelve myle or more. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 120. 

(19) A common proverb, *' he does not know 
great A from a bull's foot," is applied to an 
ignorant or stupid person. Ray has a proverb, 
** A. B. from a battledore," and Taylor, the 
water-poet, has a poem on Coryat, addressed 
" To the gentlemen readers that understand 
A. B. from a battledore." See B. 

I know not an A from the wynd-mylne, 
Ne A. B. from a bole-foot, I trowe, ne thiself nother. 

MS. Digby 41, f. 5. 

A- A. (1) Explained by Junius voic dolentium. 
Hampole tells us that a male child utters the 
sound a-a when it is born, and a female e-e, 
being respecti\'ely the initials of the names of 
their ancestors Adam and Eve. See the Ar- 
chseologia, xix. 322. A couplet on the joys of 
heaven, in MS. Coll. S. Joh. Oxon. 57, is called 
signum a-a. 

Aa! my sone Alexander, whare es the grace, and 
the fortune that oure goddes highte the ? That es 
to say, that thou scholde alwaye overcome thynne 
enemys. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 3. 

(2) Frequently occurs in an early medical MS. 
in Lincoln Cathedral for ana, q. v., and the 
contraction is still in use. 

AAC. An oak. North. 

AAD. Old. Yorksh. 

AADLE. To flourish ; to addle. Suffolk. 
AAGED. Aged. Palsgrave has " aa^'erf lyke," in 

his Ust of adjectives. 
AAINT. To anoint. Suffolk. See Aint. Major 
Moor is the authority for this form of the word. 
See his Suffolk Words, p. 5. 
AAKIN. Oaken. North. 
AALE. Ale. This form of the word, which 
may be merely accidental, occurs in Malory's 
Morte d' Arthur, ii. 445. 
AALLE. All; every. 

Forthy, my sone, yf thou doo ryjte. 
Thou schalt unto thy love obeye. 
And folow hire wiile by aalle wey. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 50. 

.VALS. iUas ! 

Suerties her fouude to come agayne, 

Syr Gawayne and Syr Ewayne; 

AalSf hesayedf I shal dye I SirLaun/al, Douce frag. 



AAN. (1) Own. North. 

(2) Anan ! what say you ? East. 

(3) On. 

A sterte to his helm and pult him aan. 
And to Olyver thanne a seide. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 8 
Do, cosyri; anon thyn armys aan. 
And aray the in syker wede. Ibid. i. 44. 

AANDE. Breath, This is the Danish form of 
the word, although it more usually occurs in 
the Thornton MS. with one a. See And. 
This MS. was written in Yorkshire, a dialect 
which contains much of the Danish language. 
In old Scotch, it is Aynd; Su. Got. Ande; 
Isl. Ande ; Dan. Aande ; Swed. Ande. See 
Ihre, in v. Ande. Aand also occurs in the 
Morte d' Arthur, Lincoln MS., f. 67, but is ap- 
parently a mistake for the conjunction and. 

Thay hadd crestis one thaire heddez, and thaire 
brestez ware bryghte lyk golde, and thaire mowthes 
opene ; thaire aande slewe any qwikk thynge that it 
smate apone, and oute of thaire eghne ther come 
flammes of fyre. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17* f. 28. 

This aand that men draus oft, 
Betakens wvnd that blaws o-loft. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. f. 4. 

AANDORN. An afternoon's repast, or any oc- 
casional refection after dinner ; also simply the 
afternoon, in which latter sense it is a corrup- 
tion of undern, q. v. Cumb. It would in the 
North be pronounced much Uke arndern, q. v. 
This form of the word is found in the Glos- 
sarium Northanhymbricum at the end of Ray. 
AANE. The beard growing out of barley or 
other grain. 

We call it [wheat] pold or pollard, that hath no 
aanes upon the eares. And that we call the aane, 
which groweth out of the eare, like a long pricke 
or a dart, whereby the eare is defended from the 
danger of birds. Googe's Husbandry, 1577} f- 25. 

AAR. Ere; before. 

And when hy ben of thritty yaar, 

Hy ben broun of hare, as hy weren aar. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 5033. 
AARM. The arm. 

Judas seide, What wilt thou that be joven to thee 
for a wed ? Sche answeride, thi ring and thi bye of 
the aarm, and the staff whiche thou holdist in thin 
bond. Wickliffe, MS. Bodl. 277- 

AARMED. Armed. 

Therfore for Crist suffride in fleisch, be ye also 
aarmed bi the same thenking; for he that suffride 
in fleische ceesside fro synnes. 

Wickliffii's New Test. p. 228. 
AARON. The herb wakerobin. See Cotgrave, 

in V. Veau. 
AARS. The anus. This unusual form occiurs in 
the Middlehill ms. of the Promptorium. See 
Prompt. Parv., p. 14, in v. Ars. In Dutch 
we have aarzelen, to go backward, which in- 
volves the same form of the word. 
AAS. Aces. See Ambes-as. 
Stille be thou, Sathanas ! 
The ys fallen ambes aas. Harrowing of Hell, p. 21 

In Reynard the Foxe, p. 62, " a pylgrym of 
deux aas" is apparently applied to a pretended 
pilgrim. 
AAT. Fine oatmeal, with which pottage is thick- 
ened. See Markham's English Housewile, 
quoted in Boucher's Glossary, in v. Bannocks. 



ABA 



ABA 



AATA. After. Suffolk. 
AATH. An oath. North. 
AAX. To ask. 

Whan alle was spoke of that they mente. 
The kynge, with alle his hole entente, 
Thanne at laste hem aaxeth this, 
What kynge men tellen that he is ? 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f, 219. 

AB. The sap of a tree. 

Yet diverse have assaied to deale without okes to 
that end, but not with so good successe as they have 
hoped, bicause the ab or juice will not so soone be 
removed and cleane drawne out, which some attri- 
bute to want of time in the salt water. 

Harrison's Description of England, p. 213. 

ABAC. Backwards. North. 
Ac dude by-holde abac. 

And hudde his eyjen. MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 
ABACK-A-BEHINT. Behind; in the rear. North. 
AB ACTED. Driven away by violence. Minsheu. 
ABADE. (1) Abode; remained. See Ritson's 
Met. Rom. iii. 288 ; Ywaine and Gawin, 1180; 
Visions of Tun dale, p. 67 ; Sir Tristrem, pp. 
232, 275, 293, 297. 
This kyng Cadwall his feast at London made; 
To hym all kynges, as soverayne lorde, obeyed, 
Save kyng Oswy, at home that tyme abade. 

Uardyng's Chronicle, f. 91. 

(2) Delay. See Archseologia, xxi. 49, 62 ; Sir 
Tristrem, p. 145 ; Golagros and Gawane, 311. 
For soone aftir that he was made. 
He fel withouten lenger abade. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 3. 
Anoynt he was withouten abade. 
And kyng of tho Jewes made. Ibid. f. 46. 

Wyth the knyght was non abad, 
He buskyd hyme forth and rade. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6. 

ABAFELLED. Baffled ; indignantly treated. 

What, do you think chill be abafellud up and 

down the town for a messel add a scoundrel ? no chy 

bor you : zirrah, chil come, zay no more ; chill 

come, tell him. The London Prodigal, p. 21. 

ABAISCHITE. Ashamed. 

I was abaischite be oure Lorde of oure beste hemes ! 
Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 56. 

ABAISSED. Ashamed; abashed. 
And unboxome y-be, 
Nouht abaissed to agulte 
God and alle good men. 
So gret was myn herte. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 518. 

ABAIST. The same as Abaissed, q. v. See 
Langtoft's Chron. pp. 170, 272 ; Wicliffe's New 
Test. p. 261 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 8193, 8887 ; 
Ywaine and Gawin, 846. 

The grape that thou helde inJ;hi hand, andkeste 
under thi fete, and trade therone, es the citee of 
Tyre, the whilk thou salle wynne thurgh strenth, 
and trede it with thi fote, and therfore be nathynge 
dbaUte. Life of Alexander, MS. Lincoln, f. 5. 

Hou unstable the world is here. 
For men schulde ben abaist. 

MS. Ashmole 41, f. 16. 
ABAKWARD. Backwards. 

In gryht ous sette and shyld vrom shome. 
That turnst abakward Eves nome. 

Reliq. Antiq. ii. 228. 
ABALIENATE. To ahenate ; to transfer pro- 
©ertv from one to another. Rider. 



ABAND. To forsake ; to abandon. 

Let us therefore both cruelty abandSf 
And prudent seeke both gods and men to please. 
Mirour for Magistrates , p. 27 

ABANDON. (1) Liberally; at discretion. {A.-N.) 
Roquefort, in v. Bandon, gives the originaJ 
French of the following passage : 
Aftir this swift gift tis but reason 
He give his gode too in abandon. 

Rom. of the Rose, 2342. 

(2) Entirely ; freely. {A.-N.) 

His ribbes and scholder fel adoun. 
Men might se the liver abandoun. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 223. 

(3) Promptly. {A.-N.) 

Ther com an hundred knightes of gret might, 
Alle thai folwed him abaundoun. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 181. 

ABANDUNE. To subject. See Golagros and 
Gawane, 275. 
Fortune to her lawys can not abandune me. 
But I shall of Fortune rule the reyne. 

Skelton's Works, i. 273. 

ABARRE. To prevent. 

The lustie yoong gentlemen who were greedie to 
have the preie, but more desirous to have the honor, 
were in a great agonie and greefe that they were thus 
abarred from approching to assaile the citie. 

Holinshed, Hist, of Ireland, p. 37. 
Reducynge to remembraunce the prysed memo- 
ryes and perpetuall renowned factes of the famouse 
princes of Israel, which did not only abarre ydola- 
trye and other ungodlynesse, but utterly aboiW«ed 
all occasyons of the same. 

Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 209. 
ABARSTICK. Insatiableness. This word is 
found in Cockeram, Skinner, and most of the 
later dictionaries. 
ABARSTIR. More downcast. 

Bot ever alas ! what was I wode ? 
Myght no man be abarstir. 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 281. 

ABASCHED. Abashed ; ashamed. 
The lady was abusched withalle. 
And went downe ynto the halle. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 109. 

ABASE. To cast down ; to humble. See the 
Faerie Queene, II. ii. 32. Among ilhterate 
persons, it is used in the sense of debase. 
Harrison uses it in this latter sense apphed to 
metal, in his Description of England, prefixed 
to HoUnshed, p. 218. 

ABASSCHT. Abashed. See Maundevile's Tra- 
vels, p. 226. This word occurs in a great va- 
riety of forms. It seems to be used for injured, 
in the Morte d' Arthur, i. 366, ** He smote Syr 
Palomydes upon the helme thryes, that he 
abasshed his helme with his strokes." 

ABAST. (1) Downcast. 

Wist Isaac where so he were. 
He wold be abast now. 
How that he is in dangere. 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 3^. 

(2) A bastard. See Arthour and Merlin, as 
quoted in Elhs's Met. Rom., ed. 1811, i. 301, 
where probably the word should be printed 
a bast. 

AB ASTARDIZE. To render iUegitimate or base. 
See Hollyband's Dictionarie, 1593. 



ABA 



ABB 



Being ourselves 

Corrupted and abaatardized thus, 
Thinke all lookes ill, that doth not looke like us. 
Daniel's Queenes Arcadia, 1606, f. ult. 

ABASURE. An abasement. Miege. 
ABATAYLMENT. A battlement. 
Of harde hewen ston up to the tablez, 
Enbaned under the ahataylment in the best lawe. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 30. 
ABATE. (1) To subtract. A-batyn, subtraho. 
Prompt. Parv. This was formerly the arith- 
metical term for that operation. To abate in 
a bargain, to lower the price of any article, was 
very common. See Prompt. Parv. p. 314 ; 
Davies's York Records, p. 156 ; Rara Mat. 
p. 60. 

Then abate the lesse noumbre of these tuo in 
the umbre toward fro the more, and kepe wele the 
difference bytuene tho tuo noumbres. 

MS. Sloane, 213, f. 120. 

(2) Applied to metal to reduce it to a lower 
temper. See Florio, in v. Rincalcdre. It is often 
metaphorically used in the sense of to depress, 
variously applied. See Hall's Iliad, 1581, p. 
125; Persones Tale, p. 83; Townley Mysteries, 
p. 194 ; Nugae Antiquse, i. 4 ; Coriolanus, iii. 
3 ; Sterhne's Croesus, 1604 ; Britton's Arch. 
Antiq. iv. 13; Hall's Union, Henry VIII. f. 133. 

(3) To beat down, or overthrow. Blount. 

(4) To flutter ; to beat with the wdngs. Several 
instances of this hawking term occur in the 
Booke of Hawkyng, printed in Reliq. Antiq. i. 
293-308. It seems to be used as a hunting 
term in Morte d' Arthur, ii. 355. 

(^5) To disable a writ. A law term. 

Any one short clause or proviso, not legal, is suffi- 
cient to abate the whole writ or instrument, though 
in every other part absolute and without exception. 
Sanderson's Sermons, 1689, p. 30. 

(6) To cease. 

Ys continaunce abated eny host to make. 

Wright's Political Songs, p. 216. 

(7) To lower ; applied to banners, &c. See We- 
ber's Met. Rom. ii. 477; Octovian, 1744; 
Deposition of "Richard II. p. 30. 

The stiward was sconfited there. 
Abated was the meister banere. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 440. 

ABATEMENT. (1) An abatement, according to 
Randal Holme, " is a mark added or annexed 
to a coat [of arms] by reason of some dishon- 
ourable act, whereby the dignity of the coat is 
abased." See his Academy of Armory, p. 71. 

(2) A diversion or amusement. North. See Ma- 
lone's Shakespeare, v. 311; Jamieson, in v. 
Abaitment. 

ABATY. To abate. 

And that he for ys nevew wolde, for to a-baty stryf. 
Do hey amendement, sawve lyme and lyf . 

Rob. Glouc. p. 54. 

ABAUED. Astonished. See Abaw. 
Many men of his kynde sauh him so abaued. 

Langtoft's Chron. p. 210. 

ABAUT. About. North. 

ABAVE. To be astonished. Abaued, q. v., in 
Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 210, ought perhaps to 
be written Abaved. See an instance of this 
word in a fragment printed at the end of the 



Visions of Tundale, p. 94, which is merely an 
extract from Lydgate's Life of the Virgin Mary, 
although it is inserted as a separate production. 
Of this terrible doolful inspeccioun, 
The peeplis hertys gretly gan abave. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 144. 

ABAW. (1) To bow ; to bend. 

Alle the knyghtes of Walis londe, 
Ho made abaw to his honde. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 101. 

(2) To astonish ; to confound. 
Loke how je mow be abawed, 
That seye that the Jewe ys saved. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 63. 
ABAWT. Without. Stafordsh. 
ABAY. At bay. See Kyng Ahsaunder, 3882 ; 
Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis, ed. Dyce, 
p. 42, divided by that editor into two words. 
See Abbay ; Cotgrave mv.Rendre. Our third 
example exhibits it both as a substantive and 
a verb. 
And where as she hang, thei stood at abay. 

MS. Laud. 735, f. 19. 
Thus the forest thay fraye. 
The hertis bade at abaye. 

Sir Degrevante, MS. Line. f. 131. 
And this doon, every man stond abrodand blowe 
the deeth, and make a short abay for to rewarde the 
houndes, and every man have a smal rodde yn his 
bond to holdeof the houndes that thei shul the bet- 
ter abaye. MS. Bodl. 546. 

ABAYSCHID. Frightened. Abaschyd, or a- 
ferde; territus, perterritus. Prompt. Parv. 

And anoon the damysel roos and walkide : and 
sche was of twelve yeer, and thei weren abayschiu 
with a greet stoneyng. Wickliff^s New Test. p. 41 

ABAYSSHETTE. Abashed. 

The kyng of Scotlond was tho all abaysshette. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. 25. 

ABAYST. Disappointed. 

And that when that they were travyst. 
And of herborow were abayst. 

Brit. Bibl. iv. 83 
What thyng that je wille to me saye. 
3ow thare noght be abayste. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f . 18. 
ABAYSTE. Abashed. See Abaist. 
Syr Eglamour es noghte abayste. 
In Goddis helpe es alle his trayste. 

Sir Eglamour, MS. Lincoln, f. 124. 

ABB. The yarn of a weaver's warp. UptorCs MS, 
additions to Junius, in the Bodleian Library. 

ABBARAYED. Started. 

And aftyr that he knonnyngly abbarayed. 
And to the kyng evyn thus he sayd. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 4. 
ABBAS. An abbess. 

The abbas, and odur nonnes by, 
Tolde hyt full openlye. 

Le Bone Florence of Rome, 1926. 
ABBAY. To bay ; to bark. An abbay, or haxk- 
ing.— Minsheu. See Abay. To keep at aiiay, 
to keep at bay. See Baret's Alvearie, in v. 
ABBEN. To have. Different parts of this verb 
occiu- in Robert of Gloucester, p. 166, &c. 
Maketh ous to don sunne, 

And abben to monkunne. MS. Digby 86, f. 127 
ABBEY. (1) The great white poplar, one of the 
varieties of the populus alba. West, 



ABC 



ABE 



(2) To bring an abbey to a grange, is an old pro- 
verbial expression. See Skelton's Works, i. 
327, and the notes of the Editor upon the 
phrase. 

ABBEY-LUBBER. A terra of reproach for idle- 
ness. Somerset. It is found in the diction- 
aries of Cotgrave, Howell, Miege, and others. 
See also Lyly's Euphues; Herrick's Works, 
i. 128. 

The most of that which they did bestow was on 
the riche, and not the poore in dede, as halt, lame, 
blinde, sicke or impotent, but lither lubbers that 
might worke and would not. In so much that it came 
into a commen proverbe to call him an abbay-luhber, 
that was idle, wel fed, a long lewd lither loiterer, 
that might worke and would not. 

The Burnynge of Paules Church, 1563. 

ABBIGGET. Expiate; pay for. 
Alle they schalle abbigget dure. 
That token him in that tide. 3IS. Ashmole 33, f. 14. 
ABBLASTRE. A crossbow-man. This form 
occurs in the Herald's College MS. of Robert 
of Gloucester, Hearne's edition, pp. 372, 378. 
ABBOD. An abbot. 
The byssop hym ansuerede, and the abhod Dynok. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 234. 

ABBOT-OF-MISRULE. A person who super- 
intended the diversions of Christmas, other- 
wise called the Lord of Misrule, q. v. See 
CoUier's Annals of the Stage, i. 54 ; Hampson's 
Kalendarium, i. 117; Warton's Hist. Engl. 
Poet. ii. 525; Brand's Pop. Antiq. i. 276. 
Howell, in the list of games appended to his 
Lexicon, mentions the game of the a^io^, which 
may be an allusion to this custom. 

ABBREVYATE. Decreased. 

Thys poetycall schoole, mayster corrector of breves 
and longes, caused CoUyngborne to bee abbrevyate 
shorter by the heade, and to bee devyded into foure 
quarters. Hall's Union, Richard III. f. 18. 

ABBROCHYN. To broach a barrel. Abhrochyn 
or attamyn a vesselle of drynke, attamino. — 
Prompt. Parv. 

ABBUT. Aye but. Yorksh. 

ABBYT. A habit. 

And chanones gode he dede therinne, 
Unther the abbyt of seynte Austynne. 

Wright's St. Patrick's Purgatory, p. 66. 

A-B-C. Strutt, in his Sports and Pastimes, 
p. 398, has printed a curious alhterative alpha- 
bet, called the ABC of Aristotle. There are 
copies of it in MSS. Harl. 541, 1304, 1706, 
MS. Lambeth 853, and MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 
48. One of the mss. ascribe it to a "Mayster 
Bennet." It is very likely the original of com- 
positions like " A was an apple-pie," in books 
of nursery rhymes. 
A.-B-C-BOOK. A catechism, hornbook, or 
primer, used for teaching children the first 
rudiments of reading; sometimes, the alphabet 
in general. See King John, i. 1 ; Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 87; Maitland's Early Printed 
Books in the Lambeth Library, p. 311; Cata- 
logue of Douce's MSS. p. 42. 

In the A B Co{ bokes the least, 
Yt is written Deus charitas est. 

The Enterlude of Youth, f. 1. 



1 



ABCE. The alphabet. See Cotgrave, in v 
Abece, Carte; Prompt. Parv. p. 12 ; Brit. BibL 
ii. 397; Greene's Menaphon, 1616, dedication. 
ABDEVENHAM. An astrological word, mean- 
ing the head of the twelfth house, in a scheme 
of the heavens. 
ABDUCE. To lead away. {Lat.) 

Oon thyng I dyd note in bothe these men, that 
thai thoght a religion to kepe secret betwene God 
and them certayn thynges, rather than topon their 
wholl stomake ; from the whych opinion I colde not 
abduce them with al my endevor. State Papers, i.557. 
ABE. To atone for. 

Here he hadde the destenee 
That the povre man xulde abe. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 63. 

ABEAR. To deport ; to conduct. It is often 
used among ilhterate persons for to bear, to 
tolerate. 
So did the faerie knight himselfe abeare. 
And stouped oft his head from shame to shield. 

Faerie Queene, V. xii. 19, 

ABECE. An alphabet ; an A B C. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 12; Rob. Gloucest. p. 266; Rehq. 
Antiq. i. 63. 

Whan that the wise man acompteth 
Aftir the formel propirte 
Of algorismes abece. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 193. 
ABECEDARIAN. An abecedarian, one that 
teacheth or learneth the crosse row. Minsheu. 
ABECEDARY. Alphafberical. 

Unto these fewe you may annexe more if you will, 
as your occasion serveth, and reduce them into an 
abecedarye order. MS. Coll. Omn. An. Oxon. 130. 

ABECHED. Fed; satisfied. (^.-A^.) Compare 
the printed edition of 1532, f. 132. 
3it schulde I sumdelle ben abeched. 
And for the tyme wel refreched. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 181. 

ABEDDE. In bed. Var. dial. 

That night he sat wel sore akale. 
And his wif lai warme abedde. 

The Sevyn Sages, 1513. 

ABEDE. (1) To bid ; to oifer. 
Y schal be the furste of alle 
That our message schal abede. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 23. 

(2) Abode ; remained. See Syr Tryamoure, 374. 
Befyse, with hys felows bronde. 
Smote yn sonder, thorow Godys sonde. 
The rope above the Sarsyns hedd. 
That he with Befyse yn preson abede. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 109. 
ABEGE. To atone for. 

He wolde don his sacrilege. 

That many a man it schulde abege. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 174. 
Alle Grece it schulde abegge sore 
To see the wilde best wone. 
Where whilom dwellid a mannis sone. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 96 

ABEISAUNCE. Obedience. (^.-A^.) 

An hound is of good abeisaunce, for he wol lerne as 
a man al that a man wol teche hym. MS. Bodl. 546. 
ABELDE. To grow bold. 

Theo folk of Perce gan abelde. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 2442. 

ABELE. A fine kind of white poplar. Var. dial. 
See Prompt. Parv. p. 17, where Mr. Way says 



ABE 



ABI 



it is " the name given hy hotanhts to the 
populus alba." The name is very common in 
the provinces. 
,'vBEL-WHACKETS. A game played by sailors 
with cards ; the loser receiving so many strokes 
from a handkerchief twisted into a knot on his 
hand, as he has lost the games. Grose. 
ABELYCHE. Ably. 

That he the craft ahelyche may conne, 
Whersever he go undur the sonne. 

Constitutions of Masonry, 243. 

ABENCHE. Uponabench. SeeRob.Glouc.p.118. 

Horn sette him abenche. 

Is harpe he gan clenche. Kyng Horn, 1497. 

\BENT. A steep place. Skinner. The a is here 

perhaps merely the article. 
ABERDAVINE. The siskin. Boucher. 
ABERE. To bear. 

And with also good reson, we mowe of hem y-wis 
Abere thilke truage, that as thyng robbed is. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 196. 

ABEREMORD.' A law term, meaning murder 
fully proved, as distinguished from manslaugh- 
ter, and justifiable homicide. See Junius, in v. 
ABERING. A law phrase for the proper and 
})eaceful carriage of a loyal subject. See 
Hawkins' Engl. Drama, i. 239 ; ms. Ashmole 
1788, f. 20. 
.v BERNE. Auburn. See a mention of " long 
aberne beardes," in Cunningham's Revels Ac- 
counts, p. 56. 
'\BESSE. To humble. 

Echeone untille other, what is this ? 
Oure kynge hath do this thynge amis 
So to abesse his rialt^, 
That every man it myjte see. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 51. 

ABESTOR. A kind of stone. 

Among stones abestor, which being hot wil never be 
colde for our constancies. Lt/ly's Mother Bombie, 1594. 

ABESYANS. Obeisance. 
Now wursheppful sovereyns that syttyn here in syth, 

Lordys and ladyes and frankelins in fay. 
With alle maner of abesynns we recomaunde us ryght, 
Plesantly to jour persones that present ben in play. 
MS. Tanner 407, f- 44. 

ABET. Help; assistance. 

I am thine erne, the shame were unto me 

As wel as the, if that I should assent 

Through mine abet, that he thine honour shent. 

Troilus and Creseide, ii. 357. 

ABETTES. Abbots. See Wright's Monastic 
Letters, p. 206, for an example of this form of 
the word. 
ABEW. Above. Devon. 
ABEY. To able, q.v. See Hartshorne's Met.Tales, 
p. 225 ; Richard Coer de Lion, 714 ; Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 12034 ; Collier's Hist. Dram. Poet. 
ii. 283 ; Gy of Warwike, p. 169. 
Farewelle, for I schalle sone deye, 
And thenke how I thy love abeye. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 86. 

ABEYD. To abide. 

And to afte^d abstinens and forsake abundans. 

MS. Douce 302, f. 3. 

ABEYE. To bow ; to ol)ey. 

To resoune thei moste nedys abeye, 
In helle pette ellys schalle they hong. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6. f. 13.9. 



ABEYSAUNCE. Obeisance. Skinner thinks 
the proper form of the word is obeisance. 
Unavysyd clerk soone may be forlore, 
Unto that theef to doone abeysaunce. 

3IS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f, .36. 

ABEYTED. Ensnared. 

Hys flesshe on here was so abeyted. 
That thyke womman he covey tyd. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 2. 

ABEY3ED0UN. Obeyed. 

Ny they abey^edoun hem nothyng to the kyng best. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. 97. 

ABGREGATE. To lead out of the flock. Mimheu. 

ABHOMINABLE. An old method of spelling 
abominable, ridiculed in Love's Labour's Lost, 
V. 1. The word was not always formerly used 
in a bad sense. See Webster's Works, iii. 175. 

ABHOR. To protest against, or reject solemnly. 
An old term of canon law. See Henry VIII. 
ii. 4. 

ABIDANCE. Tarrying; dwelHng. 

Wherein he is like to remain 'till the dissolution 
of the world, so long is his abidance. 

The Puritan, p. 22. 

ABIDDEN. Endured. 

He looked wan and gash, but spake to them and 
told them that the Lord, at the prayers of his wife, 
had restored him to life, and that he had beene in 
purgatory, and what punishment he had abidden for 
his jealouse. Cubler of Canterburie, 1608. 

ABIDE. (1) To persevere ; to endure ; to suifer. 
Pegge gives the phrase, " you must grin and 
and abide it," applied in cases where resistance 
is useless, which comes, I believe, fi'om the 
North. It is also another form of abie. See 
Collier's Hist. Dram. Poet. ii. 356 ; Malone's 
Shakespeare, v. 269. 

(2) Often used by Lydgate in the sense of to 
forbear. To tolerate is its meaning in the pro- 
vinces. See Dent's Pathway to Heaven, p. 
120 ; Topsell's Four-footed Beasts, p. 75. 

ABIDYNGE. Patient. (A.-S.) 

And bold and abidynge 

Bismares to suffre. Pie^-s Ploughman, p. 413. 

ABIDYNGELY. Staying. 

That these had ben with me familier. 
And in myn housolde ben abidyngely . 

MS. Soc. Jntiq. 134, f. 28S. 

ABIE. To pay for ; to expiate. '' To abie it deai" 
is a phrase constantly met with in old writers. 
Hearne explains it to buy in his glossary to 
Langtoft. 

ABIGGEDE. Suffer. {A.-S.) 

The wiche schal it abiggede 

Thurch whom he hath don this dede. 

Legendce CatholicOi, p. 206. 

ABIGGEN. To abie, q. v. See Gv of Warwike, pp. 
49, 129, 138 ; Piers Ploughman, pp. 35, 127 ; 
Kyng Alisaunder, 901 ; Amis and Amiloun, 
390 ; Se\7n Sages, 497. 

The kynge schalle hyt soone abygge. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 107 

ABILIMENTS. Habiliments. See Hall's Union, 
Richard III. f. 29. Sometimes written abil- 
?nents, as in Archreologia, xvii. 292 ; and abbi- 
liment, as in the Woman in ihe Moone, 1597. 

I3ut to rccounte her rychc abylyment. 
And wliat estates to her did resorte, 
Therto am I full insuflfycyent. 

Skelton's Works, i. 363 



ABI 



ABL 



ABILL. To make able. 

And namely to thame that abills thame thare-to 
with the helpe of Godd in alle that thay may one 
the same wyse. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f- 234. 

ABILLERE. Stronger ; more able. 

Ahillere thane ever was syr Ector of Troye. 

MorteArthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 81. 

ABIME. An abyss. 

Columpne and base, upberyng from abime. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 539. 
No word shul thei jitt sowne. 
Til that thei be fallen downe 
Unto the ahyme withouten si3t. 

Cursor Mundi, SIS. Trin. Coll. Cantab, f. 134. 

ABINTESTATE. Intestate. Mimheu. 
ABISHERING. According to Rastall, as quoted 
by Cowell, is " to be quit of amerciaments be- 
fore whomsoever of transgression." Rider 
translates it hy fisco non reditus. 
ABIST. Payestforit. 

Thou lexst, he seyd, vile losanjour ! 
Thou it abist bi seyn Savour ! 

Gy of Warwike, p. 188. 

ABIT. (1) A habit. The word occurs in the senses 
of clothing, as well as a custom or habit. See 
Rehq. Antiq. ii. 175 ; Prompt Parv. pp. 97, 
179; Gesta Romanorum, p. 246; Wright's 
Purgatory, p. 141 ; Rob. Glouc. pp. 105, 434. 

(2) An obit ; a service for the dead. 

Also if thei vow hem to hold an abit, or other ritis, 
and God behitith no meed for the keping, but ra- 
ther reprove, as he dede sum tyme the Phariseis, 
doutles that is a3en the gospel. 

Apology for the Lollards, p. 103. 

(3) Abideth. See Reliq. Antiq. i. 115 ; Chau- 
cer, Cant. T. 16643 ; Rom. of the Rose, 4989. 

He sayeth that grace not in him abit. 
But wikkid ende and cursid aventure. 

Occleve, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f , 263. 
Ne haste noujt thin owen sorow. 
My sone, and take this in thy wit. 
He hath nou^t lefte that wel abit. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134» f . 95. 
Seynt Bernard tharfore to swych chyt. 
And seyth moche forjyt that longe abyt. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 75 

ABITACLE. A habitation; a dwelhng. {Lat.) 
In whom also be je bildid togidre into theabitacle 
oi God in the Hooli Goost. 

Wickliffe's New Test. p. 154. 
ABITE. (1) A habitation; an abode. 
And eke abidin thilke dale 
To leve his abite, and gon his waie. 

Romaunt of the Ross, 4914. 

(2) To atone for. 

We, yei, that shal thou sore abite. 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 15. 

(3) To bite. {A.-S.) 

Addres, quinres, and dragouns 
Wolden this folk, mychel and lyte, 
Envenymen ^nd abite. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 5611. 

Broune lyouns, and eke white. 

That wolden fayn his folk abyte. Ibid. 7096. 

(4) Abideth. 

And as an esy pacient the lore 

Abite of him that goth about his cure, 

And thus he drivlth forth his avinture. 

Troilus and Creseide, i. 1092. 

ABITED. Mildewed. Kent. 



ABITEN. Bitten; devoured. 

A thousent shepi eh habbe abiten. 
And mo, ■^ef hy weren i-writen. 

Reliq. Antiq. \i. 276 

ABJECT. (I) A despicable person. 
I deemed it better so to die. 
Than at my foeman's feet an abject lie. 

Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 20. 

(2) To reject ; to cast away. See Palsgrave, f. 
136; Utterson's Pop. Poet. ii. 7; Giletta of 
Narbona, ap. Collier's Shak. Lib. p. 12 ; Skel- 
ton's Works, i. 308. 

The bloude of the saied Kynge Henry, althoughe 
he had a goodly sonne, was clerely objected, and the 
crowne of the realme, by aucthoritie of parliamente, 
entayled to the Duke of Yorke. 

Hall, Edward F. f. 1 . 

ABJECTION. Baseness, vileness. See Minsheu, 
. in V. ; Harrison's Description of Britaine, p. 
18. It occurs in Skelton's Works, i. 345, ex- 
plained by the editor to mean there objection. 
ABLAND. Bhnded ; made blind. 
The walmes han the abland. 
And therwhiles thai boillandbe. 
Sire, thou ne schalt never i-se. 

The Sevyn Sages, 2462. 

ABLASTE. (1) A crossbow. The Prompt. 
Parv. p. 9, is the authority for this form of th'^ 
word. 
(2) Blasted. 

Venym and fyre togedir he caste. 
That he Jason so sore ablaste. 
That yf ne were his oynement, 
His ringe and his enchauntement, 
Whiche Medea tok him to-fore. 
He hadde with that worme be lore. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 150. 

ABLE. (1) This word has two distinct senses, 
the one to make able or give power for any 
purpose ; the other and more remarkable one, 
to warrant or answer for, as in King Lear, 
iv. 6. See also Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit, 
p. 118; Nares, in v.; Middleton's Works, 
iv. 223. 

(2) Fit ; proper. 

Noye, to me thou arte full able. 
And to my sacrifice acceptable. 

Chester Plays, i. 55. 

(3) Wealthy. Herefordsh. 
ABLECTIVE. Adorned for sale. CocJceram. 
ABLEGATION. A dismission; a dispersion. 

More. 
ABLEMENTES. Habiliments. 

He toke a ship of high and greate avantage, 
0£ ablementes for warre, and ordinaunce. ' 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 145. 

ABLENDE. To blind ; to dazzle. {A.-S.) As 
the early translations of Vegecius vnll be occa- 
sionally quoted, it may be as well to state that 
the one made at Berkeley's request, 14 08, from 
which the following extract is made, is not by 
Trevisa, as conjectured by Tanner, but by a 
person of the name of Clifton. This fact ap- 
pears from the colophon of copies in MS. Douce 
291, and MS. Digby 233 ; the last-mentioned 
one ha\dng baffled Strutt, Reg. Antiq. ed. 
Planche, p. 77. Manuscripts of this work are 
very common. For examples of ablende, see 



ABO 



8 



ABO 



Piers Ploughman, p. 377; Rob. Glouc. p. 

208. 
He schal both ablende his enemyes si^t, and astonye 

his mynde, and he schal sodeynlich wounde his 

enemy, MS. 'Hovre 291, f. 12. 

ABLENESS. Power; strength. F.ee Middleton's 

Works, iv. 519, and the example quoted by 

Richardson. 
ABLENT. Blinded; deceived. See Piers 

Ploughman, p. 388 ; Wright's Political Songs, 

p. 330. 

Stronge thef, thou schalt be shent. 
For thou hast me thus ahlent. 

MS. Addit. 10036, f. 52. 
ABLEPSY. Blindness. Cockeram. 
ABLESS. Careless and neghgent, or untidy or 

slovenly in person. Line. 
ABLESSYD. Blessed. See Tundale, p. 23, 
where, however, the a may be merely the ex- 
clamation A ! 
ABLET. The bleak. West. 
ABLETUS. AbiUty. This seems to be the 
meaning of the word in an obscure and muti- 
lated passage in MS. Ashmole 44. 
ABLE WE. Blew [upon her.] 
Aswon the sche overthrewe, 
Wawain sone hir ablewe. Arthour and Merlin, p. 315. 

ABLICHE. Ably. 

These mowe abliche be chosen to chyvalrye, for 
hereynne stondeth al the helthe and profi5t of the 
comynalt^. MS. Douce 291, f. 10. 

ABLIGURY. Spending in belly cheere. Minsheu. 
ABLINS. Perhaps ; possibly. North. 
ABLODE. Bloody; with blood. See Gy of 
Warwike, p. 315 ; Arthour and Merlin, p.333. 
Olubrius sat and byheld 
How here lymes ronne a-hlode, 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 

ABLOY. An exclamation used in hunting, bor- 
rowed from the French, and equivalent to 
On ! On ! 

The lorde for blys ahloy. Syr Gawayne, p. 44. 

ABLUDE. To differ ; to be unlike. Hall. 
ABLUSION. A chemical term, meaning the 
cleansing of medicines from any drugs or 
impurities. 

And also of ther induracion, 
Giles, ahlusions, metall fusible. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 123. 

A-BLYNDEN. To blind ; to dazzle. (A.-S.) 
Why menestow thi mood for a mote 
In thi brotheres eighe, 
Sithen a beem in thyn owene 
A-blyndeth thiselve. Piers Ploughman, p. 189. 

ABLYNG. Fitting. See Urry's Chaucer, p. 364 ; 
Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 148. 

Wherfore what tyme a man dooth what he may in 

ablynge hym to grace, hit sufficith to him, for God 

askith not of a man that he seeth impossible to hym. 

Carton's Divers Fruytful Ghostly 3Iaters. 

ABNORMETH. Disfigureth; disguiseth. 
Al frainith he in luste that he sojourneth. 
And all his chere andspeche also he abnormeth, 

Troilus and Creseide, 1. 328. 

ABOADE. Abided; suffered; endured. 
For all her maydens much did feare. 
If Oberon had chanc'd to heare 
That Mab his Queene should havebeene there. 
He would not have aboade it. 

Drayton's Poems, p. 173» 



ABOARD. (1) To approach near the shore. (Fr.) 
Cockeram has abbord, to approach near the 
shore, to grapple with a ship. See also Cot- 
grave, in V. Abordt, Arrivte. 

Ev'n to the verge of gold, a&oa>-dj«^ Spain. 

Soliman and Persida, 1599. 
(2) In many kinds of games, this phrase signifies 
that the person or side in the game that- was 
either none or but few, has now got to be as 
many as the other. Dyche. 
ABOBBED. Astonished. {A.-N.) 
The messangers were abobbed tho. 
Thai nisten what thai mighten do. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 74 

ABOCCHEMENT. Increase. Prompt. Parv. 

ABOCCHYNGE. Increase. Prompt. Parv. 

ABOCOCKED. A cap of state. 

Some say his high cap of estate, called abococked, 
garnished with twoo riche crounes, whiche was pre- 
sented to Kyng Edward at Yorke the fourth daie of 
May. Hall, Edward IV. f, 2. 

ABODE. (1) Delay. See Gy of Warwike, p. 46; 
Croke's Thirteen Psalms, p. 19. 
And so he dede withouten abode, 
Swiftliche hom he rode. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 10?. 

(2) Waited for. 

Y thanke God that y was borne, 
That y abode thys day. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 53. 

ABOFE. Abode; dwelling. 

Wolde God, for his modurs luf, 
Bryng me onys at myne abofe, 
1 were out of theire eye. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 55. 

ABOFFE. Above. 

Be Jhesu Cryst that is aboffe. 
That man aught me gode loffe. 

The Cockwolds Daunce, 217. 
Thare was a ryalle roffe 
In that chambir abaffe. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 136. 

ABOGEN. Bowed. Bailey. 
ABOGHTEN. Suffered. {A.-S.) 

And that aboghten gultles, 

Bothe Dejanire and Hercules. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 75. 

ABOHT. Bought. See Kyng Horn, 1402; 
Chron. of England, 854 ; Ritson's Ancient 
Songs, p. 7 ; Harrovdng of Hell, pp. 17, 25. 
Nou thou hast in that foul hous, 
A thyng that is ful precious, 
Ful duere hit ys aboht. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 103. 

ABOLETE. Antiquated; abohshed. 
And dare use the experyens. 
In there obsolute consciens 
To practyve suche abolete sciens. 

Skelton's Works, ii. 48. 
A-BONE. Excellently; weU. 

Spurres of golde also he had on. 

And a good swerde, that wolde byte a-bone. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 217. 

ABONE. (1) To make good or seasonable ; to 
ripen. Blount. 

(2) To dispatch quickly. Skinner. 

(3) Above. See The Grene Knight, 513; Richanl 
Coer de Lion, 4361 ; Lybeaus Disconus. 1816. 

Tho thei seiche a litel hem abone 
Seven knightes y-armed come. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 128. 



ABO 

ABOOD. Remained. 

Into the bath I scholde goon, 
And in I wente anoon by grace, 
And there abood but lytel space. 

MS. Cott. Tiber. A. vii. f. 85. 

ABOON. Above; overhead. North. 
ABOORD. From the bank. 
A8 men in sumnaer fearles passe the foord, 
Which is in winter lord of all the plaine, 
And with his tumbling streames doth beare aboard 
The ploughmans hope and shepheards labour vaine. 
Spenser's Ruines of Rome, 1591. 

ABOOT. Beaten down. Skinner. See Abote. 
ABOOVE. Above. West. 
ABORE. Born. 

At Taundeane lond I woz abore and abred. 

MS. Ashmole 36, f. 112. 

ABORMENT. An abortion. An unusual form 
of the word found in Topsell's History of 
Four-Footed Beasts, 1607, p. 21. Aborsment 
occurs in Higins' Nomenclator, p. 17; and 
abort in Florio, ed. 1611, p. 2. 
ABORTYVE. An abortion. It is also an ad- 
jective, as in Rich's Honestie of this Age, p. 6. 
The childre that are abortyves, 
Tho are that ben not born in lyves, 
Shul rise in thritty 5eer of elde. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Cantab, f. 136. 

ABOSTED. Assaulted. (A.-N.) MS. Douce 104 
reads and bosted, and MS. Douce 333 has 
he bosted. 

A Bretone, a braggere, 

A-bo8ted Piers als. Piers Ploughman, p. 126. 

ABOT. An abbot. The occurrence of this form 
in early Enghsh shows that the new ortho- 
graphy abbat, which one sometimes sees, is 
incorrect. See Legendae CathoUca, p. 19; 
Plumpton Correspondence, p. 84. 
ABOTE. (1) Beaten down. 

Of whiche sight glad, God it wot. 
She was abashid and dbote. 

Chaucer's Dreame, 1290. 

(2) About. 

With ordir in the bateyllys arayed. 
They cum the towne abote. 

Reliq. Antiq. ii. 21. 

ABOTHE. Above. 

Abothe half lay mani on. 
The heved fro the nek bon. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 18. 

A-BOUET. This word, which occurs in Mr. 
Wright's glossary to the Deposition of Richard 
II., is perhaps a misprint for a bonet, a kind of 
sail. 

ABOUGHT. Bought. Sometimes, atoned for, 
from abiggen; and it is occasionally the ortho- 
graphy of about. Jennings gives the Somerset- 
shure proverb (Dialects, p. 80), 
Vur vaught, 
And dear abought. 
See Gy of Warwike, pp. 72, 155, 355; Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 2305; Lybeaus Disconus, 1979; Kyng 
Ahsaunder, 898; Sir Cleges, 43; Thynne's 
Debate between Pride and Lowlines, p. 62 ; 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 31 ; Hawkins' 
Engl. Drama, i. 13. The proverb given above 
seems to be derived from an old one, *' Dear 
bought and farr fett, are dainties for ladies," 
which Howell gives in his collection, p. 8. 



) ABO 

ABOUGHWED. Bowed ; obeyed. See a read- 
ing in the College of Arms MS. of Robert of 
Gloucester, in Hearne's edition, p. 106. 

ABOUN. Above. 

They said that songe was this to sey. 
To God aboun be joy and blysse ! 

Tundale's Visions, p. 158. 

ABOUNDE. Abounding. 

Ry3t so this mayde, of grace most abounde, 
A peerelle hath closid withinne hire brestes whyte. 
Ltjdgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f . 3. 

ABOURe. Protector ? 

And if thay have any mete. 
Parte with them wole we, 
Or elles strokes thay shal gete. 

By God and Seynte Mary, myn aboure. 

MS. Douce 175, p. 59. 

ABOUT. Circularly; in a circle. See Macbeth, 
i. 3. It is singularly used in the phrase, " about, 
my brains," signifying, '< brains, go to work," 
as in Hamlet, ii. 2. In the eastern counties it 
is current in the sense of near, as, " this horse 
is worth nothing about fourty pounds." 
ABOUTEN. About. According to Cooper's Sus- 
sex Glossary, p. 12, it is still in use in East 
Sussex. 

And in this wise these lordes all and some 
Ben on the Sonday to the citee come 
Aboute7i prime, and in the toun alight. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 2191. 

ABOUT-SLEDGE. A smith's great forging 
hammer. See a note in Beaumont and Fletcher, 
ed. Dyce, iv. 289. 
ABOUTWARD. Near. See the Plumpton Cor- 
respondence, p. 201. 

But than syr Marrok,hys steward. 

Was faste abowtewarde 

To do hys lady gyle. MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 71. 

ABOUYE. To bow. 

Alle londys ssole abouye to by Weste and by Este. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 215 
AB0U3TE. Part, past of abie, q. v. 
Or it schalle sore ben abou'^te, 
Or thou schalte worche as y the say. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 55. 
And that hath Dido sore aboupe, 
Whos deth schall ever be bethou^te. 

Ibid. f. 104. 
ABOVE. In old stage directions this word ge- 
nerally refers to the upper stage, the raised 
platform towards the back of the stage. See 
Webster's Works, i. 314. Above, in common 
speech, is equivalent to more than. As above 
a bit, exceedingly, a very common phrase ; and 
the slang expression above your hooks, i. e. too 
knowing or clever. 
ABOVEN. Above. 

With sparcles and smeke covered aboven. 
As hit were a brennyng oven. 

Cursor Mundi, Trin. Coll. MS. f. 19, 
Hir queynt aboven hir kne 
Naked the knightes knewe. 

Sir Tristrem, p. 246. 

ABOWE. (1) To bow. See Kyng Ahsaunder, 
188 ; Rob. Glouc. pp. 78, 309. 
To Roland than sche gan abowe 
Almost doun til his fete. MS. Ashmole 33, 
Tharefore ech man heom scholde abcwie. 
That guode jeme tharof nome. 

MS. Lat 



ABU 



10 



ABR 



(2) Above. 

Into thatt reygeon where he ys kyng, 
Wyche abowe all othur far dothe abownde. 

Sharp's Cov. Myst. p. 83. 
It was busked abowe 
With besantes fuUe bryghte. 

MS. Lincoln. A. i. 17, f. 136. 

(3) To maintain ; to avow. This may be a mis- 
take for avowe. See Arthour and Merlin, p. 
193, and the example quoted under Anclowe. 

ABOWEN. Above. See Reliq. Antiq. i. 54, 
189 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 179. 
Kepe hyt therfore wyth temperat hete adowne 
Full forty dayes, tyll hyt wex black abowen. 

Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit, p. 171. 

ABOWES. Abbots. [Avowes ?] 

God and Seinte Marie, and Sein Denis also, 
And alle the abowes of this churche, in was ore ich 
am i-do. Rob. Glouc. p. 475. 

ABOWGHT. About. 

Abowght the body he hyme hente, 
As far as he myght last. Torrent of Portugal, p. 9. 
ABOWTH. Bought. 

And therfore God, that alle hath wrozth, 
And alle mankynde dere abowth, 
Sende us happe and grace, 

MS. Douce 84, f. 53. 

ABOWTYNE. About. Cf. Reliq. Antiq. i. 7 ; 
Pror^nt. Parv. p. 168 ; Songs and Carols, xi. 
K 'Pq *hem in a panne of brasse, 

Ai -^nde "*' ^^'^^ ^^ ^^^' 

And Qyj. yere abowtyne. MS. AshmoleSi, (.5. 

AB03EDj_ ^owed 

Wei coit ^ ^'lanne abo-^ede she. 

And to he._- n^re gan him praye. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 27- 

AB03T. Bought. 

These bargeyn wyl be dere abo^t. 

MS. Douce 302, f. 1. 

ABRACADABRA. This word, written in a pe- 
culiar manner, was formerly worn about the 
neck as a cure for the ague. See Pettigrew 
on Medical Superstitions, p. 53 ; Archasolo- 
gia, XXX. 427. 

Mr. Banester sayth that he healed 200 in one yer 
of an ague, by hanging Abracadabra about thcr 
necks, and wold stanch blood, or heal the toothake, 
althogh the partyes wer 10 myle of. 

MS. Addit. 5008. 
ABRAD. Withered ? 

The gode burgeis on a dai. 

His ympe thrivende he sai. 

Fair i-woxe and fair i-sprad, 

But the olde tre was abi-ad. The Sevyn Sages, CIO. 

A BRAD AS. A Macedonian pirate, mentioned 
by Greene and Shakespeare. The commenta- 
tors have failed in tracing any further notice 
of him. 

ABRADE. To rub, or scrape off. See Richard- 
son in V. The word is still in use as a sea term. 

ABRAHAM-COLOURED. See Abram-coloured. 
Cf. Hawkins' Eng. Dram. ii. 27G ; Blurt Mas- 
ter Constable, 1602. 

ABRAHAM-CUPID. The expression occurs in 
Romeo and Juliet, ii. 1, and is conjectured by 
Upton to be a mistake for Adam Cupid, and 
to allude to Adam Bell, the celebrated archer. 
See his observations on Shakespeare, ed. 1748, 
p. 243. The conjecture is very plausible, as 



proper names are frequently abbreviated in 
early MSS., and it suits the sense and metre. 

ABRAHAM-MEN. According to the Fraternitye 
of Vacabondes, 1575, " an Abraham-man is he 
that walketh bare-armed, and bare-legged, and 
fayneth hymselfe mad, and caryeth a packe of 
wool, or a stycke with baken on it, or such 
lyke toy, and nameth himself poore Tom." 
They are alluded to by Shakespeare under the 
name of Bedlam Beggars, and their still more 
usual appellation was Toms of Bedlam, q. v. 
According to Grose, to " sham Abram" is to 
pretend sickness, which Nares thinks may have 
some connexion with the other term. See 
also Aubrey's Nat. Hist. Wilts, MS. p. 259 
Harrison's Description of England, p. 184. 

ABRAHAM'S-BALM. A kind of wiUow. Ac- 
cording to BuUokar, Enghsh Expositor, 1641. 
it was used as a charm to preserve chastity. 

ABRAID. To rise on the stomach with a degre 
of nausea ; applied to articles of diet, whic 
prove disagreeable to the taste or difficult ( 
digestion. North. This may be the meaning ii 
Troilus and Creseide, i. 725. 

Instead of nourishing, it stimulates, abrades, and 
carries away a part of the solids. 

Collins' Miscellanies, 1762, p. 70. 

ABRAIDE. (1) To awake ; to start. Palsgrave 
has " I abrayde, I inforce me to do a thynge." 
f. 136. 

And if that he out of his slepe ahraide 
He mighte don us bathe a vilanie. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 4188. 

(2) Explained abroad by Percy. See Rehques, 
p. 44. It more likely ought to be " a braide," 
a start. See Ritson's Anc. Pop. Poet. p. 19. 

(3) As a slight variation of our first meaning, it 
may be mentioned that the word is particularly 
applied to the action of drawing a sword from 
a scabbard. 

ABRAM. A cant term, according to Coles ap- 
plied to a naked or very poor man. Cf. 
Middleton's Works, iii. 32. 

ABRAM-COLOURED. Nares considers this ex- 
pression may be a corruption of auburn, and is 
in some measure confirmed by a passage in 
Coriolanus, ii. 3 : " Our heads are some brown, 
some black, some abram, some bald, but that 
our wits are so diversly coloured." The 
folio of 1685 alters abram to auburn. See 
Middleton's Works, i. 259 ; Toone, in v. 

ABRASE. Smooth. 

The fourth, in white, is Apheleia, a nymph as 
pure and simple as the soul, or as an abrase tabic, 
and is therefore called Simplicity. 

Ben Jonson, ii. 366. 

ABRAYDE. (1) Started; roused himself. 
Ipomydon with that stroke abrayde. 
And to the kynge thus he sayde. 

Jpomydon, 1149. 

(2) To upbraid. See the True Tragedie of 
Richard the Third, p. 22, where the editor has 
divided the word. 

Bochas present felly gan abrayde 

To Mesealine, and even thus he sayde. 

Bochas, b. rii. c. 4. 



ABR 



11 



ABS 



ABRAYDEN. To excite. 

For theyr coraodit^s to ahrayden up pride. 

Li/dgate's Minor Poems, p. 121. 

ABREAD. Unconfined ; exposed ; spread out. 

North. 
ABRECOCK. An apricot. Gerard. 
ABRED. Brought up. West. 
ABREDE. (1) This word is explained to up- 
braid, by Skinner, who refers to the following 
passaga. The meaning is obviously, " ran out 
of his senses." 

How Troilus nere out of his v/itte abrede. 
And wept full sore, with visage pale of hewe. 

The Testament of Creseide, 45. 

, (2) In breadth. North. See Chronicle of 
; England, 808, in Ritson's Met. Rom. ii. 303. 
(3) Abroad. Yorksh. 

Thine armis shalt thou sprede abrede. 
As man in war re were forwerede. 

Romaunt of the Be e, 2563. 

ABREGE. To shorten ; to abridge. 

And for he wold his longe tale abrege. 
He wolde non auctoritee allege. 
C Chaucer, Cant. T. 9531. 

1 Largesse it is, whos privilege 

Ther may non avarice abregge. 

Gower, MS. Sac. Antiq. 134, f. 205. 

ABREKE. To break in. 

And 3if we may owhar abreke. 
Fie we hem with gret reke. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 292. 

ABRENOUNCE. To renounce utterly. Taylor. 
ABREPT. To take away by violence. 

his nephew's life he questions. 

And questioning, abrepts. 

Billingsly's Brachy-Martyrohigia, 1657, p. 40. 

ABREYDE. (1) To upbraid. See Jbrayde. Ex- 
probrare, Anghce to abreyde. — MS. Egerton 
829, f. 72. 

(2) Started. 

Tille at the laste he abreyde sodeynely. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 4. 

ABRIC. Sulphur. Coles. 

ABRICOT. An apricot. See Harrison's De- 
script, of Brit. p. 210 ; Baret's Alvearie, in v. 
Rider calls an apricot tree an abricot -apple. 

VBRIDGEMENT. A dramatic performance; 
probably from the prevalence of the historical 
drama, in which the events of years were so 
abridged as to be brought within the compass 
of a play. See A Mids. Night's Dream, v. 1. 
It seems, however, to be used for the actors 
themselves in Hamlet, ii. 2. 

VBRIGGE. To shield off. 

Alle myscheifes from him to abrigge. 

Lydgate' s Minor Poems, p. 5. 

\BRIPTED. Ravished. Cockeram. 
vBROACH. To "set abroach," to tap. It 
is sometimes used metaphorically in the state 
of being diffused or advanced. Cf. Prompt. 
Parv. p. 52; Chaucer, Cant. T. 5759; Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 164 ; Colyne BlowboU, 3. 
Ry3t as who sette a tunne abroche. 
He percede the harde roche. 
And spronge oute watir alle at wille. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 137. 

A BROAD. Broad. Minsheu. Spread abroad, 
widely distended. See First Sketches of 
Henry VI. p. 97. 



ABRODE. (1) Abroad. North. 
Admyt thou shouldst abyde abrade a year or twayne. 
Should so short absence cause so long and eke so gree- 
vous payne ? Rameus and Juliet, ap. Collier, p. 46. 

(2) Spread abroad. North. 

ABROKE. (1) One that has a rupture is said to 
be abroke. Kennett's MS. Glossary. 

(3) Torn. Hants. 
A-BROKEN. Broken out ; escaped. 

And saide thei wer no men 

But develis a-broken oute of helle. 

Sir Ferumbras, MS. 

ABRON. Auburn. 

A lusty courtier, whose curled head 
With abron locks was fairly furnished. 

Hall's Satires, iii. 5. 

ABROOD. (1) Abroad. (J.-S.) 
To here bisshopes aboute 
A-brood in visitynge. Piers Ploughman, p. 38. 

(2) Sitting, applied to a hen. See Baret's 
Alvearie, in v. The term is still in use in the 
provinces. 
Like black cur scar'd, with tail betwixt his legs. 
Seeing he sate a6»-ood on addle eggs. 

Clobery's Divine Glimpses, p. 105. 

ABROOK. To bear; to endure. The same 
meaning as brook, wdth the a redundant. See 
2 Henry VI. ii. 4. 
ABRUPT. Separated. See Middletr-Js Works, 
ii. 151. Abruption, a breaking ^nt, "oundin 
Minsheu, and Troilus and Cr( L or ui. 2. 
ABRYGGE. To abridge. j-e t' 

My dayes, make y never s /4j< ynte, 
SchuUen abrygge and s at swage. 

MS. Can Mb. Ff. ii. 38, f. 21. 

ABSINTHIUM. Wormwood. See an early me- 
dical receipt in MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 285. 
ABSOLENT. Absolute. 

And afterward, syr, verament. 
They called hym knyght absolent. 

The Squyr of Lowe Degri, C30. 

ABSOLETE. Obsolete. Minsheu. 

ABSOLUTE. (1) Highly accomplished; perfect. 
See Pericles, iv. 4, and Malone's note, p. 134. 

(2) Absolved; freed. Chaucer. 

ABSOLVE. To finish. See a somewhat pecu- 
liar use of this word in Topsell's Four-Footed 
Beasts, 1607, p. 89. 

ABSONANT. Untunable. Cockeram. Hence 
discordant, disagreeing. Glanville has abso- 
nous in the same sense. See Richardson, 
in V. 

ABSTABLE. Able to resist. 

He thanked God. of his myracle, 

To whose myght may be none abstable. 

Gower, ed. 1532, f. 36 

ABSTENEDEN. Abstained. 

Siche myraclis pleying not onely pervertith oure 
bileve but oure verrey hope in God, by the whiche 
seyntis hopiden that the more thei absteneden hem 
fro siche pleyes, the more mede thei shuld then have 
of God. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 47 

ABSTENT. Absent. Warw. 

ABSTER. To deter. 

As the other fixed upon the door maketh me to 
rejoice and to put my whole affiance in Christ, so 
this in like manner should abster and fear me and 
mine from doing evil. Becon's Works, p. 63, 

ABSTINENT. Abstemious. Minsheu. Absti- 



ABU 



12 



ABY 



nency, which is not given by Richardson, oc- 
curs in Harrington's Nugse Ant. ii. 247. See 
the quotation under Almesfulle. 

ABSTRACT. A separation. See Anthony and 
Cleopatra, iii. 6 ; Donee's Illustrations, ii. 93. 
The verb is used in the sense of taking away 
surreptitiously, and sometimes by the vulgar 
for extract. I was once asked by the porter 
of an ancient college whether I was come 
" agen to-day to abstract some of the old 
writings." 

ABSURD. A scholastic term, employed when 
false conclusions are illogically deduced from 
the premises of the opponent. See the Broken 
Heart, i. 3. 

ABTHANE. A steward. Minsheu. There is a 
dispute about the exact meaning of the word, 
which is generally said to be the old title of 
the High Steward of Scotland. 

ABU. Above. Devon. 

ABUCHYMENT. An ambush. 

Y-leiede jond on abuchyment 

Sarasyns wonder fale, 
In the wode that ponder stent, 

Ten thousant al by tale. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 10. 
ABUDE. To bid ; to offer. 

And in the fairest manere that he can, 

The message he gan abude. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 24. 

ABUE. To bow; to obey. 
Ne understode • hou luther yt ys to do eny outrage. 
Other werny^ut ^the noble stude, that al the world 
abueth to. *- Rob. Glouc. p. 193. 

ABUF. AbovL. 

Methoght I showed man luf when I made hym to be 
Alle angels abuf, like to the Trynyte. 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 22. 
Dere lady, graunt me thi lufe. 
For the lufe of Hym that sittis abufe, 
That stongene was with a spere. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 119. 
Me thane to lufFe 
Alle thynge abuffe, 

Thow aughe be fayne, MS. Laud. 330. 

ABUGGEN. To abie, q. v. See Wright's Lyric 
Poetry, p. 112 ; Walter Mapes, p. 341 ; Reliq. 
Antiq. ii. 276 ; Kyng Horn, 1081. 
Ac let us and oure ofspryng 
Abugge oure mysdede. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57, f. 11. 
Help me, God ! and this day 

He sschal abugge, ^ei ich may. MS. Douce 2l]6, p. 36. 
ABUIN. Above. North. 
ABUNDAND. [Those who are] abounding in 
riches. 

Pil not the pore peple with your preehyng, 
Bot begge at abundand and at ryche aray. 

Audelay'a Poems, p. 30. 

ABUNDATION. Abundance. Herefordsh. 
ABURNE. Auburn. See Florio, in v. Albiirno. 
Auburn colour is translated by citrinus in the 
Prompt. Parv, which would make it an orange 
tinge, rather than the brownish colour now so 
called. It is also spelt abourne, as in the 
Triall of Wits, 1604, p. 255. Another exam- 
ple of aburne occurs in Well met. Gossip, 4to. 
Lond. 1619. 

Her black, browne, aburne, or her yellow hayre. 
Naturally lovely, she doth scorne to weare. 

Drayton's Poems, p. 233. 



ABUS. The river Humber. 

Foreby the river that whylome was hight 
The ancient abus, where with courage stout 
He them defeated in victorious fight. 

Faerie Queene, II. x. 16. 
ABUSCHID. Ambushed; in ambush. 

That was abuschid ther biside in a brent greve. 

William and the Werwolf, p. 131, 

ABUSE. To deceive ; to impose upon. See 
Cymbeline, i. 5 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, i. 
169. The noun occurs in Measure for Mea- 
sure, V. 1. 
ABUSED. Vitiated; depraved. 
Such as have cure of soule. 
That be so farre abused. 
They cannot be excused 
By reason nor by law. Skelton's Works, i. 155. 

ABUSEFUL. Abusive. Herefordsh. 
ABUSHMENTLY. In ambush. Huloet. 
ABUSION. An abuse. (A.-N.) See the Faerie 
Queene, 11. xi. 11 ; Wright's Monastic Letters, 
p. 141 ; Hawkins' Engl. Dram. i. 154 ; Troilus 
and Creseide, iv. 990; Palsgrave, f. 17 ; Hall, 
Henry VI. f. 62. 

Moreovyr wys right a gret abusion, 
A woman of a land to be a regent. 

MS. Soc. Antiq, 101, f. 98. 
Marke vvelle thys conclusyon, 
Throughe suche abusyon. MS. Rawl. C. 258. 

ABUSIOUS. Abusive. 

Even on the very forehead of thee, thou abusious 
Villaine! therefore prepare thyselfe. 

Taming of a Shrew, 1607. 

ABUSSHEMENT. An ambush. 
Full covertly to lay abusshement. 
Under an hyll att a strayght passage. 

MS. Rawl. C. 48. 

ABUST. To aiTange? 

Wei, said he, y knowe ys wille. 

Fairer thou ahust thy tale; 
Let another ys message telle. 

And stond thou ther by thy fale. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 24. 

ABUT. But. North. 

ABUTTAL. A boundary. See a quotation from 

Coke, by Boucher, in v. 
ABUY. (1) To bow. 

Tho he was kyng y-mad, ys hest he made anon, 
That clanliche to Vortiger ys men abuyde echon. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 106. 
(2) To abie, q. v. See Cotgrave, in v. Enchere. 
ABUY3E. To abie, q. v. 

Thi ryot thow schalt now abuyde. 

As othere that leeveth uppon ure lore. 

Walter Mapes, p. 345. 

ABVERT. To turn away. Cockeram. 

AB VOL ATE. To fly away. Cockeram. 

ABWENE. Above. 

Thane come of the oryente ewyne hyme agaynez 
A blake bustous bere abwene in theclowdes, 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 61 

ABYCHE. To suffer for. 

Ther start in Sander Sydebreche, 
And swere, be his fader sowle, he schulde abyche. 
Hunttyng of the Hare, 17ft 

ABYDDE. Abided. 

Some hope that whan she knowith the case, 
Y trust to God, that withyne short spase. 
She will me take agayne to grace ; 

Than have y well abydde. Reliq. ^ntiq. i. 24 



ACC 



13 



ACC 



ABYDE. To forbear. Cf. Urry, p. 113. 

Considering the best on every side 
That fro his lust wer him better abyde. 
Than do so hie a churlishe wretehidnesse. 

Chaucer, MS. Cantab. 
ABYME. An abyss. See Abime. 
ABYN. Been. 

Lord, and thou haddyst byn here, werely 
My brother had natt abyn ded, I know well thysse. 
Digby Mysteries, p. 104. 
ABYSM. An abyss. Shak. 
ABYT. Abideth; continueth. See Kyng 
Alisaunder, 3638; Urry's Chaucer, p. 542. 
Cf. Abit. 
ABYYD. (1) Stay. 

Abyyd, syr emperour, yf thou wylt ! Octovian, 248. 
(2) Suffer. 

Hast thou broke my comaundement, 

Abyyd ful dere thou schalle. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 91 . 

AC. But. {A.-S.) 
ACADEME. An academy. Shak. 
Come, brave spirits of the realme. 
Unshaded of the academe. 

Peacham's Thalia's Banquet, 1620. 
AC AID. Vinegar. Howell. 
ACALE. Cold. (A.-S.) 

And eek he was so sore acale. 
That he wiste of himselfe no bote. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 233. 
For blood may suffre blood, 
Bothe hungry and a-cale. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 393. 

ACARNE. The sea-roach. Kersey. 
A-CAS. By chance. Sir Tristrem. 
A-CAST. Cast away ; lost. 

And weneth for te kevere, and ever buth a-ca»t. 

Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 149. 
My purpos is y-failed ; 
Now is my comfort a-cast. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 457- 
ACATER. A caterer; a purveyor. See Sad 
Shepherd, ii. 2 ; Rutland Papers, p. 78. 
He is my wardrobe man, my acater, cook, 
Butler, and steward. Devil is an Ass, i. 2. 

AC ATE S. Victuals ; provisions purchased. See 
Hoceleve's Poems, p. 40 ; Cotgrave, in v. 
Pitance. 
I, and all choice that plenty can send in ; 
Bread, wine, acates, fowl, feather, fish, or fin. 

Sad Shepherd, i. 3. 

ACATRY. The room or place allotted to the 
keeping of all such provisions as the purveyors 
purchased for the king. 

ACATS. Agates. 

Of acats and of amatlstes and adamants fyne. 

MS. Ashmole 44, f. 91. 

ACAUSE. Because. Suffolk. The following Suf- 
folk lines are from Major Moor's ms. 
Yow mussent sing a' Sunday, 

Acause it is a sin ; 
But yeou mah sing a' Monday, 
Till Sunday come aginn. 
ACAWMIN. Coming. Somerset. 
ACAZDIR. Tin. Howell. 

ACAZE. Against. 

The barons it bispeke, that it nas nojt wel i-do 
Acaze the pourveance, vor hii nolde Frenssman non. 

Rob. Glouc. p. .535, 

ACC ABLE. To press down. Junius. 



ACCAHINTS. Accounts. Staffordsh. 

ACCENSED. Kindled. 

Although thai perceved their company to be ac- 
censed and inflamed with fury and malice ynough, 
yet to augment and encrease their madnes, thei cast 
oyle and pitche into a fyre. Hall, Henry VII. f. 41. 

ACCEPCION. Reception; acceptation. 

Ther is nothing rijtliche bygunne undir God, bot 
the emperour jive therto favorable accepcion and un- 
dirfonging. Vegecius, MS. Douce 291 , f . 4. 

There is a second acception of the word faith, put 
either for the whole system of that truth which God 
hath been pleased to reveal to his Church in the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, or some 
part thereof. Sanderson's Sermons, lfi89, p. 61. 

ACCEPTILATION. A verball acquittance, when 
the debtour demandeth of the creditour, Doe 
you acknowledge to have had and received this 
or that .'' And the creditour answereth, Yea, 
I doe acknowledge it. Minsheu. 

ACCERSE. To call together ; to summon. 
(Lat.) See HaU's Union, 1548, Edward IV. 
f. 26 ; Henry VII. f. 40. 

ACCESS. Augmentation. 

Brought thereunto more accesse of estimation and 
reverence than all that ever was done before or 
since. Lambarde's Perambulation, 1596, p. 301. 

ACCESSE. (1) A fit of any iUness. See Florio, 
in V. Accesso. According to Blount, " the ac- 
cess of an ague is the approach or coming of 
the fit ;" and " in Lancashire they call the 
ague itself the access." See Aa^es. 
(2) A fever. 

A water lilly, whiche dothe remedy 
In bote accesses, as bokes specify. 

Bochae, b. i. c. 15. 
For as the grayne of the garnet sleeth 
The stronge acces, and doth the hete avale. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 13. 

ACCESSIVELIE. Accessoriamente, accessivelie, 

by his own seeking. Florio. 
ACCIDAVY. An affidavit. North. 
ACCIDE. Sloth; indolence; more especially 
applied to reUgious duties. (Lat.) 
Vayne dole, perplexite, ami pryde, 
Irkyng of gode and accide. 

MS. Coll. Sion, xviii. 6. 
Swych synne men kalle accyde, 
Yn Goddys servyse sloghe betyde. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 29. 
Accide ys slowthe in Codes servise. 
In which y fynde many a vice. 

MS. Bodl. 48, f. 135. 

ACCIDENT. A sjonptom of illness. Rider. The 
situation of a too confiding girl, when her 
swain has proved faithless, is sometimes thus 
politely designated : 
" When lovely woman stoops to folly, 
And finds too late that men betray." 
ACCIDIE. Indolence; sloth. 
He hadde an accidie. 
That he sleep Saterday and Son day. 

Piers Ploughman,' p. 99. 

ACCIPITRARY. A falconer. Nash. 
ACCITE. To call ; to summon. Shak. 
ACCLOY. To cram ; to clog ; to overload ; to 

cloy. Hardyng uses this word very frequently. 

See his Chronicle, ff. 47, 59, 82, 94, 137, 140, 

198. 



ACC 



14 



ACJC 



And who so it doth, full foule himself aecloyeth. 
For office uncommitted ofte annoyeth. 

Chaucer, MS. Cantab. 

ACCLOYD. A wound given to a horse in shoe- 
ing, by driving a nail into the quick. See 
TopselFs Four-Footed Beasts, 1607, p. 414. 
To accloy originally meant to drive a nail in 
shoeing a horse. See Prompt. Parv. p. 6 ; 
Cotgrave, in v. Enclouer. 

ACCOAST. To sail coastwise ; to approach the 
coast. Spenser. 

ACCOIL. To bustle. 

About the caudron many cookes accoyld, 
With hookes and ladles, as need did requyre. 

Faerie Queene, II. ix. 30. 

ACCOL. To embrace round the neck. See 
Surrey's Virgil, quoted by Richardson, in v. 

ACCOLADE. The ceremony of embracing, for- 
merly customary at the creation of knights. 
Skinner. 

ACCOLDED. Cold. 

When this knyght that was accolded, — and hit was 
grete froste, — and he saw the fyre, he descendide of 
his horse, and yede to the fyre, and warmide him. 
Gesta Romanorum, p. 83. 

ACCOMBEROUS. Cumbersome; troublesome. 
A litil tyme his yeft is agreable. 
But ful accomberous is the usinge. 

Complaint of Venus, 42. 

ACCOMBRE. To embarrass ; to bring into 
trouble ; to overcome ; to destroy. See 
Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 56, 94 ; Piers Plough- 
man, gloss. See Acombre. 

Nay, knave, yf ye try me by nomber, 
I wyll as knavishly you accomber. 

Tlaye called the Fowe PP. 

ACCOMMODATE. A very fashionable word in 
Shakespeare's time, ridiculed both by him 
and Ben Jonson, the latter calling it one of 
*' the perfumed terms of the time." The in- 
definite use of it is well ridiculed by Bardolph's 
vain attempt to define it in 2 Henry IV. iii. 2. 
Justice Shallow has informed us just previously 
that it was derived from the ItaUan accommodo. 

ACCOMPLICE. A partner, associate, or com- 
panion. This word was not formerly appHed 
exclusively in a bad sense. See 1 Hen. VI. v. 2. 

ACCOMPLISH. To equip, to dress out, to adorn 
either in body or mind. See Hen, V. iv. ch. 

ACCOMPTE. To tell ; to recount. 

Syr, to accompte you the contynewe of my consayte, 
Is from adversyte Magnyfycence to unbynde. 

Skel ton's Works, i. 305. 

ACCONFERMENT. A confirmation. Rob. Glouc. 

ACCORAGE. To encourage. 

But that same froward twaine would accorage, 
And of her plenty adde unto their need. 

Faerie Queene, II. ii. 38. 

ACCORATH-EARTH. A field; green arable 

eajrth. North. 
ACCORD. Action in speaking, corresponding 

with the words. See Titus Andronicus, v. 2. 
ACCORD ABLE. Easy to be agreed. Minsheu. 
ACCORDAND. Agreeing. 

For the resoun of his saulc was ay accordand with 

tbe tiodhed for to dye. MS. ColL Eton. 10, f. 30. 



ACCORDANT. Agreeing. 

Whiche saying is not accordaunte with other 
writers. Fabian, 15.59, i. 18. 

ACCORDEDEN. Agreed. 

Whan my fellows and I weren in that vale, wee 
weren in gret thought whether that wee dursten 
putten oure bodyes in aventure, to gon in or non, in 
the proteccioun of God. And somme of oure fellowes 
accordeden to enter, and somme noght. 

Maundevile's Travels, p. 282. 

ACCORDING. Granting. 

To shew it to this knight, according his desire. 

Faerie Quesne, I. x. 50. 

ACCORT. Heedy ; wary ; prudent. Minsheu. 

ACCOST. Explained by Cockeram " to appro- 
priate." It occurs in a curious manner in 
Twelfth Night, i. 3. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 
1033, explains it "to trie, to attempt;" 
Minsheu, to " draw neare unto one ;" and the 
author of the New English Dictionary, 1691, 
says, "wi'estlers do accost one another, by 
joining side to side." 

ACCOUNSAYL. To counsel with. 

And called him without fail. 
And said he wold him accounsayl, 

Richard Coer de Lion, 2140. 
And the thirde sorte haith their ffees to be accoun- 
seill with the howse, and yet the greatest nomber of 
theym hath no lernynge. 

Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 289. 

ACCOUNT. To count; to reckon. Spenser. 

To account of, to esteem, as in Tarlton's News 

out of' Purgatory, p. 59. 

ACCOUNTANT. Accountable ; responsible for. 

Shak. 
ACCOUPLE. To join ; to couple. See Hall and 

Bacon, quoted by Richardson, in v. 
ACCOURTING. Courting. Spenser. 
ACCOWARD. To make one a coward. 

I thought that al the wordes in the world shulde 
nat have accowarded the. Palsgrave, f. 137. 

ACCOY. To alarm ; to daunt ; to render diffi- 
dent, shy, or coy ; and sometimes to soothe, to 
pacify, or make quiet. Spenser frequently 
uses the word. See Acoie. Cf. Peele's Works, 
iii. 152. 

Forsaken wight, she verilie believde 
Some other lasse Ulysses had acoyde. 

Turbevile's Ovid, 1567, arg. 

ACCOYNTED. Acquainted. (Fr.) 

The people, having so graciouse a prince and 
souveraynelorde as the kingeshighnesis,with whom, 
by the continuance of hij regne over them thies 28 
yeres, they ought to be so well accoynted. 

State-Papers, i. 475. 

ACCRASE. To crush ; to destroy. 

Fynding my youth myspent, my substance ym- 
payred, my crcdyth accraaed, my talent hydden, my 
foliyes laughed att, my rewyne unpyttcd, and my 
trewth unemployed. Queen's Progresses, i. 21. 

ACCREASE. To increase; to augment. See 

Florio, in v. Accrescere. 
ACCREW. To increase ; to accrue. Spenser uses 
this word, but without to or Jrom, which 
accrue now requires. 
ACCRIPE. A herb ? 

Some be browne, and some be whit. 
And some be tender as accripe. 

Reliq. Anttq. i. Kd. 



Acii 



15 



ACH 



ACCROCHE. To increase; to gather; to en- 
croach. See Palsgrave, f. 137. 

And fyre, whan it to tow approcheth, 
Tho him anon the strengthe accrocheth. 

Gower, 3IS. Soc. Jntiq. 134, f. 162. 
He never accroched treasour nere nor ferre 
Towarde hymselfe, Bochas, b. v. c. 16. 

ACCRUMENT. Increase ; addition. Tmjlor. 
ACCTECLOTHE. In an old inventory, dated 
1586, in Reliq. Antiq. i. 254, mention is made 
of " accteclothe of j. yerd." 
ACCUB. The footmark of any animal. Cockeram. 
ACCUITY. Top ; summit. 

The cause whie, as telleth autors old, 
Is that theire accuity is duld with cold. 

Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 77- 

ACCURSE. To curse. Skinner. 
ACCUSE. To discover. 

The entrees of the yerde accuseth 
To him that in the watir museth. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1591. 
ACCUSTOM. A custom. Skinner. 
ACCUSTOMED-TO. Acquainted with. Dorset. 
ACELED. Sealed. 

The legat, tho it was aceled, wende vorth over se. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 517. 
ACENTE. Assent. See Rob. Glouc. p. 96; 
Prompt. Parv. p. 15. The latter work gives 
the verb acentyn, p. 5. 
ACENTENDEN. Assented. 

The douzze peres acentenden ther-to. 
To bide til winter were i-do. 

MS. Douce 376, p. 27. 

ACERBATE. To make sour; to sharpen. 
Tis this, said he, that acerbates my woe. 

Billingsly's Brachy-Martyrologia, 1657, p. 53 

x\CEROTE. Brown bread. Minsheu. 
ACERTAINED. Confirmed in opinion. 

For now I am acertained throughly 
Of every thing I desired to knov/. 

Todd's Gower and Chaucer, p. 225. 

ACESCENT. Sour. Arbuthnot. 
ACESE. To cease; to satisfy. See Rehq. Antiq. 
ii. 126. 

Al wo and werres he schal acese. 
And set al reams in rest and pese, 

MS. Douce 302, f. 29. 
And litel thinge 30wre nede may acesen, 
So that nature may have hire sustenaunce. 

Boetius, MS. Soc. Jntiq. 134, f. 295. 
ACETHE. This form of aseth, q. v., occurs in 
Prompt. Parv. pp. 5, 182. The quotation given 
by Mr. Way from Piers Ploughman is scarcely 
apphcable. See Asset h. 
ACH. SmaUage; water-parsley. The word oc- 
curs in an old Ust of plants in MS. Harl, 978, 
f. 24, explained by the Latin apium. See 
also Prompt. Parv. pp. 6, 246 ; Rehq. Antiq. 
i. 51, 53 ; Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 26 ; MS. 
Med. Lincoln, f. 280. 
ACHAHI. Alum-water. Achemicalterm. jHbwe?/. 
ACHAMECK. The dross of silver. Howell. 
A-CHARMED. Dehghted. 

Ther ben somme that eten chyldren and men, and 
eteth noon other flesh fro that tyme that thei be 
a-charmed with mannys flesh, for rather thei wolde 
be deed ; and thei be cleped werewolfes, for men 
shulde be war of hem. MS. Bodl. 546. 



A-CHARNE. To set on. {A.-N.) 

That other resoun is whanne thei a-charneth in a 
contr^ of werre there as batayles have y-be, there 
thei eteth of dede men, or of men that be honged. 

MS. Bodl. 546. 

ACHAT. A contract; a bargain. See Urry's 
Chaucer, p. 362. 

Cursed be he, quod the kyng, that the achat made. 
MS. Cott. Vespas. E. xvi. f. 83 

ACHATES. An agate. Minsheu. 
ACHATOUR. The person who had the charge 
of the acatry ; the purveyor. 

A gentil manciple was ther of a temple. 
Of which achatours mighten take ensemple. 

Chaucer, Cajit. T. 570. 

ACHAUFE. To warm ; to make hot. (A.-N.) 
Whanne the hert hath be xv. dayes at the rutte 
skarslyche, the bukke bygynneth to achaufe hymself 
and bolne. MS. Bodl. 546 

That swollen sorow for to put away. 
With softe salve achaufe it and defie. 

Boetius, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 290. 
And be-sete in that settel semlych ryche. 
And achaufed hym chefly, and thenne his cher mended. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 34. 

ACHAUNGED. Changed; altered. 

Whan the emperice that understod, 
Al achaunged was hire blod. 

The Sevyn Sages, 466. 
ACHAYERE. Gere; array. 

Scho was frely and fayre, 
Wele semyd hir achayere. 

Sir Degrevante, MS. Lincoln. 

ACHE. (1) An ash tree. This seems to be the 
meaning of it in the Plumpton Correspond- 
ence, p. 188. 
(2) Age. 

But thus Godis low and he wil welde. 
Even of blod, of good, of ache. 

3IS. Douce 302, f. 30. 

ACHEKID. Choked. 

And right anon whan that Theseus sethe 
The best achekid, he shal on him lepe 
To sleen him, or they comin more to hepe. 

Leg. of Ariadne, 123. 

ACHELOR. Ashler, or hewn stone used for the 
facings of walls. A contract for building 
Biu'nley church, co. York, temp. Henry VIII. 
specifies " a course of achelorsJ' See Britton's 
Arch. Diet, in v. Ashlar. 

ACHER. An usher. In Archaeologia, xxvi. 278, 
mention is made of Loys Stacy, *' acher to the 
Duke of Burgoine." 

ACHES. Convulsions are called " pricking 
aches" by Rider. It was sometimes used as 
a dissyllable. See Hudibras, III. ii. 407. 

ACHESOUN. Reason; cause. Hearne, gloss, 
to P. Langtoft, explains it occasion. 
And all he it dede for traisoun. 
King to be was his achesoun. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 6. 

A-CHETYN. To escheat. Prompt. Parv. 
ACHEVE. To accompUsh. Urry reads achived. 
And through falshed ther lust acheved, 
Wherof I repent, and am greved. 

Rom. of the Rose, 2049. 
A-CHOKED. Choked. 

For he was a-choked anon. 

And toward the dethe he drou3h. 

t MS. Laud. 108« f. 166. 



ACK 



16 



AGO 



ACHON. Each one. 

The lady tok her maydenys aehon. 

And wente the way that sche hadde er gon. 

Launfal, 1018. 

ACHORN. An acorn. Chesh. 
ACHRAS. A wild choak-pear. Kersey. 
ACHWYN. To shun ; to avoid. Prompt. Parv. 
We have also, " achuynge, or beynge ware, 
precavens, vitans.*' 
ACISE. Assizes. In Archaeologia, xvii. 291, it 
is used in the sense of assize. 

Ther he sette his owne acise. 
And made bailifs, and justices. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 1423. 
ACK. To mind ; to regard. North. 
ACKE. But. {A.-S.) 

Acke that ne tel thou no man 
For the sothe thou hast i-founde. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 1. 

ACKELE. To cool. 

But verray love is vertue as I fele, 
For verray love may freile desire ackele. 

Courte of Love, 1076. 
ACKER. (1) A ripple on the surface of the wa- 
ter. So explained in the Craven dialect, but 
Huloet, in his Abcedariura, 1552, has " aker 
of the sea, whiche preventeth the flowde or 
flowynge, impetus maris" a more precise defi- 
nition, preventeth being of course used in the 
^en^e of precedeth. In the Prompt. Parv. p. 8, 
akyr occurs with the same Latin that Huloet 
gives. See Eager, and Higre, ramifications 
of the same term, which appear to be applied 
to commotions of more violence that the ge- 
nerality of Huloet's explanations necessarily 
impUes. Mr. Way has a good note on this 
word in the Prompt. Parv. p. 8, and makes 
the following extract from MS. Cott. Titus A. 
xxiii. f. 49 : 

Wei know they the reume yf it a-ryse. 
An aker is it clept, I understonde, [wytstonde. 
Whos myght there may no shippe or wynd 
This reume in thoccian of propre kyude, 
Wytoute wynde hathe his commotioun ; 
The maryneer therof may not be blynde, 
But when and where in every regioun 
It regnethe, he moste have inspectioun , 
For in viage it may bothe haste and tary. 
And unavised thereof, al myscary. 
This extract scarcely bears out Mr. Way's 
opinion as to the extended meaning of the 
word aker. The third hne probably refers to 
the reume, or tide, and merely means to ex- 
press the great and then necessary impor- 
tance of the tide to navigation, not any 
particular commotion or current implied in 
aker. Jamieson has aiker, " the motion, break, 
or movement made by a fish in the water, 
when swimming fast," which is similar to the 
meaning of the word in Craven. Lily men- 
tions the agar, but this seems to be the higre, 
not in the sense of a tide, but a sea-monster. 
See Narcs, in v. Agar. But, after all, it may 
mean the double tide, called by Dryden the 
eagre. The word acker is also used as a verb 
in the north, to curl, as the water does with 
wind. See Carlyle's Hero Worship, p. 30, who 
says the word is still applied, on the river 



Trent, to a kind of eddying tvdrl when the 
river is flooded, which is often extremely dan- 
gerous to the bargemen. 

(2) Fine mould. North. 

(3) An acre ; a field. Yorksh. 
ACKERSPRIT. Said of potatoes, when the 

roots have germinated before the time of ga- 
thering them. Chesh. See Acrospire. It is 
also used among masons and stone-getters, in 
reference to stone which is of a flinty or me- 
tallic quaUty, and diflicult to work. 

ACKERY. Abounding with fine mould, appUed 
to a field. North. 

ACKETOUN. A quilted leathern jacket, worn 
under the mail armour; sometimes used for 
the armour itself. (A.-N.) 
Hys fomen were wellboun 
To perce hys ac/ce«OMn. Lybeaus Disconus, 1175. 

ACKNOWN. Acknowledged. North. See Ha- 
rington's Ariosto, 1591, p. 418 ; Lambard's 
Per. of Kent, 1596, p. 461 ; Supp. to Har- 
dyng's Chronicle, f. 75. 

ACKSEN. Ashes. Wilts. This form of the 
word occurs in Kennett's Glossary, MS. Lansd. 
1033. 

ACKWARDS. When a beast Ues backwards, and 
cannot rise. See the glossary prefixed to the 
Praise of Yorkshire Ale, 1697, p. 89. 

ACLIT. Adhered together. Devon. 

ACLITE. Awry. North. 

ACLOYE. To cloy ; to overload ; to overrun. 
See Accloy ; Wright's Pohtical Songs, p. 335 ; 
Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 201. 
And told hym all the cas unto the end. 
How her contrey was grevously acloyed 
Wyth a dragon venoms and orible of kend. 

MS. Laud. 416, f. 55. 

A-CLUMSID. Benumbed with cold. Wickliffe. 

ACME. Mature age. 

He must be one that can instruct your youth. 
And keep your acme in the state of truth. 

Ben Jonson's Stap. of News, prol. 

ACOATHED. Rotten or diseased in the Uver, 

as sheep. Dorset. 
A-COCK-HORSE. Triumphant. See Elhs's Li- 
terary Letters, p. 265. A somewhat slang ex- 
pression, not quite obsolete. 
ACOIE. To make quiet. 

Sith that ye reft him thaquaintaunce 
Of Bialacoil,his most joie, 
Whiche all his painis might acoie. 

Rom. of the Rose, 3564. 
ACOILD. Congealed. (A.-N.) 
Al to michel thou art afoild ; 
Now thi blod it is acoild. Gy of Warwike, p 20 

ACOILE. See Level-coil, a game which is men- 
tioned by Bvome, under the title oilevell Acoile. 
See Beaumont and Fletcher, iv. 215, note. 
ACOLD. (1) Cold. Dr. Forman, in his Auto- 
biography, MS. Ashmole 208, informs us that 
when his master " was acold, he wold goe 
and carry his faggots up into a lofte tUl he was 
bote." 

Thus lay this povere in gret distresse, 
Acolde and hungrid at the gate. 

Gownr, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 18,^ 
(2) In the following quotation, which is put iiito 



AGO 



17 



AfcQ 



Joseph's mouth after he had made the disco- 
very of the Virgin Mary's presumed guilt, Mr. 
Sharp explains acold, called ; but the ordinary 
interpretation, as given above, will suit the con- 
text, implying that his powers were impaired. 
Husebond, in feythe, and that acold. 

Sharp's Gov. Myat. p. 87. 

ACOLD YNG. Getting cold. 

The syknesse of the world thou schalt knowe by 
charyt^ acoldyng, and elde of hys feblenesse. 

Wimbleton's Sermon, 1388, MS. Hatton 57, p. 24. 

ACOLED. Cooled. This is the reading of the 
Herald's College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, 
the other being akelde. See Hearne's edition, 
p. 442. 
ACOLEN. To embrace. {A.-N.) 

Then acoles he the knyjt, and kysses hym thryes. 
As saverly and sadly as he hem sette couthe. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 71- 

ACOMBRE. To encumber ; to trouble. {A.-N.) 
Cf. Arthour and MerUn, p. 26 ; Depos. of Rich. 
II. pp. 29, 30 ; Skelton's Works, i. 298 ; Kyng 
Ahsaunder, 8025 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 6 ; Chau- 
cer, Cant. T. 510; Piers Ploughman, p. 31. 
Acomhred was he for to here 
Aske of so mony lettres sere. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 76. 

A-COMELYD. Enervated with cold. Prompt. 
Parv. We have also the form a-e/ommy^e, which 
would connect it perhaps with the provincial 
term clamni'd. 
ACON. Aix la Chapelle. 

At Aeon it was brought to pas. 
As by myne auctor tried it was. 

Skelton's Works, ii. 48. 
ACONICK. Poisonous. Rider. 
ACOP. Conical ; ending in a point. 

Marry she's not in fashion yet; she wears a hood, 

but it stands acop. Alchemist, ii. 6. 

ACOPUS. Either a herb or stone, introduced 

by Middleton, in the Witch, as an ingredient 

for a charm. See his Works, iii. 327. 

ACORDAUNT. Agreeing. (A.-N.) 

Suche thynge whereof a man may lere, 
That to vertu is acordaunt. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 41. 

ACORDEND. Agreeing. (^.-iV:) 
Nowe myght thou here next sewend 
Whiche to this vyce is acordend, 

Gower, ed. 1532, f. 36. 
ACORE. To sorrow ; to grieve. {A.-N. ?) 
Ich am a man : ich schal go fifore : 
Thou ne aujtest nowjt mi dej acore. 

Hartshwne's Met. Tales, p. 112. 
At Glouceslre he deide, ac eir nadde he non ; 
That acorede al this lond, and ys men echon. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 75. 
ACORSE. To curse. (A.-S.) 
Callede hem caytyves 

Acorsed for evere. Piers Ploughman, p. 375. 

Acursed beo that me bar, 
And the tyme that ich was i-bore. 

MS. Laud. 108. f. 107- 

A-CORSY. To bury. 

Deus laudem it is y-clepud ; 

This salme the quene radde 
For to a-corsy here brother body. 

And alle that him ladde. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 



ACORYE* Same as Acore, q. v. 

Bu a peyre of a marc, other thou ssalt be acorye 
sore. Rob. Glouc. t*.39<} 

Art thou, he seide, on of thulke ? 
Thou it schalt acorie sore ! MS. Laud. 108, f. 122. 

ACOST. On the side. (A.-N..) 

No schal [scape] non of this ost : 

jSiweth me thus al acost. KyngAlisaunder,21Ai. 

Forth thai passeth this lond acost 

To Clarence with alle her ost. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 281. 

ACOUNTRE. An encounter. 

With hard acounti-es hym agayne. 

MS. Harl. 2252, f, 106. 
The acountre of hem was so strong. 
That mani dyed ther among. 

Gy.of Warwike, p. 291. 

ACOUPE. To blame ; to accuse ; to inculpate. 
(A.-N.) See Piers Ploughman, p. 272 ; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 544. 

Alle ys pryde and vanyt^. 
Of al shalt thou acouped be. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 23. 

ACOUPEMENT. An accusation. (A.-N.) 

Withouten answere to acoupement. 

Hartshorne's Met. Tales, p. 109. 

ACOUPYNG. An onset. 

At the acoupyng the knijtes [speres] either brak on 

Swiftli with here swerdes swinge thei togeder. [other, 

William and the Werwolf, p. 124. 

ACOVERD. Recovered. 

Belisent, withouten lesing, 
Acoverd and undede her eyin. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 315. 

ACOW. Crooked ; obliquely ; awry. North. 

A-COYNTEDE. Made his acquaintance. 

Heo a-coyntede hym anon, and bicomen frendesgode, 
Bothe for here prowes, and for heo were of on blode. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 15. 

ACOYSYNG. Accusing. 

He is forth brought, and the kyng 
Geveth him acoysyng. Kyng Alisaunder, 3973. 

ACQUEYNT. Quenched. 

The more that my herte drynketh 
The more I may, so that me thynketh 
My thurst shall never be acqueynt. 

Gower, ed. 1532, f. 129. 

ACQUILL. A term in hunting. See Reliq. 
Antiq. i. 151. It was applied to the buck and 
doe, the male and the female fox, and all ver- 
min, and corresponds to the Fi-ench term 
enquiller or aquiller, a form of accuellir, for 
which see Roquefort, in v. It is nearly syno- 
nymous with the more modern word imprime, 
which was afterwards applied to unharbour- 
ing the hart. See Sir H. Dryden's Twici, 
p. 26. 

ACQUIST. An acquisition. Milton. Skinner 
has it as a verb, explained by acquirere. 

ACQUIT. Acquitted. Spenser 

ACQUITE. To requite. 

O, how ill dost thou acquite the love I beare thee, 
and that which, for thy sake, I do nowe forsake ! 
The Shepherdess Felismena, ap.Collier's Shuk. Lib. p.28. 

ACQUITTANCE. (1) Acquaintance, Skinner. 

(2) A receipt. North. 

(3) Requital. See Othello, iv. 2. It ii also used 
by Shakespeare in the sense of " to procure an 
acquittance, to acquit." See Richard III. iii. 7. 

2 



ACS 



18 



ACU 



ACQUYSE. To acquire. 

Late to go to rest, and erly for to ryse. 
Honour and goodes dayly to acquyse. 

Muitland's Lambeth Books, p. 281. 
ACRASED. Crazed. Grafton. 
ACRE. (1) A field. The word at first signified 
not a determined quantity of land, but any 
open ground, especially a wide carapagne ; and 
that sense of it seems preserved in the names 
of places, as Castle-acre, West-acre, in co. 
Norf. See Aker ; Kenhett's Glossary, p. 4 ; 
MS. Lansd. 1033; Gloss, to P. Langt. p. 
518-21. 

Pople with alle the recliesse, and akrea, als thei 

wonnen 
ThoFfih ther douhtinesse, the lond thorgh thei 
ronnen. Peter Langtoft, p. 115. 

(2) An old sort of duel fought by single com- 
batants, English and Scotch, between the fron- 
tiers of their kingdom, with sword and lance. 

Cowell. 
ACRE-DALE. Lands in a common field, in which 
different proprietors hold portions of greater 
or lesser quantities. North. 
ACREME, Ten acres of land. A law term. 
ACRE-MEN. Husbandmen. {Dut.) 
The foules up, and song on bough. 
And acre-men yede to the plough Lay le Freine, 176. 

ACRES. The town so called ? 

Armede hym in a actone, with orfraeez fulle ryche, 
Aboven one that a jeryne of ^cres owte over. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 63. 
ACRE-SHOT. A kind of local land-tax, or charge. 
The said in-dikes should be carefully maintained 
and repaired by those dyke-reeves, out of the com- 
mon acre-shot, assessed within every of the said 
towns. Dugdale's Imbanking, p. 275. 

ACRESTxiFF. The plough-staff. //wtoe/. Howell 
translates it le curoir du coutre. See also 
Cotgrave, in v. Curette. 

ACROKE. Crooked. 

Who so byldeth after every man his howse, hit 
schc'iUe stonde acroke. MS. Douce 52. 

ACROOK'D. Crooked; awry. Yorksh. 

ACROSPIRE. When unhoused grain, exposed 
to wet weather, sprouts at both ends, it is said 
to acrospire. According to Kersey, the acro- 
spyre of corn is ** that part which shoots out 
towards the smaller end of the seed." {Gr.) 

Other will have 'the sprit drowned, and most of 
those which come without extraordinary pains, will 
send forth their substance in an acrospire. 

Aubrey's Wilts, Royal Soc. MS. p. 304. 

ACROSS. (1) A kind of exclamation when a 
sally of wit miscarried. An allusion to joust- 
ing. See All's Well that Ends Well, ii.'l. 
(2) On cross. 

When other lovers in arms acro.^s. 
Rejoice their chief delight. 

Surrey's Complaint of Absence. 

ACROSTIC. Crossed on the breast. 

Agreed : but what melamholy sir, with acrostic 
arms, now comes from the Family ? 

Middle till,' s Works, ii. 179. 

ACROTCH. To take up ; to seize. Haloet. 
ACSEDE. Asked. {A.-S.) 

The kyiig Alesandre acsede 

Hwan sail that be. Relicj. Antiq. i. ;i(t. 



ACT. To behave ; to conduct. Essex. 

ACTiEON. Shakespeare has a classical allusion 
in the Merry Wives of Windsor, ii. 1, applying 
this name to a cuckold. The commentators 
have not noticed that Blount remarks it is so 
used " in a waggish sense." 

ACTE. The sea-shore ; also, the elder tree. 
Phillips. 

ACTILLY. Actually. Tim Boihin. 

ACTIOUS. Active. 

He knows you to be eager men, martial men, men 
of good stomacks, very hot shots, very actious for 
valour, such as scorn to shrink for a wetting. 

Webster's Works, ii. 2!»6. 

ACTON. A leather jacket sometimes worn 
under a coat of mail ; a kind of tunic. See 
Acketoun. 

His acton it was all of blacke. 
His hewberke and his sheelde. Sir Cauline. 

To Jerusalem he did hym lede. 
His actone and his other wede. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 96. 
ACTOURES. Governors ; keepers. {Lat. Med.) 

See glossary to Baber's ed. of Wickliffe, in v. 
ACTRESSES. In explanation of numerous pas- 
sages in our old plays, it may be well to ob- 
serve that actresses were not generally intro- 
duced into English theatres till after the 
Restoration. In Shakespeare's time the female 
characters were personated by boys. There is a 
curious letter on this subject in MS. Tanner 77. 
It would appear from the following anecdote, 
written in a copy of the Memoirs of the Count 
de Grammont, that this practice was continued 
to a later period : 

It is said the fleet which went for the queen 
[of Charles II.] stayed six weeks at Lisbon, without 
any reason given. Some suppose a change in the 
queen's person was the cause; to which AVilliam 
Davenant alluded when the king, one night at the 
play, was impatient to have theplay begin, — "Sire," 
said Davenant, "they are shaving the Queen!" 
ACTUATE. To put into action ; to produce. See 
the Roman Actor, iv. 2 ; Florio, in v. Attvdre. 
ACTURE. Action. 

Love made them not ; with acture they may be, 
Where neither party is nor true nor kind. 

A Lover's Complaint, p. 240. 

ACU ATE. Sharpened. (Lat.) 

Gryndyng with vynegar tyll I was fatygate, 
And also with a quantyte of spyces acnate. 

Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 191. 

ACUMBRE. To encumber ; to worry. {A.-N.) 
And but thou sone amende the, 
Tharfor mayst thou avumbred be. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 36. 
Gii of Warwike mi name is ; 
Ivel ich am acumbred y-wis. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 217. 
ACUNTRED. Encountered. (^.-.V.) 

So kcnli thei acuntred at the coupyng to-gadere. 
That the knijt spere in speldes al to-schivered. 

William and the Werwolf, p 130, 

ACU RE. A chemical term, applied to a drug 
when its power is increased by the addition of 
some other. Kersey. 

ACURSEN. To curse {A.-S.) 

Which is lif that oure Lord 

la alle lawcs nciirscth. Piers Ploughman, p. 375. 



i 



ADA 19 

ACYCE. Assize. Ritson. 
A-CYDENANDYS. Aside; obliquely. Prompt. 
Parv. The King's College MS. reads acydnande, 
and Pynson's edition acydenam. 
A-CYNEN. To assign. Prompt. Parv. 
ACYSE. Manner; custom. 

An halyday fyl, as ys the acyse, 
Men to go to Goddys servyse. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 81. 
And of these berdede bukkes also, 
Wyth hemself thy moche mysdo. 
That leve Crysten mennys acyse, 
And haunte al the newe gyse. 

MS. Bodl. 415, f. 21. 

AD. Hath. 

Lo, hou he ad me to-rent. 
Mi bodi and mi face i-schent. 

The Sevyn Sages, 489. 
ADACTED. Driven in by force. Minsheu. 
ADAFFED. Daunted. Junius refers to this word 

in Chaucer. Urry reads adassid, q. v. 
ADAM. (1) The following is one of the most 
common early English proverbs, and John Ball 
took it as a text for one of his revolutionary 
sermons. See Wright's Songs andCarols, songi. 
When Adam delv'd and Eve span, 
Who was then the gentleman ? 
(2) A Serjeant, or bailiff, was jocularly so called. 
See the Comedy of Errors, iv. 3, " Not that 
Adam that kept the paradise, but that Adam 
• that keeps the prison." 

ADAM-AND-EVE. The bulbs of orchis macu- 
lata, which have a fancied resemblance to the 
human figure. Craven. 
ADAMANT. The magnet ; the loadstone. Early 
writers frequently use it in this sense, and oc- 
casionally the I^atin adamas is so interpreted, 
but not in Prompt. Parv. p. 6, where the syno- 
nyme is " precyowse stone," meaning of course 
the diamond. Cf. Mids. Night's Dream, ii. 2. 
ADAMATE. To love dearly. Minsheu. 
ADAM-BELL. A northern outlaw, so celebrated 
for archeiy that his name became proverbial. 
Percy has a ballad concerning him. 
With loynes in canvass bow-case tyde. 
Where arrowes stick with mickle pride : 
Like ghosts of Adam Bell and Clymme, 
Sol sets for fear they'l shoot at him. 

D'Avenanfs Works, ed. 1673, p. 291. 

ADAMITES. A sect of enthusiasts who are said 
to have imitated the nakedness of Adam in 
their public assemblies. They are alluded to 
in the Merry Beggars, ii. 1. 

ADAM'S-ALE. Water. Var. dial. Jamieson 
gives Adam's-wine, a similar phrase current in 
Scotland. 

ADAM'S-APPLE. A kind of citron. Gerard. 
The nob in a man's throat is also called by 
this name. 

ADAM'S-FLANNEL. White mullein. It may 
have obtained this name, says Carr, from the 
soft white hairs, with which the leaves are 
thickly clothed on both sides. Craven. 

AD ANT. Daunt; quench; mitigate. 
Ageyns heom thy wraththe adant, 
Gef heom mercy and pes heom graunt. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 2853. 



ADA 



ADARNECH. Colour Uke gold. HowelL 
ADARNED. Ashamed. Coles. 
AD ARRIS. The flower of sea-water. Howell. ' 
ADASE. To dazzle. 

My clere and shynynge eyen were all adaaed and 

derked. Cax(on's Divers Fruytful Ghostly Maters. 

The glittring therof wold have made every man's 

eyes so adased, that no man should have spied his 

falshed, and founden out the trouth. 

Sir T. More's Workes, p. 459. 

ADASSID. Dazzled; put out of countenance. 
Beth not adassid for your innocence. 
But sharpely take on you the governaile. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 106. 

ADAUDS. In pieces. Yorksh. To rive all 
adauds, i.e. to tear all in pieces. See Kennett's 
MS. Glossary, the glossary at the end of The 
Praise of Yorkshire Ale, 12mo, York, 1697, 
p. 89, and the Yorkshire Dialogue, p. 41. 

ADAUNT. (1) To tame. {A.-N.) See Rob. 
Glouc. pp. 61, 372 ; MS. Cott. Nero A. x. f. 41. 
His flesshe wolde have charged him with fatnesse, 
but that the wantonesse of his wombe with travaile 
and fastyng he adaunteth, and in ridyng and goyng 
travayleth myghteliche his youthe. 

Roh. Glouc. p. 482. 

(2) To daunt. Daniel. 
ADAUNTRELEY. Same as avatmtlay, q. v. 
At last he upstarted at theother side of the water, 
which we call soil of the hart, and there other hunts- 
men met him with an adauntreley. 

Hawkins'' Engl. Dram. iii. 238. 
AD AW. To be daunted. Spenser. 
ADAWE. (1) To awake. Palsgrave has, " I 
adawe or adawne, as the daye dothe in the 
mornynge whan the sonne draweth towardes 
his rysyng;" and, "I adawe one out of a 
swounde." Cf. Troilus and Creseide, iii. 11 26. 
But, sire, a man that waketh of his slepe. 
He may not sodenly wel taken kepe 
Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly. 
Til that he be adawed veraily. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 10274. 
For this is Spica with hire bryjt spere. 
That toward evene, at mydnyjt and at morwe, 
Downe fro hevene adaweth al oure sorowe. 

Lydgate, MS. Hatton 73. 

(2) Down. The MS. Bodl. 415, f. 26, reads 
" do adawe," in the following passage. Cf. 
Cov. Myst. p. 294. 

Eutycyus the abbot, hys felawe. 
Herd sey hys bere was so adawe. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. SJ. 

(3) To kill; to execute. 

Some wolde have hym adawe, 
And some sayde it was not lawe. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 973. 
AD AY. In the daytime. 

For what thing Willam wan aday with his bowe. 
Were it fethered foul, or foure-foted best. 

William and the Werwo/f, p. 8. 

AD AYS. A shorter form of the common phrase 
" now-a-days." East Anglia. In the follow- 
ing passage it probably means the same as 
aday, q. v. 

What useth the eorl adayes ? 
Hontes he ar revayes ? 

MS. Cantab. Ff. 1. 6, f. 85. 

ADAZ. An addice. Kennett's MS. Gloss. 



ADD 



20 



ADH 



ADDE. Had. 

And he byhet hym and ys al Kent ver and ner, 
Al that Hengyst adde wule wythe kynges daye 
Vortyger. Rob. Glouc. p. 221. 

ADDEEM. To think ; to judge ; to determine. 

(J.-S.) 
And for revengement of those wrongful! smarts. 
Which I to others did inflict afore, 
AddeenCd me to endure this penaunce sore. 

Faerie Queene, VI. viii. 22. 

ADDER-BOLT. The dragon fly. Var. dial. 

ADDER-SAY. I dare say. Yorksh. 

ADDER'S-GRASS. A plant mentioned by Ge- 
rard, of which the generic name is cynosorchis- 
See hisHerball, ed. Johnson, p. 205. 

ADDER'S-TQNGUE. A description of this com- 
mon plant is in Gerard's Herball, ed. Johnson, 
p. 404. [Gerard. 

ADDER-WORT. The bistort or snake-weed. 

ADDICE. (1) An addled egg. Huloet 

(2) An adze or axe. This is a common form 
of the word. Nares quotes Lyly's Mother 
Bombie. 

ADDICT. Addicted. 

To studies good addict of comely grace. 

Mirrour jor Magistrates, p. 17". 

ADDITION. A title given to a man over and 
above his first, or Christian, and surname, 
showing his rank, occupation, &c. or alluding 
to some exploit or achievement. A law term, 
frequently occurring in Shakespeare. 
ADDIWISSEN. Had I known it. North. An 
expression nearly obsolete, though still retained 
by some old persons. See Marshall's Rural 
Economy of Yorkshire, ii. 315. It seems to be 
merely a corruption of the very common old 
method of expressing repentance for any hasty 
action, had I wist, had I known the conse- 
quences. The following extracts give forms 
of the phrase very close to the provincial term. 
This dredfule ded I drawe me tylle. 
And alle ys tornyd to adywyst, 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 51. 

Addiwyst yt wylle not hee. Ibid. f. 51, 

ADDLE. (1) To earn. North. Forby says "to earn, 

to profit gradually." It occurs in the Townley 

Mysteries, p. 195. See Adyld. 

W^ith goodmen's hogs, or corn, or hay, 
I addle my ninepence every day. 

Richard of Dnltoji Dale. 

(2) " To addle his shoon" is said in the North of 
a horse that falls upon his back, and rolls from 
one side to the other. In the South, when a 
horse does so, he is said to " earn a gallon of 
oats." 

(3) To grow ; to thrive. East. 

Where ivye embraseth the tree very sore. 
Kill ivyc, or tree else will addle no more. 

Tnxser's Five Hundred Points, 157.3, f. 47. 

(4) A swelling with matter in it. Somerset. 

(5) Labourer's wages. Yorksh. 
ADDLE-HEADED. Stupid; thoughtless. Var. 

dial. 

ADDLE-PATE. A foolish person. Kent. 

aDDLE-PLOT. a person who spoils any amuse- 
ment. South. 



ADDLE-POOL. a pool or puddle, near a dung' 

hill, for receiving the fluid from it. South. 
ADDLINGS. Earnings from labour. Yorksh. 
ADDOLORATE. To grieve. See Florio, in v. 

Dolordre. 
ADDOUBED, Armed; accoutred. (J.-N.) 

Was hotter than ever to provide himselfe of 
horse and armour, saying he would go to the island 
bravely addoubed, and shew himself to his charge. 
Sidney's Arcadia, p. 277- 

ADDOULSE. To sweeten. This term occurs 

in the dictionaries of Minsheu and Howell. 

See Adulce. 
ADDRESS. To prepare for anything; to get 

ready. {Fr.) A very common use of the word 

in our old dramatists. 
ADE. To cut a deep gutter across ploughed 

land. Salop. 
ADEC. A vinegar milk. Howell. 
ADECOUE. On oath. Perhaps an error of the 

scribe in the following passage, the other MSS. 

reading a-vowe. 

By a token thou me troue, 
I breke a solem adecoue. 

Robson's Romances, p S. 

ADELANTADO. The king's lieutenant of a 
country, or deputy in any importaiit place of 
charge. Cf. Middleton's Works, i. 241 ; Min- 
sheu, in V. It is a Spanish word. 
ADELE. Added ; annexed. So explained in 
the glossary to Urry's Chaucer. It should be 
two words, a dele, a portion. 
aDEMAND. The loadstone. This form of the 

word occurs in Maundevile's Travels, p. 16L 
ADENT. To fasten. Minsheu. 
ADENYD. Dinned; stunned. 
I was adenyd of that dynt, 
Hit stoned me and mad me stont 
Styl out of my steven. MS. Douce 302, f. 12. 
ADEPCION. An acquirement. (Lat.) 

In the adepcion and obteynyng of the garland, I 
being seduced and provoked by sinister counsail 
and diabolical temptacion, did commyt a facynorous 
and detestable acte. Hall, Richard III. f. 3U. 

ADEQUATE. To make even or equal. Minsheu. 
ADERCOP. A spider. More generally written 
attercop, q. v. Araneus, an adercop, or a spyn- 
ner. — Stanbrigii Vocabula, sig. d. ii. Palsgrave 
has addircop. See Prompt. Parv. p. 16. 
ADES. An addice. Kennett. 
ADEWEN. To moisten ; to bedew. 

Thy gracious shourys lat reyne in habundaunce. 
Upon myn herte t'adewen every veyne. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 251. 
The hie hevynes doth your grace adewc. 

MS. Jshmole 59, f. 174. 

ADGE. An addice. North. 

ADIIIB. A name given to the herb eyebright. 

in Dr. Thomas More's MS. additions to Ray. 
ADHIBITE. To admit. In the following exami)le 
it perhaps ought to be adhibited. Cf. Rhomeo 
and Julietta, ap. Collier's Shak. Lib. p. 89. 

To which counsaill there were adhitdte very fewc. 
and they very secrete. Hall, Edward V. f. 13. 

ADIIORT. To advise ; to exhort. 

.TuHus Agrlcola was the first that by adhortiiiff 
the Britaines publikely, and helping them juivafely, 
wun them to builde houses for themselves. 

Stotv's Siiri'ny of Ijondon, cil. ITilJH, p. 4. 



ADM 



21 



ADO 



ADIHTETH. Adihteth him, i.e. fits himself 
with. 
Adihteth him a gay wenche of the newe jet. 

Wright's Political Songs, p. 329. 

ADIN. Within. Sussex. 

ADIR. Either. 

It is agreid that the said Thomas Wrangwysh and 
William Welles shalbe caplens of the soghers for the 
said cite, and that adii- of them shall have iiij. so. of 
the day. Davies's York Records, p. 155. 

ADIT. A sough or level in a mine, generally 

made for drawing off water. Derbysh. 
ADJOYNATE. Joined. 

Two semely princes, together adjnynate. 

In all the world was none theim like alowed. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 154. 

AD JOYN AUNTE S. Those who are contiguous. 
The adjective adjoynaunte occurs in the Dial, 
of Great. Moral, p. 192. 

Sought and practised waies and meanes how to joine 
himself with forein princes, and to greve and hurte 
his neighbors and adjoynauntes of the realme of 
England. Hall, Henry VI. f. 53. 

AD JOYNT. A person joined with another ; a 
companion, or attendant. See Daniel's Civ. 
Wars, iv. 69, quoted hy Nares. 

ADJUMENT. Help ; succour. Miege. 

ADJUNCT. United with ; immediately conse- 
quent. See King John, iii. 3, and Richardson, 
in V. Adjoin. 

ADJUTE. To assist ; to help. See Ben Jonson, 
as quoted by Richardson, in v. 

ADJUTORIES. The arm hones. Vigo tr. 

ADJUVANT. Assisting, See Aubrey's Wilts, 
Royal Soc. MS. p. 109, for an instance of the 
word, the same with that taken by Richardson 
from Howell, Diet, in v. Adjute. 

ADLANDS. Those butts in a ploughed field 
which lie at right angles to the general di- 
rection of the others ; the part close against 
the hedges. Salop. [Headlands ?] 

ADLE. (1) Unsound; unwell. East. 

(2) To addle ; to earn. Skinner and Kennett 
give this as a Lincolnshire form of the word. 

ADMERALLYS. Commanders. See Admiral. 
He sende aftur lordyngys, 
Fyftene admerallys and kyngys. 
And armyd them to fyght. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 123. 

ADMIRABLIST. Most admirable. Accented 
on the antepenult. Yorksh. 

ADMIRAL. This word, which the reader will 
find under other forms, did not always imply 
its present acceptation, hut a Saracen com- 
mander, sometimes a king. According to 
Kennett, the term admiral was not introduced 
before the latter end of the reign of Edward I. 
See his Glossary, 1816, in v. Marinarius ; and 
Admyrold ; Richard Coer de Lion, 5042 ; 
Maundevile's Travels, p. 38. Robert of Glou- 
cester has the form amrayl. See Hearne's 
Gloss, in V. According to some, the word was 
obtained in the wars with the Saracens of 
Spain, from Emir-alma, or emir of the water, 
which readily resolves itself into the other 
word. See Warton's Hist. Engl. Poet. Introd. 
p. excv. 



ADMIRATIVE. Minsheu calls the note of ad- 
miration, the admirative point. 

ADMISSION. An admission, as when a prince 
doth avow another prince to be under his pro- 
tection. Hollyband. 

ADMITTANCE. In general the same as ad- 
mission, but used by Shakespeare in the sense 
of custom, privilege, or prerogative of being 
admitted into the presence of great personages, 
Ford tells Falstaff he is a gentleman "of great 
admittance." See the Merry Wives of Windsor, 
ii. 2. 

ADMONISHMENT. Admonition. Shak. 

ADMOVE. To move to. {Lat.) 

ADMYROLD. A Saracen commander, or king. 

Tho spec on admyrold. 

Of wordes he wes swythe bold. Kyng Hprn, 95. 

ADNOTE. To note ; to observe. (Lat.) 
In this matelr to bee adnoted. 
What evyl counsell withe pryncys maye induce, 
Brit. Bibl. iv. 204. 

ADNUL. To annul. 

Shai uttirly stonde voide and adnuUid, accordyng 
to the olde custume therof hadde and made. 

MS. Bodl. e Mus. 229. 

ADNYCHELL. To annihilate. See an instance 
of this form of the word in Skelton's Works, 
i. 202. 

ADO. (1) Done ; finished. Somersetsh. 

(2) To do. 

I wol that thei togithir go. 
And done al that thei han ado. 

Romaunt of the Ruse, 5080. 

ADON. (1) Adonis. Cf. Troilus and Creseide, 
iii. 722. 

For thilke love thou haddest to Jdon, 
Have pitee on my bitter teres smert. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 2226. 

(2) Done away. Cf. Morte d' Arthur, ii. 29. 
And what with Venus, and othir oppression 
Of housis, Mars his venime is adon 

Leg. of Hupermn. 32. 

ADONNET. A devil. North. In Yorkshire 
one sometimes hears the saying, " Better be 
in with that adonnet than out." 
ADOORS. At doors ; at the door. 

But when he sawe her goe forth adm-es, he hasted 
after into the streate. Riche's Farewell, 1581. 

But what, sir, I beseech ye, was that paper. 
Your lordship was so studiously imployed in. 
When ye came out a-doors ? 

IVoman Pleased, ir. I. 

ADOPTIOUS. Adopted. See All's Well that 
Ends Well, i. 1. The commentators do not 
furnish another instance of the word. 
ADORAT. A chemical weight of four pounds. 

Phillips. 
ADORE. To adorn. See the Faerie Queene, 
IV. xi. 46 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, quoted by 
Nares in v. 
ADORNE. (1) To adore. 

The Sonne, the moone, Jubiter and Saturne, 
And Mars the God of armes they dyd adorne. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 56 

(2) Adorning ; ornament. Spenser. 
ADOTE. To doat ; to grow silly. 



ADR 



22 



ADU 



It falleth that the moste wise 
Ben otherwhile of love adotid, 
And so by-whaped and assotid. 

Cower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 177- 

ADOUNE. Below ; down. {A.-S.) 

So lette thy grace to me discende adoune. 

Lydgate, MS. Ashrcole 39, f. 27, 
And when the gospel ys y-done, 
Ajayn thou myjth knele adown. 

Constitutions of Masonry, p. 35 

ADOUTED. Feared ; redoubted. (A.-N.) Cf. 
Morte d' Arthur, ii. 69. 

He was corajous and gode knight. 
And michel adouted in everich fight. 

G.V of Warwike, p. 120. 
ADOYNGE. Going on. 

Alle the whyle the turnement was adoynge, she was 
with Quene Guenever, and ever the Quene asked her 
for what cause she came into that countrey. 

Morte d' Arthur, i. 361. 

ADPOYNTE. To appoint. See Wright's Mo- 
nastic Letters, p. 194. 
ADRAD. Afraid ; frightened. {A.-S.) 
The lady wase nevyr so adrad. 
Into the hale sche hym lad. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 13. 

ADRAMING. Churlish. Kersey. 

A-DRAWE. (1) To draw away ; to withdraw. 
Awey fro hem he wold a-drawe, 
Yf that he myght. Octovian, 357. 

(2) To draw. In the Dorset dialect we have 
a-draen, drawing. 

The jeant, tho he sey hym come, bygan ys mace 
adrawe. Rob. Glouc. p. 207. 

ADREAMT. Dosing. This is the provincial mean- 
ing of the word in Oxfordshire, and probably 
other counties. ** You see, ma'am, all this 
time she is adreamt, between sleeping and 
waking," applied to an infant. The phrase " I 
was adream'd," for '* I dreamt," occurs in the 
City Night-Cap, act iv. Cf. Webster's Works, 
i. 139. 

I was even now adream'd that you could see with 
either of your eyes, in so much as I waked for joy, 
and I hope to find it true. 

Wits, Fittes, and Fancies, 1595, p. 94. 

ADREDE. To dread. 

So mighti strokes ther wer given. 
That strong schaftes al to-driven ; 
No was ther non in that ferrede. 
That of his liif him might adrede. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 47. 
Ganhardin seighe that sight. 
And sore him gan adrede. Sir Tristrem, p. 288. 

ADRELWURT. The herb federfew. This name 
occurs in an early list of plants, in MS. Harl. 
978. 

ADRENCHEN. To drown. {A.-S.) 

The see the shal adrenche, 

Ne shal hit us of-thenche. Kyng Horn, 109. 

ADRENT. Drowned. See Rob. Glouc. pp. 

Ixxxiv. 39, 384. 
ADRESSID. Dressed; clothed. 
Of vayne glorye excuse me, 
That y ne have for love be 
The bettre adressid and arayed. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. .56. 
How here jelow hcer was tressid. 
And hire atire so wel adressid. Ibid. f. 225. 

ADREST. Dressed ; adorned. Somerset sh. 



ADREYNTE. Drowned. Cf. Sevyn Sages, I486; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 198 ; Gesta Romanorum, 
p. 104 ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 229 ; Minot's Poems 
pp. 58, 60, 62. 

So that he gan to swymme forth. 

Over for to wende ; 
Ac his raester so evele he couthe. 
That he adreynte atte ende. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 
ADRIANE. Ariadne. 

The plaint of Dejanire and Hermion, 
Of Adrians and Ysiphilee. 

Chaucer, Cant, T. 4487- 

ADRIHE. Aside ; behind. See Jamieson, in 
V. Adreich. 

The kyngis doujter whiehe this syje. 
For pure abaschement drow hire adrihe. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 112. 
The kyngys doujter woche this syjt. 
For pure abasschyde drow hyre adry^t. 

Ibid. MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 6. 

A-DRINK. Drunk. See the example quoted 

under Amorwe. 
A-DROGH. Drew away. See the Herald's Col- 
lege MS. of Robert of Gloucester, quoted in 
Hearne's edition, p. 241. 
ADRONQUE. Drowned. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 430. 
Tho fond hue hire sonde 
Adronqne by the stronde. Kyng Horn, 988. 

ADROP. A species of aurichalc, mentioned by 
Ben Jonson, in the Alchemist, ii. 1. Ashmole 
alludes to it in his Theat. Chem. Brit. pp. 135, 
151, 333. 
A-DROWE. Drew. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 307. 
Hure swerdes than thay a-drowe. 
That wern scharp y-grounde. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 30 
ADROWED. Dried. Devon. 
ADRY. Thirsty. Var. dial. 
A-DRYE. To bear ; to suffer. {A.-S.) 

In alle thys londe ther ys not soche a knyjt. 
Were he never so welle y-dyjt. 
That hys stroke myjt a-drye. 
But he schulde hyt sore abye. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 218. 

AD UL ABLE. Easy to be flattered. Minsheu. 

ADULCE. To sweeten. {Lat.) 

Not knowing this, that Jove decrees 
Some mirth, t'adulce man's miseries. 

Herrick's Works, ii. 47. 

ADULTERATE. Adulterous; false. Often used 
in the latter general seme, without any refer- 
ence to adultery. Cf. Richard III. iv. 4 ; Co- 
medy of Errors, ii. 2 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, 
iv. 240 ; Rider's Diet, in v. Adulterine for 
adulterous occurs in the Mirour for Magis- 
trates, p. 85. 
AD UN. Down. Cf. Wright's St. Patrick's 
Purgatory, p. 55. 

Sleilich is this vers i-scid. 

Hit wer harme adun i-leiid. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 175. 
ADUNATION. Union. Taylor. 
ADUNCITY. Crookedness. Rider. 
ADURE. To burn. Bacon. 
ADUSTON. Adustion. This form of the word 
occurs in Greene's Planetomachia, 1585, f. 11. 
ADUTANTE. Fine ? 

With ther coppentante 

They lokc adutante. Skclton's Works, ii. A'29. 



ADV 



23 



AER 



ADVANCE. To grace ; to give a lustre to. See 

Timon of Athens, i. 2. 
ADVANCERS. The second branches of a buck's 

horn. See the Lexicon Tetraglotton of Howell, 

and Avanters. 
AD VAUNT. A boast. 

And if ye wyn, make none odvnunt. 
For you are sure of one yll strvaunte. 

Playe called the foure PP. 

ADVAUNTOUR. A boaster. Palsgrave. 
ADVAYLE. Profit ; advantage. 
In any wise to do. 
For lucre or advayle, 
Ageynst thyr kyng to rayle. 

Skelton's Works, ii. 432. 
ADVENTAYLE. The open and moveable por- 
tion of the helmet which covered the mouth, 
for the purpose of respiration. 
Hys adrentai/le lie gan unlace, 
Hys hfd he smoot oft yn the place. Octovian, 1153. 

ADVERE. To turn to. 

And doo then accompte their good service had 
clerelyoutof rememberaunce, whiche stirreth theym 
and others, for drede and their awne securities, to advere 
in maner in way of allegiaunce to th Erie of Kyldare, 
omytting wele nigh their hole duetie to the Kingis 
Highiies. State Papers, ii. 168. 

ADVERSACYON. Contention. 
Desyringe so a castell in to dwell, 
Hym and his men to kepe frome all adveraacyon. 
Hardyng'a Chrotiicle, f. 55. 

ADVERSE. Be unpropitious. 

And seeyde how that was a presage, 
Touehende unto that other Perse, 
Of that fortune him schulde adverse. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 73. 

ADVERSER. An adversary. 

Myn adversers and false wytnes berars agaynste 
me say that they hard Prate saye that I shuld call 
my very god lorde Chauncellour knave. 

Archceulogiat xxiii. 46. 
ADVERSION. Attention. 

The soul bestoweth her adversion 
On something else. More's Phil. Poems, p. 294. 
ADVERTACYONNE. Information. 

Of your good herts I have advertncyonne, 
"Where thorow in sowle hoU made je be. 

Digby Mysteries, p. 106. 

ADVERTASH'D. Advertised. North. 

ADVERTENCE. Attention. 

Although the body sat emong hem there. 
Her advertence is alwaie ellis-where. 

Troilus and Ci-eseide, iv. 698. 

ADVERTISEMENT. Admonition. This is the 
original meaning of the word in prefatory no- 
tices. Cf. Much Ado about Nothing, v. 1 ; 
Harrington's Nug, Antiq. i. 46. 

AD VEST. To put a person in possession. See 
Cotgrave, in v. Adheriter, Advestir. 

ADVISEMENT. Consideration. 

Thereto, if you respect their position, they are 
situat in maner of a circle or ring, having an huge 
lake or portion of the sea in the middest of them, 
which is not without perill to such as with small 
advisement enter into the same. 

Harrison's Description of Britaine, p 33. 

ADVITE. Adult. (Lat) 

Fyrste such personcs, beyng nowe advite, that is 
to sayc, passed their chyldehoode, as wel in maners 
as in yeres Sir Thos. Klyot's G'>ver*ior, p. 85. 



ADVOCACIES. Lawsuits. (^.-A'.) 

Ite ye not ware how that false Poiiphete 
Is now about eftsonis for to plete, 
And bringin on you advocacies new ? 

Troilus and Creseide, ii. 1469 

ADVOCAS. Lawyers ; advocates. 

As shameful deth as herte can devise. 
Come to thise juges and hir advocas. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 12226. 
ADVOCATION. Pleading. Sha/c. 
ADVOCATRICE. A female advocate. Eiyot. 
AD VOID. To avoid ; to leave ; to quit. " Void 
the bar" is a phrase still used by the crier at 
the courts in "Westminster Hall. Cf. Wight's 
Monastic Letters, p. 198 ; Hall, Henry IV. f. 
27 -, Supp. to Hardyng, f. 83. 

AD VOUCH. To avouch. 

Yet because it hath beene by us experimented, 
and found out to be true, we maie the better advouch 
it. StaTiihti?-st's Description of Irela7u1, p. 3(1. 

ADVOWE. To avow ; to plead. See Palsgrave, 
f. 138. 

So that I maie saic and advowe that never prince 
bearyng scepter and croune over realmes and re- 
gions, hath found or proved more faithfuller coun- 
sailers, nor trewer subjectes, then I. 

Hall, Edward IV. f. 60. 

ADVOWTRY. Adultery. Cf. Cov. Myst. p. 216 ; 
Hardyng, f. 194; Supp. to Hardyng, f. 67; 
Percy's Reliques, p. 120 ; Apology for the Lol- 
lards, p. 78 ; Rom. of the Rose, 4954. 

We giffe nojte oure bodyse to lecherye ; we do 
nane advowtrye, ne we do na synne wharefore us 
sulde nede to do penaunce. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 33. 

ADVYSYON. A vision ; a dream. 

O good knyghte, sayd he, thow arte a foole, for that 
gentilwoman was the maister fende of helle, the 
whiche hath power above alle devyls, and that was 
the old lady that thow sawest in thyn advysyon 
rydynge on the serpent. Morte d' Arthur, ii. 245. 

AD WARD. Award; judgment; sentence. Spenser. 

This poet also uses it as a verb. 
ADWAYTHE. To wait for. This peculiar form 

occurs in Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 202. 
ADYGHT. Dressed ; adorned. (A.-S.) 
The terys ranne on the kingis kne. 
For joye that he sawe Bors adyght. 

MS. Harl. 2252, f. 105. 

ADYLD. Addled ; earned. 

He has adyld his ded, a kyng he hym calde. 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 196. 

ADYT. The innermost part of a temple ; the 
place where the oracles were pronounced. 
Behold, amidst the adyts of our goda. 

Greene's Wo-rks, L 114. 
ADYTE. To indite ; to write. 

Kyng Rychard dede a lettre wryte, 
A noble clerk it gan adyte. 
And made therinne mensyoun, 
More and lesse, of the raunsoun. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 1174» 
ADZE. An addice. Minsheu. 
AE. One ; one of several ; each. North. 
AER. An ear. East. 
AEREMANCe. Divination by the air. 
He tempteth ofte, and eek also, 
Aeremancc in juggement. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq, 134, f. 



AFE 



24 



AFF 



iESTIVE. Summer. 

I must also shew how they are likewise ingendered 
out of the dust of the earth by warme, tBstivt, and 
summer shewers, whose Hfe is short, and there is no 
use of them. Topsell'a History of Serpents, p. 178. 

AEWAAS. Always. North. 
AEY. (1) Yes. Var. dial. 
(2) Always ; ever. 

Off iewtyng, welle y wote. 

He bare the pryes aey. MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 80, 

AF. Of. 

Fore as possebil fore soth hit is. 

With a tere a/thyn ye. MS. Douce 302, f. 19. 
AFAITEN. To tame. {A.-N.) 

It afaiteth the flessh 

Fram folies ful manye. Piera Ploughman, p. 291. 

A-FALLE. Fallen. Cf. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 272 ; 
Gesta Romanorum, p. 472. 

Lordynges, wel je wyteth alle, 

How Charles the kyng of Fraunce 
Now is oppon my lond a-falle. 
With pride and gret bobaunce. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 20. 
AFARE. Affairs; business. Skinner. 
AFARNE. Afar off; at a distance. 
Al thay wald wiht hym afarne. 

Guy of Warwick, Middlehill MS. 

AFATEMENT. Behaviour; good manners. 

{A..N.) 

Theo thridde him taughte to play at bal ; 
Theo feorthe afatement in halle. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 661. 

AFAUNCE. Weber conjectures this word to 
mean affiance. The Bodl. MS. reads avaunce. 
By anothir mon thou knowest afaxmce. 
And by the steorres telle his chaunce. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 732. 
A-FAYLE. To fail ; to be wanting. 
Two hundurd knyghtys take the 
The Lerons boldely to assayle ; 
Loke yowre hertys not a-fayle. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 178. 

AFAYTY. To tame ; to subdue. {A.-N.) 

As sone as somer come, to Yrlond he gan wende, 
Vor to afayty that lond, and to wynne ech eude. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 179. 
AFEARD. Afraid. Var. dial. This form of 
the word is a common archaism. See Merch. 
of Venice, ii. 9. 
AFEDE. To feed. Chaucer. 
AFEFED. Feofed ; gave fiefs. 

Thei lete make a guode abbey. 
And well yt afefed tho. 

Amis and Amiloun, 2486. 

AFELD. (i; In the field. 

This brethren wendeth afeld 

To witen here fe ; 
Ac Josep levede at horn, 

That hende was and fre. MS. Bodl. 652, ti 2. 
Ant hou he sloh afelde 

Him that is fader aquelde. Kyng Horn, 997- 
(2) Felled; destroyed. {A.-S.) 

That lond destrud and men aqueld. 
And Cristendora thai han michel nfeld. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 96. 

AFELLE. To fell ; to cut down. {A.-S.) 

The kyng dude onon afclle 

Many thousande okes, ich telle. 

fiyng Alisaunder, 5240. 
AFENCE. Offence. Prompt. Parv. 



AFEND. To offend. 

Thi God thou schalt nojt afend, 
Bot bryng thiselfe to good end. 

MS. Douce 302, f. 2. 

AFENGE. Received. {A.-S.) 

Seinte Martha guod was, 

As je hereth of telle, 
Hy afenge oure Lord m here hous. 

As it seith in the gospelle. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 

AFEORMED. Confirmed ; made fast. {A.-N.) 
Have who so the maistry may, 
Afeurmed faste is this deray. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 7356. 

AFER. A horse. Nor thumb. 

AFERD. Instructed. {A.-N.) 

And hoteth him sende, fer and nere. 

To his justices lettres hard. 

That the contrais beo aferd 

To frusche the gadelyng, and to bete. 

And none of heom oit ly ve lete. 

Kyng Alisaunder, I<813. 

AFERE. (1) Afraid. As Tyrwhitt does not ex- 
plain this word, I give the French original of 
the passage in which it occurs. 
Mine hert for ire goith afere. 
That I let any entre here. 

Romaunt of the Rose, 4073 
Trop yr^ suis au cueur du ventre. 
Quant oncques nul y mist le pie. 

Le Roman de la Rose, 3827 

(2) To make afraid. {A.-S.) 

Ye have with yow good engynes, 
Swilke knowe but few Sarezynes; 
A mangenel thou doo arere. 
And soo thou schalt hem wel afere- 

Richard Coer de Lion, 4104. 

AFERID. Afraid. {A.-S.) 

Ha ! cowarde herte of love unlerid. 
Whereof arte thou so sore aferid. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 107. 

AFERRE. Afraid. {A.-S.) 

jytte sche that is aferre lette her flee. 

Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 77- 

AFERT. Afraid. {A.-S.) 

So gryslich thei were wrought, 

Uche of hem a swerd brought. 

And mad hire afert so sore. 

The Kyng of Tars, 411. 

A-FETID. This term is applied to deer in the 
followingpassage, and apparently means well or 
fuU shaped. {A.-N) 

And wel a-fetid is whanne the hed is wel woxen by 
ordynaunce after the highte and the schap, whan 
the tyndes be wel growe yn the beem by good me- 
sure. MS. Bodl. 546. 

AFFADIL. A daffodil. A common old form of 
the word, found in Palsgrave, Minsheu, Florio, 
and Cotgrave. " Flour of affadille" is recom- 
mended in a receipt to cure madness, in an old 
medical MS. in Lincoln Cathedral, f. 282. See 
also ArchjEologia, xxx. 382. 

AFFAIED. Afraid ; affrighted ; affected. Lang- 
toft. 

AFFAIES. Burdens. Langtoft. 

AFFAINED. Feigned. Hall. 

AFFAMISH. To famish with hunger. Spenser. 

AFFAYTED. Prepared; instructed; tamed. 
{A.-N.) 



AFF 



25 



AFF 



He hadde a clergon yonge of age, 
Whom he hath in his chamber affaited. 

Gower, ed. 1532, f. 43. 
His cookes ben for hym affapted. 
So that his body is awayted. Jbid. f. 130. 

The 3onge whelpe whiche is affayted. 
Hath not his mayster better awayted 
To couche, whanne he sayeth, " Goo lowe !" 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 46. 
And eehe of hem his tale affayteth 
AUe to deceyve an innocent. 

Ibid. f. 64. 

AFFE. Have. 

That mester affe to wynne theem mede. 

Ritsun'8 Ancient Songs, i. 47. 

AFFEARED. Afraid. Shak. Few provincial 

words are more common. 
AFFECT. (1) To love. This word is used both 

as a substantive and a verb. 

True worth moves few : but sure I am, not many 

Have for bare vertues sake affected any. 

Wither's Abuses, p. 34. 

(2) A property of the mind. 

Yea, they were utterlie void of that affect, which 
is naturallie ingrafFed in man, which is to be pitti- 
full to the humble and prostrate, and to resist the 
proud and obstinat. Holinshed, Hist, of Ireland, p. 55. 

AFFECTATED. Affected. ♦' A stile or oration 
to much affectated wyth strange words." 
Baret. 

AFFECTATION. A curious desire of a thing 
which nature hath not given. Rider. 

AFFECTEOUSLY. Affectionately. See Af- 
fectuously. 

After hys death, his life again was daily wisshed, 
and affecteously emong his subjectes desyred, but 
wishyng served not, nor yet their desyre tooke 
none efifecte. Hall, Edward IV. f. 61. 

AFFECTION. (1) Affectation. Shak. 

(2) Sympathy. See a curious passage in the 
Merch. of Venice, iv. 1, and the notes of the 
commentators. Parson Hugh, Merry Wives 
of Windsor, i. 1, makes a verb of it, to love. 

AFFECTIONATED. Attached. SeetheCobler 
of Canterburie, 1608, sig. E. iii. 

And albeit he trusted the Englishmen well 
inough, yet being borne on the other side of the 
seas, he was more affectionated to the people of those 
provinces there subject unto him. 

Holinshed, Hist, of Ireland, p. 55,* 

AFFECTIONED. Affected. Shak. 

AFFECTUALL. Effectual. Such seems to be 
the meaning of the word in Archaeologia, xxv. 
90, while in the same document, p. 89, a^fec- 
tually occurs in the same sense as affectu- 
ously, q. V. 

Alonso failed not with affectuall and manifest ar- 
gumentes to perswade her that lier housbaud had 
now no more right or title to her at all. 

Riche's Farewell, 1581. 

AFFECTUOUSLY. Passionately ; affection- 
ately. Cf. Giletta of Narbona, ap. Collier's 
Shak. Lib. p. 10; Harrington's Nug. Ant. i. 19 ; 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 99 ; State Pa- 
pers, i. 827. 

1 have sought hym desirusly, 
I have sought hym affectuosly. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 157. 

AFFEEBLED. Enfeebled. 

In the restre-iUL' of natarall issues, strengthening 



the affeebled members, assisting the livelie forces, 
dispersing annoious oppilations, and qualifieng of 
sundrie griefes. Harrison's Desc. of En y land, p. 214. 

AFFEER. To settle ; to confirm. See Macbeth, 
iv. 3. Affeerours, says CoweU, are " those that 
be appointed upon oath to mulct such as have 
committed faults arbitrarily punishable, and 
have no express penalty set down by statute." 
AFFENDE. To offend. 

Lawe is nyje flemid oute of contre, 
For fewe ben that dide it to affende. 

Occleve, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 267. 
But now to the mater that I be-ffore meved, 
Of the gomes so gay that grace hadde uffendid. 

Deposition of Richard II. p. 21. 

AFFERAUNT. The haunch. (A.-N.) 

He bereth moo tyndes then doith an herte. His 
heed may noht be wel devysed withoute payntyng. 
Thei have a longere tayl than the hert, and also he 
hath more grece to his afferaunt then the hert. 

MS. Bodl. 546. 

AFFERDEDE. Frightened. 

Me thoghte scho hade no powere, for the Passyone 
of God comforthed me ; but the grysely syghte of 
hir afferdede me. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 251. 

AFFERE. (1) To belong. (Fr.) 

He was then buryed at Winchester in royall wise. 
As to suche a prince of reason should aff'ere. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 106. 

(2) Countenance ; demeanour. Gaw. 

(3) To terrify. 

The flom the soudan nam, Richard for to affere. 

Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 187. 

AFFERMID. Confirmed. 

And whan that lawe was confermid 
In dewe forme, and alle affermid. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 80. 
Among the goddes highe it is affermed, 
And by eterne word written and confermed. 

Chaucer, Catit. T. 2351. 

AFFESED. Frightened. The following extract 
from Browne is given by Richardson, in v. 
Pheeze, but it is, perhaps, the same with 
fesyne, Prompt. Parv. p. 158, explained to 
make afraid, and which has no connexion, I 
believe, with either pheeze, or A.-S. fesian, as 
Mr. Way seems to intimate. See Fese. 
She for a while was well sore affesed. 

Browne's Shepheard's Pipe, Eel. i. 

AFFICHE. To affirm. (A.-N.) 

Of that they sen a womman tiche, 
Ther wol they alle here love affiche. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 142. 

AFFIE. To trust ; to rely. See Rom. of the 

Rose, 5480 ; Kyng Ahsaunder, 7347. 
AFFINAGE. The refining of metals. Skinner. 
AFFINE. (1) A relative. Shakespeare has it as 
a verb. 

Howe heynous or detestable a cryme sooever he 
had committed, treason onely except, shoulde like- 
wise as affines and alyes to the holy orders besaved^ 
and committed to the bysshoppes pryson. 

Hall, Henry VII. f . 50. 
(2) To refine. Skinner, 
AFFIRE. On fire. 

And hir to love liche as I desire, 
Benigne Lorde, so set myn hert affi,re, 

Lydgate, MS. Aahmole 39, f. 12. 
AFFIRMABLY. With certainty. 

I cannot wryte of suche affirmably . 
, Hardy rig 's Chronicle, f . 58. 



AFF 



26 



AFT 



AFFLIGHT. Flight. 

Of the gripe he had a sight. 
How she flew in afflight. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 82. 

AFFLIGIT. Afflicted. Maundevile. 

AFFOND. Have found. 

A moneth after a mon myghtte horn affond, 
Lyand styll on the grownd. 

Hunttyng of the Hare, 253. 

AFFONG. Same as Afonge, q. v. This form 

occm-s in MS. Arund. Coll. Arm. 8. 
AFFORCE. To strengthen ; to compel. 

Gorge upon gorge to afforce hys lechery ; 
The longe daye he spent in glotony. 

Bochas, b. V. r. 8. 
Swa sulde we do agaynes develles that ajforces thame 
to reve fra us the hony of poure lyfe and of grace. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 194. 

AFFORD. To atford to sell. Non possum 
tantulo vendere, 1 cannot afford it at so little 
a price. Rider. 

AFFORE. To make effective. 

So that thou ous sykerye affure 
To help ous in this clos. MS. Jshmole 33, f. 27- 
Heete and moysture directyth ther passages, 
With greene fervence fujfore yong corages. 

Lydgate'a Minor Poems, p. 244. 

AFFORME. To conform. 

Ye servauntes that wayte upon the table. 

Be ye honest and dylygent ; 
To hym that is most honourable 
Jfforme your maners and entent. 

Doct. of Good Servauntes, p. 8. 

AFFORN. Before. 

And alle the Sarsyns thay a-slowe. 
That thay aff'orn him founde. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 30. 
AFFORST. Thirsty. 

Not halffe ynowh therof he hadde. 

Oft he was afforst. The Frere and the Boy, iv. 

AFFRAIE. Fear. 

But yet I am in grete affraie 

Lest thou sholdest nat doe as I sale. 

Rom. of the Rose, 4397. 
AFFRAMYNGE. Framynge, or afframynge, or 
wynnynge, Lucrum, emolumentum. Prompt. 
Parv. p. 176. 
AFFRAP. To encounter ; to strike down. 
They bene y-mett, both ready to offrap. 

Faerie Queene, II. i. 26. 

AFFRAY. (1) A disturbance. (A.-N.) 
Who lived ever in swiche delite o day. 
That him ne meved other conscience. 
Or ire, or talent, or som kin affray. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 5557. 

(2) To frighten. {A.-N.) 

Needles, God wot, he thought hire to affray. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 8331. 

AFFRAYED. Afraid. 

And whenne Kynge Edwardes hooste had know- 
lege that Sere Perys le Brasille with the Scottes- 
menne were comynge, thei remewed from the sege 
and were aff'rayed. Warkworth'a Chronicle, p. 2. 

AFFRAYNE. To question ; to ask. {A.-S.) 
Byfore the amyral thanne he goth. 
And bygan him for to affrayne. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 28. 
I affrayned hym first 
Fram whennes he come. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 347. 



AFFRENDED. Reconciled. 

Where when she saw that cruell war so ended. 
And deadly foes so faithfully qffrended. 
In lovely wise she gan that lady greet. 
Which had so great dismay so well amended. 

Faerie Queene, IV. ili. 50. 

AFFRET. An assault ; an attack. (Fr.) 

And, passing forth with furious aifret, 
Pierst through his bever quite into his brow. 

Faerie Queene, IV. iii. 11, 
AFFRICTION. Friction. Boyle. 
AFFRODILE. A daffodil. Chesh. 
AFFRONT. To meet face to face ; to encounter. 
Cf. Troilus and Cressida, iii. 2 ; Hamlet, iii. 1. 
" On affront," face to face. Ben Jonson, iv. 
51, has the word as a substantive. 
The brigge ys of fair entaylie. 

On brede fourty fete : 
An hundred knyjtes wythoute faille, 
Ther on affront mowe meet. 

MS. JsUmole 33, f. 22. 

AFFRONTEDNESS. Great impudence. Skinner. 
AFFULDEM. Struck down. (A.-S.) 
Roland is an hardi man. 

So strong man and so wijt ; 
In no batail ther he cam, 

Ne fond he nevere knyjt 
That onys a strok him astod. 

That he on him leide, 
That he ne affuldem were wod, 

Outher slowe at a braide. MS. Ashmole 33. 
AFFYAUNCE. Trust. 

He shrove hym with grete repentaunce, 

But of Goddys mercy he hadde none affyaunce. 

3IS. Harl. 1701, f. 82. 

AFGODNESS. Idolatry. Skinner. 
AFILE. To file; to polish. Cf. Troilus and 
Creseide, ii. 1681. 
Whanne he hath his tunge afilid 
With softe speche and with lesynges. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Jntiq. 134, f. 42. 
For wel he wiste, whan that song was songe. 
He must preche, and wel afile his tonge. 

Chaucer Cant. T, 714. 
AFILED. Defiled. 

Alas, heo saide, y nere y-spilled ! 
For m.en me cleputh quene afiled. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 1064. 

A-FINE. Wel a-fine, in perfection. ^teAfyn. 
For no man at the firste stroke 
Ne may not fel adoune an oke, 
Nor of the reisins have the wine. 
Till grapes be ripe and wel a-fine. 

Rom. of the Rose, 3690. 

AFINGRET. Hungry. Cf. Wright's PoUticai 
Songs, p. 342 ; Piers Ploughman, pp. 133, 176, 
283, 403. 
A vox gon out of the wode go, 
A^ngret so, that him wes wo ; 
He nes nevere in none wise 
AJingret erour half so swithe. 

Reliq. Antiq. ii. 272. 
As hy were on a day sore afyngred. 
To the bord hy sete. 

Af^. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57, f. 3. 

AFIT. On foot. North. 
A-FIVE. Into five pieces. 

Sir Gii to him gan to drive, 

That his sjjcre brast a-Jiuc. Gi of fVar-wike, p. 395. 



AFO 



27 



AFO 



AFLAMING. Flaming. 

The sting of tongues the aftaming fire 'loth feetl. 
Append, to W. Mapes, p. 291. 
AFLAT. Flat. Bacon. 
AFLAUNT. Showily dressed. 

Al aflaunt now vaunt it ; 

Brave wench, cast away care ; 
With layes of love chaunt it. 

For no cost see thou spare. 

Promos and Cassandra, i. 2. 

AFLED. Escaped. 

He shoke his eares. 
And from grete feares 

He thought hym well afled. 

Sir Thomas Morel's Workes, 1557- 

AFLIGHT. To be uneasy. (A.-N.) 
Upon this worde hir herte ajiight, 
Thynkende what was best to doone. 

Gower, b. ii. 
Tho was the boy aflyght. 

And dorst not speke. Octovian, 191. 

A-FLORE. On the floor. 

And over keveryd with a pal, 
A-flore where she stondes. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 90. 
AFL03EN. Flown. 

And were aflo'^en grete and smalle. 
And eke the amerel. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 41. 
AFLY3TE. Same as Aflight, q. v. 
Upon his worde hire herte afli/'^te, 
Thenkende what was best to done. 

Gower, 3IS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 66. 
And tho for fere hire herte aflyi^te. Ibid. f. 112. 
AFO. To take ; to undertake ; to receive. 
Thempereur that was so fre. 
With him Gij than ladde he ; 
Castels him bede and cites, 
Gret worthschip and riche fes ; 
Ac he therof nold afo. 
For nothing that he might do. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 94. 
Bi mi Lord Jhesus Crist, 

This message ichil afo. Ibid. p. 133. 

For nought that y might afo, 
Y nil bitray therl Tirri. Ibid. p. 199. 

AFO AT. On foot. Var. dial 
AFOILD. Foiled ; cast down. 
Felice hadde of him gret rewthe. 
Gii, quod sche, thou lovest me in trewthe ! 
Al to michel thou art afoild ; 

Now thi blod it is acoild. Gy of Warwike, p. 20. 
AFONGE. To take ; to receive. " Afonge hem 
who so afonge," take them who vnll take them. 
Cf. Wright's Middle-age Treat, on Science, p. 
140; Rob. Glouc. p. 91; Arthour and Mer- 
lin, p. 126 ; Kyng AUsaunder, 606, 972, 7289, 
7534. 

Alas ! sede seinte Cuthberd, 

Pole ech am to longe ! 
I nelle this schep no longer kepe, 
Afonge hem who so afonge! 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57, f. 2. 

AFORCE. (1) To force ; to compel. Cf. Kyng 
AUsaunder, 789 ; Rob. Glouc. pp. 121, 323 ; 
Skelton's works, i. 31, 308, explained to mean, 
to attempt, to exert one's self. 
Thoghe men aforced hym, for drede. 
To sey that that man dyd that dede. 

MS. Hurl. 1701, f. 25. 
For ^if a mon aforce hym ay 
To do the goods that he may, 



jit may his goode dedus be so wrought. 
That par chaunce God aloweth hym nought. 

MS. Ashmole 41, £, 31, 
(2) To force ; to ravish. 

He hath me of vilanie bisoiight ; 
Me to aforce is in his thought. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 88* 
AFORE, (1) Before ; forward ; in^ time past. 
(A.-S.) It is used in the two latter senses 
with quick speakers ; especially in the northern 
provinces, and in Norfolk. In MS. Digby 40, 
f. 19, is the proverb, " Hee that will not be- 
ware afore will be sory afterwardes." 
And when the lyenas hungurd sore, 
Sche ete of the gryfFyn more. 

That afore was stronge and wyght. 

MS. Cuntah. Ff. ii. 38, f. 84. 

(2) Gone. So explained in a MS. Somerset- 
shire glossary, lent to me by a native of that 
county. 
AFOREN. Before. Chaucer. 
AFORE-TUZ. Before thou hast. YorJcsh. 
AFORETYME. In time past. Still in use. See 
an instance in the Dial, of Great. Moral, p. 144. 
AFORE-YENE. Over against ; directly in front 
of. Somerset. 
And sayid, nece, who hath arayid thus 
The yondir house, that stante afuryene us ? 

Tniilus and Creseide, ii. 1188. 
AFORNANDE. Beforehand. Prompt. Para. 

AFORNE. Before; formerly. West. 
Aforne provided by grace of Crist Jhesu, 
To were ij. crownys in Yngland and in Fraunce. 
MS. Harl. 2251, f. 4. 

AFORNE-CASTE. Premeditated. 

By high imaginacion afome-caste, 

On a night thorghe the hoggis sty hee brast. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 171. 

AFORRAN. In store; in reserve. North. A 
corruption apparently of aforehand. 

A-FORSE. By necessity. 

Than fifelle it a-fforse to ffille hem ajeyne. 

Deposition of Richard II. p. 28. 

AFORTHE. (1) To afford. {A.-S.) 

And yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe. 
And mesurable hyre. Piers Ploughman, p. 129. 
(2) Continually. {A.-S.) 

And here and there, as that my litille wit 
Aforthe may eek thinke I translate hit. 

Occleve, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 263. 

A-FORWARD. In front. 

Mid thre hondred knyjtes, a duk, that het Siward, 
Asailede Corineus hymself a-forward, 

Rob. Glouc. p. 17. 
AFOTE. On foot. 

Whenne Adam Abelle body fond. 
For sorwe afote my3t he not stond. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 8. 
It felle they fou3ten bothe afote. 

Gower MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. II7. 

AFOUE. A vow= 

Jake seyde, y make afoue, 
Y am as redey as thow. 

The Frere and the Boy, st. Ixvi. 
AFOUNDE. Discovered. 

And tho the Sarsenes afounde 

Her lord was slayn, 
Everych to fle away that stounde 

Was fcrly fayn. Uctovian, 1659 



AFT 



28 



AFT 



AFOUNDRIT. Foundered. 

He was ner afoundlryt, and coud none othir help. 
Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 599. 

A FOUR. Over. 

This men, on the kinges send. 
Went afour half Inglond. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 24 
A-FOYSTE. In Prompt. Parv. p. 7, this is trans- 
lated by lirida, the meaning of which may be 
seen in that work, p. 163. The a is pro 
bably the article, although Mr. Way informs 
me the Winchester MS. reads affyste. 
A-FRAWL. For all ; in spite of. Suffolk. 
AFRAYE. Fear; fright. Cf. Prompt. Parv, 

p. 175. 

That other rode his wave. 
His herte was in grete afraye. 

Syr Tr y amour e, 1332. 

AFRAYET. Afraid. 

The freson was afrayet, and ferd of that fere. 

Riibson's Romances, p. 15. 

AFREED. Afraid. Derbysh. 

AFRET. Fretted; placed crosswise. {A.-N.) 

For round environ her crounet 

Was full of riche stouis afret. 

Rom. of Rose, 3204. 

AFRETIE. To devour. 

Spedeth ou to spewen, 

Ase me doth to spelle ; 
The fend ou afretie 

With fleis ant with felle. 

Wrighfs Pol. Songs, p, 240. 

AFREYNE. To judge. {J.-S.) 

But evere we hope to Thin goodnesse, 
Whanne Thow schalt this werde afreyne. 

Hampole's Stim. Consc. MS. 
AFRONT. In front. See Berners. 

Least his people should be assailed not onlie afront, 
but also upon everie side the battels, he caused the 
ranks so to place themselves, as their battels might 
stretch farre further la bredih than otherwise the 
order of warre required. 

Holinshed, Hist. England, p. .50. 

AFRONTTE. Abreast. 

And worst of all that Tundale fand, 
Afronttc unnethe thei myght passe 

Tundale' s Visions, p 32. 

AFRORE. Frozen. Somerset. 

AFROUGHTE. Asked? {A.-S.) 

The bysschope spake withoute fayle, 
Thoughe he were nothynge afroughte. 

MS. Hart. 2252, f. 114. 

AFROUNT. To accost ; to encounter ; to at- 
tack. {A.-N.) 
An if a pore man speke a word, he shal be foule 
afrounted. Wright's Political Swings, p . 337- 

And with Nede I mette. 
That afrounted me foule. 
And faitour me called. Piers Ploughman, p. 425. 

AFRY3TE. Frightened. 

Hire herte was so sore afiy-^te, 
That 8che ne wiste what to thinke. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 1,34, f. 161. 
He bc-helde ^if the hinde evel hurt were, 
And fond sche nas but a-fri-t,t for fere of that dint. 
Will, and the Werwolf, p. 100. 

AFT. (1) Oft. Percy. 

(2) Behind. Generally a sea term, but it is in 
common use on the banks of the Tyne, and 
occasionally in other y)laces, in the sense here 
given, without any relation to nautical subjects. 



AFTE. Foolish > 

Hit nis hot trewth, I wend, an afte. 
For te sette nego in eni crafte. 

Wright's Political Songi, p. 210. 

AFTER. Afterwards; according to ; according 
to the shape of. " After that they ware," ac- 
cording to their degree. So in the Common 
Prayers, " Neither reward us afier our iniqui- 
ties," i. e. according to our iniquities. The 
word occurs apparently in a peculiar sense in 
Ritson's Ancient Songs, i. 40. 

Theo othir ladies after that they ware. 
To knyghtis weore dcliverid there. 

Kt/ng Alisaunder, 2503. 

AFTERBURTHEN. The afterbirth. This word 
is often used in the curious depositions relating 
to the birth of the Prince of Wales in 1688. 
See Croft's Excerpta Antiqua, 1797. 
AFTERCLAP. Anything disagreeable happening 
after all consequences of the cause have been 
thought at an end. Hartshorne, Salop. Antiq. 
p. 303, says, *' the consequence, issue, result, 
generally received in malam partem." Cf. 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 77 ; ColHer's Old Ballads, p. 94 ; 
Hohnshed, Hist. Engl. p. 197. 
To thy frende thowe lovest moste, 
Loke thowe telle not alle thy worste, 

Whatesoever behappes ; 
For whane thy frende ys thy foo. 
He wolle tell alle and more too ; 

Beware of afterclappes .' MS. Lansd. 762, f. 100. 
So that hit was a sory happe, 
And he was a-gast of after-clappe . 

MS. Duuce 236, f. 14. 

AFTERDEAL. Disadvantage. Cf. Reynard the 
Foxe, p. 149. 

For otherwise the partie ys dryven to a greate 
afterdele, and must be enforced, to his greate chardges, 
to repaire to your majestie for the same, whiche he 
is not well able to doo. State Papers, iii. 460. 

xVFTER-EYE. To keep a person in view; to 

follow him. Shak. 
AFTERFEED. The grass that grows after the 

first crop has been mown, and generally fed 

off, not left for an aftermath, as in some other 

counties. Oxon. 
AFTERINGS. The last milk drawn from a 

cow. Var. dial. 
AFTER-KINDRED. Remote kindred. 

Yet nathelesse your kinrede is but after-kinreie, 
for they ben but litell sibbe to you, and the kiiine 
of your enemies ben nie sibbe to hem. 

Chaucer, ed. Uny, p. 153. 

AFTERliEYS. Aftermaths. Berks. 
AFTER-LONGE. Long afterwards. 

And after-longe he lyved withouten stryfe, 

Tyll he went from his mortall lyfe. 

R'iliq. Antiq. i. 47. 

AFTER-LOVE. Love after the first love. Shak. 
AFTERMATH. A second crop of grass. Var. dial. 
AFTER-SAILS. The sails that belong to the main 
and mizen masts, and keep the ship to the 
wind. 
AFTER-3ERNE. To long after. 

God grauutes us noghte ay that we for-pray, for 
he wille gyfe us better thenne we after-yrue. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f.237 

AFTIN. Often. 

For at a/tin tyme aa thou scorgcdistc liiui with ihJ 



AGA 



29 



AGA 



punyshemcntes, for to make him to obeye to thi 
commaundmentes, he wclde never, but encline to 
me. Gesta Rumanorum, p. 126. 

AFTIRCASTE. A throw at dice after the game 
is ended ; anything done too late. 

Thus ever he pleyeth an aftircaste 
Of alle that he sclialle say or do. 

Goiver, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 109. 

AFT-MEAL. A late meal. 

Indeede, quoth he, I keepe an ordinary, 

Eightpence a meale who there doth sup or dyne; 
And (lyse and cardes are but an accessarye: 
At uft-nicule.s who shall paye for the wine? 

Thynne's Debate, p. 49. 

AFTYR-PARTE. The behind side. Prompt. Parv. 
AFURE. On fire. 

He ssoc ys suerde and grunte, and myd such ernest 

smot. 
That the sprong out myd ech dunt of helme so there. 
That yt thojte myd ech dunt, as that heved nfure 
were. Rob. Glouc. p. 308. 

AFURST. Thirsty. The two forms a-fyngred 
and a-furst, according to Mr. Wright, appear 
to be characteristic of the dialect of the coun- 
ties in the West of England; and a con- 
firmation of this conjecture occurs in MS. 
Lansd. 1033, f. 2, where the word furst is 
given as current in Wiltshire in that sense in 
1697. Cf. Piers Ploughman, pp. 176, 283, 
529; Kyng Horn, 1120; Jfforst. 
A-ferst hy were for werynesse ; 
So sore that nas ende. MS. Coll. Trin , Oxon. 57- 
AFURT. Sullen. West. 

AFVED. Had. 

Of G. will I now lef my tale. 
And of hys felaugh spek I sale. 
That south him al obout ; 
Of hym afved gret dout. 

Gwy of Warwick, Middlehill MS. 

AFWORE. Before. North. 
AFYE. To trust. 

In thaym thu may the afye. 

Guy of WarwicJe, Middlehill MS. 
Pors afyed in his streynthe, 
In his muchehed, and in his leynthe. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 7351 . 

AFYGHE. To trust. 

Who that hath trewe amye, 
Jolifiich he may hym in her afyghe. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 4753. 

AFYGHTETH. Tames ; reduces to subjection. 
{A.-N.) 

Delfyns they nymeth, and cokedrill. 
And afyghteth to heore wille. 
For to beore heom to the flod, 

Kyng Alisaunder, 6583. 

AFYN. In fine ; in the end. {A.-N.) Cf. Boke 
of Curtasye, p. 21 ; Sevyn Sages, 1106 ; 
Maitland's Lambeth Books, p. 307 ; Gy of 
Wai-wike, p. 334 ; Arthour and Merlin, pp. 3, 
143; Emare, 913; Launfal, 343. On com- 
paring these examples, it seems we should oc- 
casionally read a fine, i. e. and fine. So, "wel 
a fine," well and fine. See A-fine. 

AG. To cut with a stroke. North. 

AGAAN. Against ; again. North. 

A-GADE. In the following passage is explained 
by Ellis " distracted," while Weber reads a 
gade, a gadling. 



And saide. Dame, thou art a-gnde. 
That thou mournest for the ded, 
That mai the do nother god ne qued. 

The Sevan Sages, 2638. 
AGADRED. Gathered. Skinner. 
AGAH. The ague. North. 
AGAIN. (1) Against; near to. These senses of 
the word are not obsolete in the provinces. 
Whose lordshyp doutles was slayne lamentably 
Thorow treson, again him compassed and wrought. 

Skelton's Works, i. 6. 
(2) Towards. 

And praide hem for to riden again the quene. 
The honour of his regne to sustene. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 4811. 
Scho felle hir lorde one knees agayne, 
And of his sorow scho ganne hym frayne. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f, 99. 

AGAINST. To ride against the king, or other 
noble person, signified to ride to meet. The 
term is not unfrequently used by early writers. 
See Fairholt's Hist, of Lord Mayors' Pageant-s^ 
p. 6 ; Octavian, 1289. 

AGAINSTAND. To resist ; to oppose. 
With castelles strong and towres for the nones. 
At eche myles ende, to agaynstande all the foonyse. 
Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 53. 

AGAINSTANDANS. Withstanding ; resisting. 

For againstanduns thi rigthand fleghe. 
Home thou me als shit of heghe. 

MS. Bodl. 425, f. 1. 

AGAINTH. Against. North. 
A-GAME. In game. Chaucer, 

AGAN. Gone. 

The day hym was ful nej agan. 

And come was nej the nijt. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 30. 

AGAPE. On the gape. 

More solemn than the tedious pomp that wait* 
On princes, when their rich retinue long 
Of horses led, and grooms besmear'd with gold. 
Dazzles the crowd, and sets them all agape. 

Paradise Lost, b. v. 

AGAR. An exclamation. See the Exmoor 

Courtship, p. 19. 
AGARICK. The fungus on the larch. See 
Gerard, ed. Johnson, p. 1365. Minsheu calls 
it " a white and soft mushroom." It is also 
the name of an Assyrian herb, Cf. Topsell's 
Hist, of Serpents, p. 46 ; Clerk's ed. of Withals, 
p. 113 ; Halle's Expostulation, p. 21. 
AGARIFIED. Having the ague. Suffolk. 
AGAS-DAY. Agatha's Day. See the Paston 
Letters, iv. 426, quoted in Hampson's Med. 
Kalendar. ii. 7. 
AGASED. Astonished ; aghast. Shakespeare has 
the word in 1 Henry VI. i. 1. 
In this cittye all aboute 
Was non so stearne ney so stowte. 
That up loked for greate double, 
The were so sore agased. Chester Plays, ii. 85. 

AGASPE. To gasp. 

Galba, whom his galantys garde for agaspe. 

Skelton's Works, i. 274 

AGAST. Frightened. North. 

He met a dwarfe, that seemed terrifyde 
With some late perill which he hardly past. 
Or other accident which him agast. 

Faerie Queene, III. v 1. 



AGE 



30 



AGG 



AGATE. (1) A-doing ; a-going. To " get agate" 
is to make a beginning of any work or thing ; 
to " be agate" is to be on the road, on the 
way, approaching towards the end. See 
Hunter's Hallamshire Glossary, in v. Cotgrave 
has the expressions " to set the bells a-gate" 
and " to set a wheelbarrow a-gate " See his 
Diet, in V. Brimbaler, Broueter, and the old 
play called Lingua, iii. 6. 

(2) Used metaphorically for a very diminutive 
person, in allusion to the small figures cut in 
agate for rings. See Nares, in v. 

AGATE-WARDS. To go agate-wards with any 
one, is to accompany him part of his way home, 
and was formerly the last oflfice of hospitality 
towards a guest, frequently necessary even now 
for guidance and protection in some parts of 
the country. In Lincolnshire it is pronounced 
agatehouse, and in the North generally 
agaferds. 

AGATHA. In a little tract by Bishop Pilkington 
called " The Burnynge of Paules Church," 
8vo. Lond. 1563, sig. G. i, " St. Agatha's Let- 
ters" are mentioned as a charm for houses on 
fire. Cf. Becon's Works, 1843, p. 139. 

AGATHRID. Gathered. 

With the griffon come foulis fele, 
Ravins, rokis, crowis, and pie. 
And graie foulis, agathrid wele. 

Chaucer, 3d. Urry, p. 188. 

AGAYNBYER. The Redeemer. Prompt. Parv. 
AGAYNE-COMMYNGE. Return. 

For wha so ever tourncz one the rijte hande, he 
salle fynde many obstaclez and grevancez that salle 
peraventure lett his agayne commynge. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 40. 

AGAYNE-STANDE. To resist ; to oppose. 
For no resone ne lawe of lande. 
May noghte ther agayne-stande. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 120. 
AGAYNSAY. Contradiction. Also, a verb, as 
in the following example. 

To which Rogiers daughter called Anne, my most 
derest and welbeloved mother, I am the very trew 
and lineall heyre, whiche diseent all you cannot 
justely agaynsay, nor yet truly deny. 

Hall, Henry VL f. 9(>. 

AGAYNSAYYNG. Contradiction. 
They grauntyd hym hys askyng 
Withouten more agaynxayyng 

Richard Coer de Lion, 600. 

AGAYNWARDE. On the contrary; on the 
other hand. 
Reken agaynwarde how these princes three 
Were full ungoodly quit by thecomont^. 

Bocha.i, b. V. c. 19. 

AGE. To advance in years. " My daam ages 
fast," i. e. she looks older in a short space of 
time. It is sometimes used in Yorkshire in the 
sense of affecting with concern and amazement, 
because those passions, when violent and long 
indulged, are supposed to bring on gray hairs 
and premature old age. The verb aggn occurs 
in Prompt. Parv. p. 8, and Palsgrave has, " I 
age or wexe olde." 

A.GEE. Awry ; obliquely ; askew. North. It is 
sometimes used for " wrong," and occasionally 
a corruption of* ajar," as appUed to a door. 



AGE E AN. Against ; again. North. 
AGEINS. Towards. 

Ageins an olde man, hore upon his hede. 
Ye shuld arise. Chaucer, Cant. T. 12677. 

AGELT. (1) Forfeited. {A.-S.) 

Thei he had i-wraththed your wif, 
Yit had he nowt agelt his lif. 

Sevyn Sage», 686. 
(2) Offends. (A.-S.) 

And huo thet agelt ine enie of the like hestes, hims- 
sel therof vorthencke. MS. Arundel. 57, f. 13. 

AGEN. Again. A very common form in old 
works, and the provincial dialects of the pre- 
sent day. It is sometimes used for against. 
Hartshorne, Salop. Antiq. p. 303, gives the 
meanings, against, contiguous, by, towards, 
when. 
AGENFRIE. The true lord, or owner of any 

thing. Skinner. 
AGENHINE. A guest at a house, who, after 
three nights' stay, was reckoned one of the 
family. Cowell. 
AGERDOWS. Eager; keen; severe. 
He wrate an epitaph for his grave-stone. 
With wordes devoute and sentence agerdows^ 

Skelton'a fVorku, i. 411. 

AGE ST. Afraid; terrified. Exmoor. 
AGETHE. Goeth. Ritson. 
AGEYN. Towards. 

Al day wentyn tho chylderin too. 

And sleych fowndyn he non. 
Til it were a-geyn evyn, 

The chylderin wold gon hom. 

Songa and Carols, x. 

AGEYN-BYINGE. Redemption. Prompt. Parv, 
AGEYNWARDE. On the other hand. 
Men must of right the vertuous preferre. 
And triewly labour preyse and besynesse; 
And ageynwarde dispreyse folke that erre, 
Whiche have no joye but al in idilnesse. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 84. 

AGG. (1) To incite; to provoke. Exmoor. 

(2) A grudge ; a spite. Northumb. 

(3) To hack ; to cut clumsily. Wilts. 
AGGERATE. To heap up. Rider. 
AGGESTED. Heaped up. Coles. 
AGGIE. To dispute ; to murmur. Devon. 
AGGING. Murmuring; raising a quarrel. Exmoor. 
AGGLATED. Adorned with aglets. 

The third day of August in the citie of Amias 
came the Frcnche kyng in a cote of blacke velvet 
upon white satin, and tied with laces ag^lated with 
golde. Hall, Henry VIU. f. 162. 

AGG RACE. To favour. Spenser. This writer 
also uses it as a substantive. 

AGGRATE. (1) To irritate. Var. dial. 

(2) To please ; to gratify. Spenser. 

AGGREDE. To aggravate. Coles. 

AGGREEVANCE. A grievance. 

Unlesse they v;ere proclamed traitors, and with 

all diligence followed and pursued, the event therof 

would be verie evill, to the nggreevance of good 

subjects, and to the incouragement of the wicked. 

Stanilivmfs Hist, of Ireland, p. 172. 

AGGREGE. The same as agreg, q. v. 

But al dred more lest thei geit therof harme to the 
soulc, and tymung for defaut of trespase; fortlu 
that in swelk the synne aggregith bi resoun of the 
degr^, Apuli.gy for the Lollards, p. 4. 



AGH 



31 



AGL 



AGGRESTEYNE. A sickness incident to hawks. 

A receipt for its cure is given in the Book of 

St. Albans. 
AGGREVAUNS. A grievance; an injury. 

Promjjt. Parv. 
AGGROGGYD. Aggravated. Promj}t. Parv. 
AGGROUP. To group. Dryden. 
AGGY. Agnes. North. 
AGHAST. Did frighten. Spenser. 
AGHE. Ought. 

Wele aghe we to breke the bandes of covaytise, 

and ille to drede that byndes men in syn. 

MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f. 4, 

AGHEN. Own. 

And made tille hys aghen lyknes. 

MS. Coll. Sion. xviii. 6. 

That thou destroy thin enimy, that es, he that es 

wise in his aghen eghen. MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f. 12. 

AGHER. Either. 

For when y shuld agJier go or ryde, 

Y dyghte my hevede ryjt moche with pryde. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 22. 

AGHFUL. Fearful. {A.-S.) 

David he was an aghful man, 
Fui right wisli he regnd than. 

MS. Cott. Vespas, A. iii. f. 44. 

AGHLTCH. Fearfnl; dreadful. (A.-S.) 

Ther hales in at the halle-dor an aghlich mayster, 
On the most on the molde on mesure hygh. 

Syi- Gawayne, p. 8. 

AGHT. (1) Anything. {A.-S.) 

Whan aght was do ajens hys wylle. 
He cursed Goddys name wyth ylle, 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 33. 

(2) Owes ; ought. Cf. Chester Plays, i. 233. 

I was noght than so avese, 
Als a damysel aght to be. 

Ywaine and Gawin, 724. 
A, Lord, to luf the aght us welle 
That makes thi folk thus free. 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 59. 
Wele aghte myne herte thane to be his, 
For he es that frende that never wille faile. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 21D. 

(3) Possessions ; property. See the Towneley 
Mysteries, p. 11. (A.-S.) 

And ox, or hors, or other aght. 

MS. Cott Vespas. A. iii. f. 38. 
Or make hym lese hys wurldly aghte, 
Or frendys also to be unsaghte. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 28. 

(4) Possesses. (A.-S.) 

The man that this pitt agJit, 
O the heist sal yeild the pris. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. f. 38. 

(5) The eighth. 

The aght es a maister of lare, 
May bete a clerk. MS. Cott. Galba, E. ix. f. 70 
rC) Eight. Cf. Towneley Mysteries, p. 13 ; 
Ywaine and Gawin, 1438. 

And also he wrate unto thame , that thay scholde 
makegrete solempnytee \astyng a ghte dayes, because 
of the weddynge of Alexander. 

MS. Li teoln A. i. 17, f. 23. 

AGHTAND. The eighth. 

Do your knave barns to a .xumceg 
The aghtand dai that tha; are bom. 

MS. Cart, Vespas. A. Iii. f. 16. 
Seven dais sal wit thair moders duell. 
The aghtan sal thai offcrd be. Ibid. f. 38. 



AGHTELD. Intended. {A.-S.) 

The knight said. May I traist in the 
For to tel my prevet^ 

That I have aghteld for to do. Sevyn Sages, 3053. 

And Alexander went into a temple of Apollo, 

whare als he aghteled to hafe made sacrifice, and 

hafe hadd ansuere of that godd of certane thynges 

that he walde hafe aschede. MS. Line. A. i. 17, f. 11. 

For ur Lord had aghteld yete, 

A child to rais of his oxspring. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. f. 8. 
AGHTENE. Eight. 

Thes are the aghtene vices to knowe. 
In which men falleth that are slowe. 

MS. Bodl. 48, f. 140. 
AGILER. A spy. This is Skinner's explana- 
tion of the word, hut it is probably founded on 
a mistaken reading in one of Chaucer's ballads. 
AGILITE. Agile. 

If it be, as I have sayd, moderately taken after 
some weightie businesse, to make one more freshe 
and agilite to prosecute his good and godly affaires, 
and lawfull businesse, I saye to you againe, he maye 
lawfullye doe it. 

Northbrooke's Treatise against Dicing, n. 53 

AGILT. Offended. Cf. Arch. xxi. 72. (A.-S.) 
Ye wite wel that Tirri that is here 
Hath agilt the douk Loere. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 202, 
He agilte her nere in othir case, 
Lo here all wholly his trespase. 

Rom. of the Rose, 5833. 

AGIN. (1) As if. Yorksh. 

(2) Against. East. 

(3) Again. Var. dial. 

(4) To begin. See Agynne. 

The child was don the prisoun In : 
The maister his tale he gan agin. 

The Sevyn Sages, 1410. 

AGIPE. A coat full of plaits. Coles. 

AGISTMENT. (1) The feeding of cattle in a 
common pasture, for a stipulated price. The 
agistment of a horse for the summer cost 3s. Ad. 
in 1531. See the Finchale Charters, p. 417. 

(2) An embankment ; earth heaped up. In 
marshy counties, where the tenants are bound 
to make and keep up a certain portion of dyke, 
bank, or dam, in order to fence out a stream, 
such bank is called an agistment. 

AGITABLE. Easily agitated. 

Suche is the mutacyon of the common people, 

lyke a rede wyth every wind is agitable and flexible. 

Hall, Edward IV. f. 23L 

A-GLEED. Started up. 

When the body ded ryse, a grymly gost a-gleed. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 116. 

AGLER. A needle-case. It is the translation 
of acuar in MS. Lansd. 560, f. 45, a list of 
words written in Lancashire in the fifteenth 
century. 

AGLET. The tag of a lace, or of the points for- 
merly used in dress, and which was often cut 
into the shape of litlle images. A little plate 
of any metal was cahed an aglet. Cf. Coventry 
Mysteries, p. 241 ; Spanish Tragedy, iv. 4 ; 
Cunningham's Revels Accounts, p. 42 ; Baret's 
Alvearie, in v. Mr. Way tells us the word pro- 
perly denotes the tag, but is often used to sig- 
nify the lace to which it was attached. See 



AGO 



32 



AGR 



Prorapt. Parv, p. 8. Mr. Hartshorne, Salop. 
Antiq. p. 303, says, " a spangle, the gold or 
silver tinsel ornamenting the dress of a show- 
man or rope dancer." 
AGLET-BABY. A diminutive being, not exceed- 
ing in size the tag of a point. See Taming of 
the Shrew, i. 2. 
AGLETS. The catkins of the hazel are called 
aglets in Gerard's Herbal, ed. Johnson, p. 1439. 
Kersey gives them the more generic interpre- 
tation oi anther ce. See Higins' Nomenclator, 
p. 142. 
AGLOTYE. To glut ; to satisfy. 
To maken with papelotes 
To aglotye with here gurles 

That greden aftur fode. Piers Ploughman, p. 529. 
AGLUTTYD. Choked. 

And whan she is waking, she assayeth to put over 
at thentrmg, and it is aglutti/d and kelyd wyth the 
glette that she hath engendered. 

Book of St, Albans, sig. C. ii. 
AGLYFTE. Frightened. 

As he stode so sore aglyfte, 

Hys ryjt hand up he lyfte. MS. Harl. 1701, f. 24. 
AGNAIL. A hang-nail, either on the finger or 
toe. Palsgrave has " agnayle upon one's too." 
Cf. Cotgrave, in v. Agassin; Florio, in v. 
Ghidndole ; Minsheu, in v. In MS. Med. 
Line. f. 300, is a receipt "for agnayls one 
mans fete or womans." {A.-S.) 
AGNATION. Kindred by the father's side. 

Minsheu. 
AGNES-DAY. On the eve of St. Agnes many 
divinations were practised by maids to discover 
their future husbands. Aubrey, p. 136, directs 
that " on St. Agnes's night take a row of pins, 
and pull out every one, one after another, saying 
a paternoster, sticking a pin in your sleeve, and 
you will dream of him or her you shall marry." 
And on sweet St. Anna's night, 
Feed them with a promised sight ; 
Some of husbands, some of lovers. 
Which an empty dream discovers. 

Ben Jonson's Satyr, 1603. 

Brand, who gives these lines without a refer- 
ence, reads " St. Agnes" in the first line, which 
is, I believe, Aubrey's emendation. Annes, 
or Agnes, was a virgin who refused the ad- 
dresses of the son of the prefect of Rome, as 
she was, she said, espoused to Christ. See 
Becon's Works, p. 139 ; Keightley's Fairy 
Mythology, ii. 143. 
AGNITION. An acknowledgment. Miege. 
AGNIZE. To acknowledge; to confess. See 
Othello, i. 3 ; Hawkins' Engl. Dram. i. 258, 
268 ; Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 146. 
AGNOMINATE. To name ; to designate from 
any meritorious action. See Locrine, iii. 3. 
Minsheu explains agnomination to be a " sur- 
name that one obtaineth for any act, also the 
name of an house that a man commeth of." 
A-GO. (1) Gone; passed away. Somerset. 
Of feloni hi ne taketh hede, 
Al thilk trespas is a-go. 

Wnght's Pol. Songs, p. 1.07. 
To mete with Cocke they asked how to do, 
And I tolde them he was a-go. 

Cocke Lovelies Bote, p. 14, 



(2) To go. Cf. MS. Harl. 1701, f. 4. 
Wolde je beleve my wrdys as y, 
Hyt shulde a-go and sokun ky. 

MS. Bod!. 415. 

A-GOD-CHEELD. God shield you ! Pegge. 
AGON. Gone ; past. West. Cf. Harrowing of 
Hell, p. 15 ; Wright's Political Songs, p. 149 ; 
Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 123 ; Chaucer, Cant.T. 
2338 ; Constitutions of Masonry, p. 24. 
Of bras, of silver, and of golde. 
The world is passid and agone. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f, 96. 
Go and loke wele to that stone, 
Tyll the thyrd dey be agone. 

MS. Ashmole 61, f. 139. 
AGONE. Ago. Var. dial. 

As, a while agone, they made me, yea me, to mis- 
take an honest zealous pursuivant for a seminary. 

Barth, Fair, ii. 1, 

AGONIOUS. Agonizing ; full of agony. Fabian. 
AGONIST. A champion ; a prize-fighter. Rider. 
AGONIZE. To fight in the ring. Minsheu. 
A-GONNE. To go. 

Syr Key arose iippon the morrowne. 
And toke his hors, and wolde a-gonne, 

S'jr Gawayne, p. 201. 
AGOO. (1) Ago; since. Dorset. 
(2) Gone. Somerset, 

Evyr leve in shame, and that is al my woo, 
Farewele, Fortune ! my joye is al agoo! 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 44. 

AGOOD. In good earnest ; heartily. 

The world laughed agood at these jests, though, to 
say sooth, shee could hardly afford it, for feare of 
writhing her sweet favour. 

Arnim's Nest of Ninnies, 1608. 

AGORE. Gory ? 

And of his hauberk agore. 

And of his aketoun a fot and more, 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 237. 
A-GOTH. Passes away. 

Be the lef, other be the loth. 

This worldes wele al a-goth. Reliq. Antiq. i. 160. 

AGRADE. To be pleased with. See Florio, 

in V. Gradire. 
AGRAMEDE. Angered. (A.-S.) 
Lybeauus was sore aschamed, 
And yn hys herte agramede, 
For he hadde y-lore hys sworde. 

Lybp.ans Disconvs, 1916. 

AGRASTE. Showed grace and favour. Spenser. 

AGRAUNTE. Satiated with. {A.-N.) 
Thoghe every day a man hyt haunte, 
3yt wyl no man be hyt agraunte. 

MS. Bodl. 415. 

AGRAYDE. To dress, to decorate. 

Thyn halle ngiai/de, and hele the walles 

With clodes, and wyth ryche palles. Launfnl, 904 

AGRAZING. " To send agrazing," seems to be 
a phrase applied to the dismissal of a sen'ant. 
See Cotgrave, in v. Envoyer. 

ACRE. (1) In good part; kindly. {A.-N.) 
Whom I ne founde fro ward, ne fell. 
But toke agrc all whole my plaie. 

Rom. of the Rose, 4.149. 

(2) Kind. (A.-N.) 

Be mercyfuUe, agrc, take parte, and sumwhat pardoone, 
Disdeyne nott to help us, kepe you frome disrenciouiie. 

3IS. Harl. 7526, f. ;t.-j. 



AGR 



33 



AG (J 



(3) To please. Some editions read angre in the 
following passage : 

If harme agre me, wherto plaine I thenne. 

3Vot/tts and Creseide, i. 410. 

AGREABILITE. Easiness of temper; equa- 
nimity. See Urry's Chaucer, p. 369. 
ACREAGE. To allege. 

Neither dyd I ever put in question yf I shoulde 
doe you right, as you appeare to agreage, but onlye 
what was the ordynarye judgement. 

Egerton Papers, p. 226. 

AGREAT. Altogether. To take a work agreat, 

is to take the whole work altogether at a price. 

See Baret's Alvearie, and Blount's Glosso- 

graphia, in v. 

AGREEABLE. Assenting to any proposal. Var. 

dial. 
AGREEABLY. In an uniform manner ; perfectly 
aUke. 
At last he met two knights to him unknowne, 
The which were armed both agreeably. 

Faerie Queene, VI. vii. 3. 

A-GREF. In grief. Cf. Rom. of the Rose, 7573. 
He dasscheth forth overward, 
Theo othres comen afterward : 
He soughte his knyghtis in meschef. 
He tok hit in heorte a-gref. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 3785. 
And, nece mine, ne take it nat a-grefe. 

. Troilua and Creseide, iii. 864. 

Madame, takes not a-greve 
A thyng that y yow say. Sir Degrevant, 467. 
AGREG. To augment ; to aggravate. 
And some tonges venemous of nature. 
Whan they perceyve that a prince is meved. 
To agreg hys yre do their busy cure. 

Bochaa, b. iii. e. 20. 
Of ravyne and of sacrilege, 
Whiche maketh the conscience agregge. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 175. 
That je myjten my gref thus have breggid. 
As je have done, so sore I was agreggid. 

Occleve, MS. ibid. f. 234. 

AGRExMED. Vexed. See Agramede. 
Ac the douk anon up stert, 
As he that was agremed in hert. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 84. 
AGRESSE. To approach. (Laf.) 
Beholde, I see him now agresse. 
And enter into place. 

Hawkins's Engl. Dram, i 258. 

A-GRET. In sorrow. (A.-S.) 
And giflF je holde us a-gret. 
Shall I never ete mete. Sir Degrevant, 1769. 

AGRETHED. Dressed ; prepared. {A.-S.) 
Clothed ful komly for ani kud kinges sone. 
In gode clothes of gold agrethed ful riche. 

fVilliam and the Werwolf, p. 3. 

AGREVE. To grieve any one; to vex. Cf. 
"Wright's Monastic Letters, pp. 188, 189 ; Har- 
dyng's Chronicle, f. 102 ; Holiushed, Hist, of 
Ireland, p. 80 ; The Basyn, xvii. ; Gy of War- 
wike, pp. 295, 318 ; Coventry Mysteries, p. 
41 ; Morte d' Arthur, i. 9, 377; Hartshorne's 
Met. Tales, p. 189 ; Arch. xxi. 71. 
Syr Befyse therof was agrevyd. 
And as swythe smote of his hedd. 

MS. Cantab Ff. ii. 38, f. 123. 
He was agi-evyd and nye owte of wyt. Ibid. f. 247. 



AGRIOT. A tart cherry. Howell. 
AGRIPPA. Apparently the name of a herb. It 
is mentioned in a recipe for the stone in MS. 
Line. Med. f. 298. 
AGRISE. To terrify ; to disfigure ; to be terri- 
fied. It is both an active and a neuter verb. 
Cf. Brit. Bibl. i. 304 ; Cov. Myst. p. 331 ; Gy 
of "Warwike, p. 245 : Florio in v. Legdre ; 
Plowman's Tale, 2300 ; Troilus and Creseide, 
ii. 1435. 

Other bringe him in such turmentes 
That he ther-of ag-yse» 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 67, 
Thys man for fere wax sore agrysyn. 
He spak whan he was rysyn. MS, Bodl, 425. 

In the ende of hervyst wynde shalle rise. 
And whete shalle in the felde agriee. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. V. 48, f. 77. 

AGROMED. Angered. (A.^S.) 

The kyng wes ful sore agromed. 
Ant of ys wordes suithe aschomed. 

Chronicle of England, 863. 
AGROPE. To grope ; to search out. 
For who so wele it wel agrope. 
To hem bilongeth alle Europe. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 173. 

In love agropeth oute the sore. Ibid, f. 144. 

AGROS. Shuddered ; trembled ; was affrighted. 

Cf. Sevyn Sages, 886; Kyng Horn, 1326; 

Troilus and Creseide, ii. 930; Legende of 

Thisbe of Babylon, 125. 

The wif agros of this answere. 

And seyd, have thou no power me to dere? 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 39 
Gii with spors smot the stede. 
As a man that hadde nede. 
That fire under the fet aros ; 
Nas tlier non that him agi-os. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 49. 
Strife and chest ther aros, 
Moni kni3t therof agros. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 106. 
AGROTID. Cloyed ; surfeited. 

But I am all agrotid here beforne 

To write of hem that in love ben forsworne. 

Urry's Chaucer, p. 366. 
Gorges agroteied enbossed their entrayle. 

Bochas, h. v. c. 20. 
AGROTONE. To surfeit with meat or drink. 
Prompt. Parv. The same work gives the sub- 
stantive agrotonynge. 
AGROUND. To the ground. 

And how she fel flat downe before his feete abound. 
Romeris and Juliet, 1562. 

AGRUDGE. Palsgrave has " I agrudge, I am 
agreved, je suis greve." 

AGRUM. A disease of hawks, for which a re- 
ceipt is given in the Book of St. Albau's, sig. 
C. ii. 

AGRYM. Algorism ; arithmetic. Palsgrave is 
the authority for this form of the word, " to 
count by cyfers of agrgm." 

AGUE. (1) Awry ; obhquely : askew. North. 

(2) Swelling and inflammation from taking cold. 
East. Shakespeare has agued in the sense of 
chilly. See Coriolanus, i. 4. In Norfolk an 
ague in the face is said to be invariably cured 
by an unguent made of the leaves of elder, 
called ague-ointment. 

3 



AHT 



34 



AIL 



AGUE-TREE. The sassafras. Gerard. 
AGUILER. A needle-case. {A.-N.) 
A silvir nedil forth I drowe, 
Out of aguiler queint i-nowe. 
And gan this nedill threde anone. 

Rom. of the Rote, 98. 
aGUISE. To put on ; to dress ; to adorn. Spen- 
ser. More, as quoted by Richardson, uses it 
as a substantive. 
AGULT. To be guilty ; to offend ; to fail in 
duty towards any one ; to sin against. Cf. 
Piers Ploughman, pp. 273, 518, 561 ; Rob. 
Glouc. gloss, in v. (A.-S.) 

Thanne Lucifer a-gulte in that tyde. 
And alle that helden with hym in pride, 
Crist on hym vengeaunce gan take, 
So that alle they by-comen develes blake. 

MS. Douce 236, f. 19. 
AG WAIN. Going. Somerset. The same county 

has agwon for gone. 
AGYE. (1) Aside ; askew. North. 
(2) To guide ; to direct ; to govern. 

Syr Launfal schud be stward of halle, 
For to agye hys gestes alle. Launfal, 623. 

AGYNNE. To begin. Cf. Ritson's Anc. S. p. 20. 
Thou wendest that ich wrohte 
That y ner ne thohte. 
By Rymenild forte lygge, 
Y-wys ich hit withsugge, 
Ne shal ich ner agynne 

Er ich Sudenne wynne. KyngHorn, 1285 

AH. (1) I. Yorksh. 
(2) Yes. Derbysh. 

A-HANG. Hanged ; been hanged. Rol). Glouc. 
AH-BUT. A negative, for " nay, but." Var. dial. 
A-HEIGHT. On high. 

From the dread summit of this chalky bourn 
Look up a-height ; the shriil-gorg'd lark so far 
Cannot be seen or heard. Do but look up. 

King Lear, iv. 6. 

A-HERE. To hear. 

Of oon the best ye mowne a-here. 
That hyght Ottovyan. Octovian, 23. 

A-HIGH-LONE. A phrase used by Middleton, 
1. 262, apparently meaning quite alone. See 
also another instance in Mr. Dyce's note on 
the above place. 
AHINT. Behind. North. 
A-HI3T. Was called. (A.-S.) 

That amiabul maide Alisaundrine a-hip. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 22. 

A-HOIGHT. Elevated; in good spirits. See 
Cotgrave, in v. Cheval, Gogue ; Florio, in v. 
In-trtsca. 

A-HOLD. To lay a ship a-hold, to stay her or 
place her so that she may hold or keep to the 
wind. See the Tempest, i. 1, as explained by 
Richardson, in v. 

AHORSE. On horseback. North. It also oc- 
curs in Robert of Gloucester. See Hearne's 
Gloss, in v. 

AIITE. (1) Eight. 

/ihte moneth, ant dawes thre, 

In Engelond king wes he. Chron. of England, 1019. 

(2) Possessions ; property. Cf. W. Mapes, p. 348. 
Ah ! feyre thinges, freoly bore ! 
When me on woweth, bcth war bifore 
Whuch is worldes ahte. Wright' t Lyrtc Poetry, p. 46. 



(3) Ought. Percy. 
AHUH. Awry ; aslant. Var. dial. 
A-HUNGRY. Hungry. Shak. 
AHY. Aloud. 

But for she spake ever vyleyny 

Among here felaws al ahy. MS. Harl. 1701, f. 11. 

AHYGH. On high. 

And owt of the lond no myghte schyp go. 
Bote bytweone roches two, 
So ahygh so any mon myghte seone. 
That two myle was bytweone. Kt/ngAlisaundo; G236. 
One is schippe that saileth in the see, 
A egle ahy^e, a worme in lowe. 

MS. Bib. Reg. 18 A. x. f. 119. 

AH3E. Fear. 

Than it spac Olibrious, 
Hath sche non ah'^e ; 
Alle the paines je hir do, 

Hir thenke it hot plawe. Leg. Cathol.-p. 88. 

AID. In Staffordshire, a vein of ore going 
downwards out of the pei*pendicular hne, is 
called an aid. In Shropshire, a deep gutter 
cut across ploughed land, and a reach in the 
river, are also called aids. 
AIDLE. To addle ; to earn. North. 
AIE. An egg. 

And for the tithing of a ducke, 
Or of an apple, or an aie. Un-y's Chaucer, p. 185, 
AIELS. Forefathers. {A.-N.) 
To gyve from youre heires 

That youre aieU yow lefte. Piers Ploughtnfin, p. 314. 
AIER-DEW. Manna. See Higins's Adaptation 

of Junius's Nomenclator, p. 106. 
AIESE. Pleasure ; recreation. 

Then seide the jurrour. Syne I may not by it, Icte 
it me to ferme. He seide, Sir, I wil nether selle it, 
ne lete it to ferme, for the aiese that it dothe me. 

Gesta Romanorum, p. 435. 

AIG. (1) A haw. Lane. 

(2) Sourness. North. 

AIGHENDALE. A measure in Lancashire con- 
taining seven quarts. Ash. 

AIGHS. An axe. Lane. 

AIGHT. Ought ; owed. Yorksh. 

AIGHTEDEN. The eighth. 

The aighteden dai, ich meselve. 

So the ax pelt in the helve. 

That schal hewe the wai atwo 

That had wrout me this wo. Sevyn Sages, 3^3. 

AIGLE. A spangle ; the gold or silver tinsel 
ornamenting the dress of a showman or rope- 
dancer. Salop. 

AIGRE. Sour ; acid. Yorksh. 

AIGREEN. The house-leek. Kersey. 

AIGULET. The clasp of a buckle. ''Aiguelet to 
fasten a claspe in." — Palsgrave, f. 17. Spenser 
has aygulets in the Faerie Queene, II. iii. 20. 

AIK. An oak. North. 

AIL. To be indisposed. Var. dial. Gill gives 
ail as the Lincolnshire pronunciation of / ivill. 
• See Guest's English Rhythms, ii. 205. 

AILCY. Ahce. North. 

AILE. (1) A writ that lieth where the gi-and- 
father, or great-grandfather was seised in his 
demaines as of fee, of any land or tenement in 
fee simple, the day that he died, and a stranger 
abateth or entreth the same day and dispos- 
sesseth the heir. Cowell. 






AIR 



35 



AIX 



(2) A wing, or any part of a building flanking 
another. The term is usually appMed to the 
passages of a church, and it seems necessary to 
call attention to the technical meaning of the 
word. See Britton's Arch. Diet, in v. 
AILED. Depressed. (A.-S.) 
Schent war tho schrewes. 

And ailed unsele, 
For at the Nevil-cros 

Nedes bud tham knele. Minot's Poems, p. 41. 

AILETTES. Small plates of steel platfed on the 
shoulders in ancient armour, invented in the 
reign of Edward I. SeeArch. xvii. 300, xix. 137. 

AILS. Beards of barley. Essex, Hollyband 
has, " the eiles or beard upon the eare of 
come." 

AILSE. AUce. North. 

AIM. (1) To intend ; to conjecture. YorJcsh. 
Shakespeare has it as a substantive in the same 
sense in the Two Gent, of Verona, iii. 1. 

(2) To aim at. Greene. 

(3) " To give aim," to stand within a convenient 
distance from the butts, to inform the archers 
how near their arrows fell to the mark. Me- 
taphorically, it is equivalent to, to direct. See 
Collier's Shakespeare, i. 167 ; Tarlton's Jests, 
p. 24 ; True Tragedie of Richard the Third, 
p. 27. 

(4) " To cry aim," in archery, to encourage the 
archers by crving out aim, when they were 
about to shoot. Hence it came to be used for, 
to applaud, to encourage, in a general sense- 
See King John, ii. 1. A person so employed 
was called an aim-crier, a word which is meta- 
phorically used for an abettor, or encourager. 
See Nares, in v. 

AIN. (1) Own. North. 
(2) Eyes. 

Than was Sir Amis glad and fain ; 

For joie he wepe with his ain. 

Amis and Amiloun, 2138. 

AINCE. Once. North. 
AINOGE. Anew. Rob. Glouc. 
AINT. To anoint. It is figuratively used to de- 
note a beating. Suffolk. 
AIR. (1) Early. 

I grlev'd you never in all my life. 

Neither by late or air ; 
You have great sin if you would slay 

A silly poor beggar. Robin Hood, i. 107. 

(2) An heir. Cf. Kyng AUsaunder, 763 ; Minot's 
Poems, p. 14. 

Than was hi» fader, sothe to say, 

Ded and birid in the clay ; 

His air was Sir Cioun. Gy of Warwike, p. 267. 

(3) Appearance. " The air of one's face. Sym- 
metria qucedam lineamentorum vultus." — Skin- 
ner. 

(4) Previously ; before. See Are. 

AIRE. An aerie of hawks. Miege. Howell 
terms a well-conditioned hawk, " one of a 
good aire." 
AIREN. Eggs. 

Another folk there is next, as hogges crepeth ; 
After crabben and airen hy skippen and le|)efh. 

Kyng AUsaunder, 4943, 



AIRLING. A light airy person ; a coxcomb. 
Some more there be, slight airlings, will be won 
With dogs and horses. Jonson*a Catiline, i. 3. 

AIRMS. Arms. North. 
AIRN. (1) Iron. Burns uses this word, and it 
also occurs in Maundevile's Travels. See Glos- 
sary, in V. 
(2) To earn. Wilts. 

AIRT. A point of the compass. North. 
AIRTH. Afraid. North. 
AIRTHFUL. Fearful. North. 
AIRY. An aiery ; an eagle's nest. See this form 
of the word in Massinger's Maid of Honour, i. 
2. It is also used for the brood of young in 
the nest. 
AIS. Ease. 

Whanne the gestes weren at ais. 
Thai wenten horn fram his paleis. 

The Sevyn Sages, 1869. 
AISE. Axweed. Skinner. 
AISH. Stubble. Hants. 
AISIELICHE. Easily. 

And to the contreye that je beoz of 

Seththe je schullen i-wende, 
Wilhoute travail al aiaieliche. 
And thare owre lif ende. MS. Laud, 108, f. lOG. 
AISILYHE. Vinegar. 

And In mi mete thai gaf galle tole. 

And mi thrist with aisilyhe drank thai me. 

MS. Bodl. 425, f 35. 

AISLICHE. Fearfully. {A.-S.) 
There I auntrede me in. 
And aisliche I seyde. Piers Ploughman, p. 471 

AISNECIA. Primogeniture. Skinner. 

AIST. Thou wilt. Line. 

AISTRE. A house. This word is in common 
use in Staffordshire, Shropshire, and some 
other counties, for the fire-place, the back of 
the fire, or the fire itself : but formerly it was 
used to denote the house, or some particular 
part of the house, chambers, or apartments. 

AISYLL. Vinegar. Minsheu. 

AIT. A little island in a river where osiers grow. 
See the Times, Aug. 20, 1844, p. 6. 

AITCH. An ach, or pain ; a paroxysm in an in- 
termitting disorder. Var. dial. See a note 
on this pronunciation of ache in Boswell'j 
Malone, vii. 99. 

AITCH-BONE. The edge-bone. Var. dial. 

AITCHORNING. Acorning ; gathering acorns. 
Chesh. 

AITH. An oath. North. 

AITHE. Swearing. (A.-S.) 

Pride, wrathe, and glotonie, 
Aithe, sleuthe, and lecherie. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 31 . 

AITHER. (l^ Either. North. Some of the 
provincial glossaries explain it, also, each. 
Chese on aither hand. 
Whether the lever ware 

Sink or stille stande. Sir Trittrem, p. 154. 

(2) A ploughing. North. 
AI-TO. Always. So explained in the glossary 
to the Apology for Lollard Doctrines, attri- 
buted to Wickliffe, in v. 
AITS. Oats. North. 
AIXES. An ague. North. 



AKE 



36 



AKN 



AIYAH. The fat about the kidney of veal or 
mutton. Sufolk. 

A J AX. Pronounced with the second syllable 
long. A silly quibble between this word and 
ajd/teswasnot uncommon among Ehzabethan 
writers; and Shakespeare alludes to it in this 
way in Love's Labours Lost, v. 2. Sir John 
Harrington was the principal mover in this 
joke. See an apposite quotation in Douce's 
Illustrations, i. 245. 

AJEE. Awry ; uneven ; Var. dial 

AJORNED. Adjourned. 

He ajorned tham to relie in the North at Carlele. 

Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 309. 

AJUGGEDE. Judged. 

The gentileste jowelle, a-juggede with lordes, 
Fro Geene unto Gerone, by Jhesu of hevene. 

Morte Arthur e, MS. Lincoln, f. 62. 

AJUST. To adjust. 

For whan tyme is, I shal move and a-juat soch 
thinges that percen hem ful depe. 

Urry's Chaucer, p. 367. 

AK. But. {A.-S.) 

Ak loke that we never more 
IJego sette in trew lore. 

Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 211. 

AKALE. Cold. (A.-S.) See Acale. 
That night he sat wel sore akale. 
And his wif lai warme a-bedde. 

Sevyn Sages, 1512. 

AKARD. Awkward. North. 
AKCORN. An acorn. Cf. Florio, in v. Acildne ; 
Urry's Chaucer, p. 364, spelt akehorne. {A.-S.) 
He clambe hye upon a tree. 
And akcorns for hungur ete he. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f 131. 
MCE. An oak. Ake-appilles are mentioned in 
MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 285. 

Tak everferne that grewes on the ake, and tak 
the rotes in Averell, and wasche hit wele. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 52. 

It was dole to see 

Sir Eglamour undir ane ake, 

Tille on the morne that he gunne wake. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. I7f f' 140. 

AKEDOUN. The acton, q. v. 

Through brunny and scheld, to the akedoun. 
He to-barst atwo his tronchon. 

Kt/ng Alisaunder, 2153. 

AKELDE. Cooled. {A.-S.) 

The kyng hyre fader was old man, and drou to 

feblesse, [destresse, 

And the anguysse of hys dojter hym dude more 

And akelde hym wel the more, so that feble he was. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 442. 

AKELE. To cool. {A.-S.) 

And tau3te, yf love be to hot. 
In what maner it schulde akele. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 120. 
Nym jeme that the fury coles 

Moche a-keleth me. 
And shoUe into the stronge pyne 
Of helle brynge the. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 
4KENNYNGE. Reconnoitring ; discovering. 

^A..S.) 

At the othir side akennynge, 
'i'hcv sygh Darie the kyng, 

Vv HIT Alisaunder, 3468. 



AKER. (1) Sir F. Madden, glossary to Syr 
Gawayiie, conjectures this to be an error, for 
uch a, each, every. See p. 53. Its meaning 
seems rather to be either. It may be an error 
for aither, or ather. 

(2) The expression ** halse aker" occurs in Gam- 
mer Gurton's Needle, i. 2, but is conjectured 
to be an error for " halse anker," or halse 
anchor. The halse, or halser, was a particular 
kind of cable. 

(3) An acre ; a field ; a measure of length. 
The Frenschemen thai made recuUe 
Wel an akers lengthe. MS. Aahmole 33, f. 13. 

AKER-LOND. Cultivated land. {Dut.) 
In thilke time, in al this londe, 
On aker-lond ther nes y-founde. 

Chron. of England, 16. 

AKER-MAN. A husbandman. See the Nomen- 
clator, 1585, p. 513 ; and Florio, in v. Aratdre. 
Ake aker-men weren in the feld, 
That weren of him i-war. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 168. 

AKETHER. Indeed. Devon. In the Exmoor 
Scolding, p. 4, we are told it means, " quoth 
he, or quoth her." 

AKEVERED. Recovered. 

Sche akevcred parmafay. 
And was y-led in liter. 

Arthour and Merlin, 8550. 

AKEWARD. Wrongly. 

Thus use men a newe gette, 
And this world akeward sette. 

MS. Ashmole 41, f. 18. 

AKNAWE. On knees ; kneeling. 

And made mony knyght aknawe. 
On medewe, in feld, ded bylaue. 

Kyng Alimunder, 3540. 

A-KNAWE. To know ; to acknowledge ; known ; 
acknowledged. 

Bot jif y do hit it ben a-knawe. 
With wild hors do me to-drawe. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 42. 

And seyd, Thef, thou schalt be slawe, 
Bot thou wilt be the sothe aknawe. 
Where thou the coupe fond ! 

Amis and Amiloun, 2099. 

For Jhesu love, y pray the, 
That died on the rode tre, 
Thi right name be aknawe. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 335. 

AKNAWENE. Known. 

Bot we beseke 50W latez us gaa, and we schalle 
mak aknawene untille hym 30ur grete glory, 3(iur 
ryaltee and jour noblaye. MS. Lincoln, f. 8. 

AKNEN. On knees. 

Tho Athelbrus astounde, 

Fel aknen to grounde. Kyng Horn, 340. 

Sire Eustas sat adoun akne : 

Loverd, he sede, thin ore. 

MS. Ashmole 43, f. 17?- 

A-KNEWES. On knees. 

To-forn him a-knewes sche fel. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 88. 

AKNOWE. Conscious of. Used with the auxi- 
hary verb, it appears to signify, to acknow- 
ledge. Cf. Gloss, to Urry ; Sevyn Sages, 1054 ; 
Courte of Love, 1199 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 280 ; 
Suppl. to Hardyng, f. 7 ; Seven Pen. Psalms, 



ALA 



il 



ALA 



p. 22; Gesta Romanorum, pp. 326, 360, 361, 
363 ; MS. Ashmole 59, f. 130. 
And he wole in hys laste throwe, 
Sorow for hys synne, and be of hyt aknnwe. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 35. 
Be than aknowen to me openly, 
And hide it noujt, and I the wil releven. 

Boetius, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 287. 
I and my wif are thyne owen, 
That are we wel aknowen. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin, Cantab, f. 20. 

A-KNOWE. On knee. Cf. K. Alls. 3279. 

A-knowe he sat, and seyd, merci. 
Mine owen swerd take, belami. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 358. 

AKSIS. The ague. 

I lekyn uche a synful soule to a seke man. 
That is y-schakyd and schent with the aksis. 

Audelat/'s Poems, p. 47- 

AKSKED. Asked. 

And afterwardes the same Prate aksked me what 
newes I hade harde of Kynge Edward, and I an- 
swered hyme, none at all. Archceologia, xxiii. 23. 

AKYR. An acorn. 

The bores fedyng is propreliche y-cleped akyr of 
ookys berynge and bukmast. MS. Bodl. 546. 

AL. Will. Yorksh. In the North, we have the 
elliptical form a' I, for / will, and in other coun- 
ties the same for he will. 

ALAAN. Alone. North. 

the alaan 

And thy Troyanss, to have and enhabite. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 14. 

ALABLASTER. (1) A corrupt pronunciation 

of a/ada«^er, still common, and also an archaism. 

See the Monasticon, iv. 542 ; Wright's Monastic 

Letters, p. 268. 

(2) An arbalest. 

But surely they wer sore assauted, and marvey- 

lously hurte with the shot of alablasters and crosse- 

bowes, but they defended themselfes so manfully that 

their enemies gat small advauntage at their handes. 

Hall, Henry VI. f. 21. 

ALABRE. A kind of fur. 

And eke his cloke with alabre. 
And the knottes of golde. 

MS. Rawl. Poet. 137, f- 25. 

ALACCHE. To fell. (A.-N.) 

The Frensche laid on with swerdis brijt. 

And laiden doun hur fon, 
AUe that thai than alacche mi5t ; 

Ther na ascapeden non. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 41. 

A-LADY. Lady-day. Sufolk. 
AL-ALONE. Quite alone. 

The highe God, whan he had Adam maked. 

And saw him al alone belly naked. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 9206. 

ALAMIRE. The lowest note but one in Guido 
Aretine's scale of music. See Skelton's Works, 
ii. 279. 
ALAND. (1) On land; to land. 

Where, as ill fortune would, the Dane with fresh 

Was lately come aland. [supplies 

Drayton's Pol. ed. 1753, p. 903. 

(2) A kind of bulldog. In Spanish alano. See 
Ducange, in v. Alanus; Chaucer, Cant.T. 2150 ; 
ElUs's Metr. Rom. ii. 359 ; Warton's Hist. Engl. 
Poet. ii. 145. On a spare leaf in MS. Coll. 
Arm. 58, is written, " A hunte hath caste of a 



cople of aloundys." They were chiefly used for 
hunting the boar. See Strutt's Sports and 
Pastimes, p. 19. The Maystre of the Game, 
MS. Bodl. 546, c. 16, divides them into three 
kinds. See further observations on them in 
Sir H. Dryden's notes to Twici. 
ALANE. Alone. North. 
ALAN EWE. New ale ; ale in corns. See 

Huloet's Abcedarium, 1552, in v. 
ALANG. Along. North. In North Hants they 

say, " the wind is all down alang." 
ALANGE. Tedious ; irksome. In the Prompt. 
Parv. p. 9, we have it in the sense of strange, 
translated by extraneus, exoticus. 
In time of winter alange It is ; 
The foules lesen her btis. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 156. 
The leves fallen of the tre. 
Rein alangeth the cuntr^. Ibid. 4212. 

ALANGENES. Explained by Weber " single 
life." In Prompt. Parv. p. 9, strangeness. 
His sepjaunts ofte to him come. 
And of alangenes him undernome. 
And [bade] him take a wif jolif. 
To solace with his olde lif. Sevyn Sages., 1,7^16. 
ALANTUM. At a distance. North. Kennctt, 
MS. Lansd. 1033, gives the examples, " I saw 
him nt alangtun," and, "I saw him alantum off." 
ALAPT. This is the reading of one of the quartos 
in a passage in King Lear, i. 4, generally read 
attask^d. The first two folios read at task. If 
the word be correct, it probably agrees with 
the context if explained in the same way as 
attask'd ; and the term alapat, in the follow- 
ing passage, seems used in a similar sense. All 
editors, I believe, reject alapt. The following 
work is erroneously paged, which I mention in 
case any one compares the original. 

And because the secret and privy boosome vices 
of nature are most offensive, and though least scene, 
yet most undermining enemies, you must redouble 
your endeavor, not with a wand to alapat and strike 
them, onely as lovers, loath to hurt, so as like a snake 
they may growe together, and gette greater strength 
againe. Melton's Sixe-fold Politician, p. 126. 

ALARAN. A kind of precious stone. 
Here cropyng was of ryche gold. 
Here parrcUe alle of alaran ; 
Here brydyll was of reler bolde. 

On every side hangyd bellys then. 

MS. Lan&d. 762, f. 24. 

ALARGE. To enlarge. Cf. Gen. ix. 27. 

God alarge Japheth, and dwelle in the tabernacUs 
of Sem, and Chanaan be the servaunt of hym. 

Wickliffe, MS. Bodl. 277. 

ALARGID. Bestowed; given. 
Such part in ther nativitie 
Was then alargid of beau tie. 

Chaucer's Dreame, 156. 
ALARUM. Rider explains alarum to be a " watch- 
word showing the neernesse of the enemies." 
The term occurs constantly in the stage direc- 
tions of old plays. 
ALAS-A-DAY. An exclamation of pity. Var.diaL 
ALAS-AT-EVER. An exclamation of pity. Yorksh.. 
ALASSN. Lest. Dorset. 
ALAST. At last; lately. Cf. Ritson's Anc. 
Songs, p. 9 ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 217. 



ALB 



Whose hath eny god, hopeth he nout to holde. 
Bote ever the levest we leoseth alast. 

Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 149. 

ALATE. (1) Lately. Cf. Percy's Reliques, p. 27 ; 
Wrifflit's Monastic Letters, p. 148. 

Thy minde is perplexed with a thousand sundry 
passions, alate free, and now fettered, alate swim- 
ming in rest. Greene's Gwydonius, 1593. 
(2) Let. So at least the word is explained in 

a glossary in the Archseologia, xxx. 403. 
ALATRATE. To growl ; to bark. (Lat.) 

Let Cerberus, the dog of hel, alatrate what he 
liste to the contrary. 

Stubbe's Anatomie of Abuses, p. !/«• 

ALAUND. On the grass. 

Anone to forest they founde. 
Both with home and with hound, 
To breng the dere to the grond 

Alaund ther they lay. Sir Degrevant, 492. 

ALAWK. Alack; alas. Sufolk. 

A.LAY. (1) To mix; to reduce by mixing. Gene- 

raUy applied to wines and Uquors. See Thynne's 

Debate, p. 59. 
(2) A term in hunting, when fresh dogs are sent 

into the cry. 

With greyhounds, according my ladyes bidding, 
I made the alay to the deere. 

Percy's Faery Pastor all, p. 150. 

ALAYD. Laid low. 

Socoure ows, Darie the kyng ! 
Bote thou do us socoure, 
Alayd is, Darie, thyn honoure ! 

Kyng Alisaunder, 2386. 

ALAYDE. Applied. 

But at laste kyng Knowt to hym alayde 
These wordes there, and thus to hym he sayde. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 119. 

ALAYNED. Concealed. 

The sowdan sore them aflTrayned 

What that ther names were ; 
Rouland saide, and noght alayned, 
Syr Roulande and sire Olyvere. 

MS. Douce 175, p. 37. 

ALBACORE. A kind of fish. (Fr.) 

The albacore that foUoweth night and day 
The flving fish, and taltes them for his prey. 

^ ^ Brit. Bibl. ii. iS2. 

ALBE. (1) Albeit ; although. 

Albe that she spake but wordes fewe, 
Withouten speche he shall the treuthe shewe. 

Lydgate, MS. Ashmole 39, f. 46. 
^/be that he dyed in wretchednes. 

Bochas, b. iv. c. 13. 

(2) A long white Unen garment, worn by Roman 
CathoUc priests. See Peter Langtoft, p. 319, 

and gloss, in v. 

Mon in albe other cloth whit. 

Of joie that is gret delit. Reliq. Antiq. i. 262. 

ALBESPYNE. White-thorn. 

And there the Jewes scorned him, and maden him 
a crowne of the braunches of albespyne, that is white 
thorn, that grew in that same gardyn, and setten it 
on his heved. Maundevile's Travels, p. 13. 

ALBEWESE. All over. 

Take a porcyown of fresche chese. 
And wynd it in hony albeweae. 

ArchcBologia, xxx. 355. 

ALBL\N. An old term for that variety of the 



38 ALC 

human species now caUed the Albino. See an 
epitaph quoted by Mr. Hunter in his additions 
to Boucher, in v. 
ALBIFICATION. A chemical term for making 
white. See Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit 
pp. 128, 168. 

Our fourneis eke of calcination. 
And of wateres albification. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 16273. 

ALBLADE. See a list of articles in Brit. Bibl. 

ii. 397. 
ALBLAST. An instrument for shooting arrows. 
1 Both alblast and many a bow 

War redy railed opon a row. 

Minofs Poems, p. 16. 
AUe that myghte wapyns here, 
Swerde, alblastus, schelde or spere. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 115. 

ALBLASTERE. A crossbow-man. Sometimes 
the crossbow itself. 
That sauh an alblastere ; a quarelle letc he flie. 

Langtoft, p. 206. 
With alblastres and with stones. 
They slowe men, and braken bones. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 1211. 

ALBRICIAS. A reward or gratuity given to 
one that brings good news. {Span.) 
Albricias, friend, for the good news 1 bring you; 
All has fallen out as well as we could wish. Elvtra,ii. 
ALBURN. Auburn. Skinner. It is the ItaHan 
alburno, and is also Anglicised by Florio, 
in v. 
ALBYEN. The water, &c. The meaning of the 
term will be found in Ashmole's Theat. Chem. 
Brit. p. 164. 

ALBYN. White. 

The same gate or tower was set with compassed 
images of auncient prynces. as Hercules, Alexander 
and other, by entrayled woorke, rychely lymned wytti 
golde and albyn colours. Hall, Henry VIU. f. 73. 

ALBYSI. Scarcely. The MS. in the Heralds' 
College reads " unnethe." 

Tho was Breteyn thislondof Romaynes almest lere, 
Ac albysi were yt ten 3er, ar heo here ajeyn were. 

Rob. Glouc. f. 81. 

ALCALY. A kind of salt. 

Sal tartre, alcaly, and salt preparat. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 16278. 

ALCAMYNE. A mixed metal. Palsgrave has 
this form of the word, and also Pynson's edi- 
tion of the Prompt. Parv. See that work, 
p. 9; Unton Inventories, p. 26; Skeltons 
Works, ii. 54. 

ALCATOTE. A silly fellow. Devon. In the 

Exmoor Courtship, pp. 24, 28. it is spelt 

alkitotle, and explained in the glossary, a 

silly elf, or foolish oaf." 

Why you know I am an ignorant, unable trifle in 

such business; an oaf, a simple alcatote, an innocent 

Ford's Works, ii. 212. 

ALCATRAS. A kind of sea-gull. {Ital.) 

Ned Gylman took an alcatrash on the mayn top- 
mast yerd, which ys a foolysh byrd. but good lean 

rank meat. ^«- ^'^''"- ^'^^' 

Most like to that sharp-sighted alcairas. 
That beats the air above the liquid glass. 

Drayton's Works, ed. 1748, p. 407- 



ALD 



39 



ALD 



A.LCE. Also. Sir F. Madden marks this as an 
irregular form. See Als. 
The kyng kyssez the knyjt, and the whene alee. 
And sythen mony syker kny3t, that sojt hym to 
hay Ice. Syr Gawayne, p. 91. 

ALCHEMY. A metal, the same as Alcamynej 
q. V. 

Four speedy cherubims 

Put to their mouths the sounding alchemy. 

Paradise Lost, ii. 517. 

ALCHOCHODEN. The giver of life and years, 
the planet which hears rule in the principal 
places of an astrological figure, when a person 
is born. See Albumazar, ii. 5. 
ALCONOMYE. Alchemy. 

Of thilke elixir whiche men calle 
Alconomye, whiche is befalle 
Of hem that whilom weren wise. 

Gotver, MS. Soc. Jntiq. 134, f . 120. 

ALD. (1) Old. 

Princes and pople, aid and jong, 
Al that spac with Duche tung. Minot's Poems, p. 8. 
(2) Hold. 

Thof I west to be slayn, 
I sal never aid te ogayn. 

Guy of Warwick, Middlehill MS. 
Curatus resident thai schul be. 
And aid houshold oponly. 

Audelay's Poems, p. 33. 
ALDAY. Always. {Dan.) 

They can afforce tliem alday, men may sec» 
By singuler fredome and domiiiacion. 

Bvchas, b. i. c 2W. 

ALDER. (1) The older. 

Thus when the aldn- hir gan forsake. 

The yonger toke hir to his make. Senyn Sage.<t, 3729. 

(2) According to Boucher, this is " a common 
expression in Somersetshire for cleaning the 
alleys in a potatoe ground." See Qu. Rev. 
Iv. 371. 

(3) Of all. Generally used with an adjective in 
the superlative degree. See the instances 
under alder and alther, compounded vnth 
other words. 

Of alle kinges he is flour. 
That sulfred deth for al mankin ; 
He is our alder Creatour ! Leg. Cathol. p. 173. 
ALDER-BEST. Best of aU. Cf. Prompt. Parv. 
pp. 9, 33 ; Gy of Warwyke, p. 22 ; Dreme of 
Chaucer, 1279 ; Skelton's Works, ii. 63. 
That all the best archers of the north 

Sholde come upon a day. 
And they that shoteth alderbegt 

The game shall bere away. Robin Hood, i. 51. 
ALDERES. Ancestors. 

Of alderes, of armes, of other aventures. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 6. 

ALDER-FIRST. The first of all. Cf. Rom. 
of the Rose, 1000 ; Troilus and Creseide, 
iii. 97. 

That sraertii sehal smite the alderfirst dint. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 121. 
The soudan forthwith alderfarst 
On the Cristen smot wel fast. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 123. 

ALDER-FORMEST. The foremost of all. Cf. 
Ellis's Met. Rom. iii. 76. 

William and themperour wfent alderformest. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 176. 



ALDER-HIGHEST. Highest of all. 

And alder-highest tooke astronomye 
Albmusard last withe her of sevyn. 
With instrumentis that raught up into hevyn. 
Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 11. 

ALDERKAR. A moist boggy place where 
alders, or trees of that kind grow. See Prompt. 
Parv. pp. 9, 272. In the former place it is 
explained locus ubi alni et tales arbores 
cvescV/Ttt 

ALDER-LAST. Last of all. 

And alder-last, how he in his citee 
Was by the sonne slayne of Tholom^^. 

Bochas, b. v. c. 4. 

ALDER-LEEFER. Instances of this compound 
in the comparative degree are very unusual. 
An alder-leefer swaine I weene. 
In the barge there was not seene. 

Cobler of Canterburie, 1608, sig. E. ii. 
ALDER-LEST. Least of all. 

Love, ayenst the whiche who so defendith 
Himselvin moste, him aldirlest availeth. 

Troilus and Creseide, \. 605. 

ALDER-LIEFEST. Dearest of all. This com- 
pound was occasionally used by Elizabethan 
writers. See Collier's Annals of the Stage, 
i. 262 ; 2 Henry VI. i. 1 ; Troilus and Creseide, 
iii. 240. 

ALDERLINGS. A kind of fish, mentioned in 
Muffet's Treatise on Food, p. 175, and said by 
him to be betwixt a trout and a gravling. 

ALDER-LOWEST. Lowest of all. See a gloss 
in MS. Egerton 829, f. 23, and Reliq.Antiq. i. 7. 

ALDERMANRY. "The government of Stamford 
was long before their written charter, held and 
used amongst themselves by an ancient pre- 
scription, which was called the Aldermanry of 
the guild." — Butcher's Stamford, 1717, p. 15. 

ALDERMEN. Men of rank. 

Knyjtes and sqwyers ther schul be. 
And other aldermen, as je schul se. 

Const, of Masonry, 414 

ALDER-MEST. Greatest of all. Cf. Arthour 
and Merlin, p. 83 ; Legendse Cathohcae, pp. 
170, 252. 

But aldirmost in honour out of doute, 
Thei had a relicke hight Palladion. 

Troilus and Creseide, i. 162. 

ALDERNE. The elder tree. Goats are said to 
love aldeme, in Topsell's Hist, of Foure-footed 
Beasts, p. 240. 
ALDER-TRUEST. Truest of all. 

First, English king, I humbly do request. 
That by your means our princess may unite 
Her love unto mine aldertruest love. 

Greene's Works, ii. 156. 

ALDER-WERST. Worst of all. 

Ye don ous alderwerst to spede. 
When that we han mest nede. 

Gy of Warwike^ p. 128. 

ALDER-WISIST. The wisest of all. 
And truiliche it sitte well to be so. 
For aldirwisist han therwith ben plesed. 

Troilus and Creseide, i. 247> 

ALDES. Holds. 

For wham myn hert is so hampered a»d aides so 
nobul. Will, and the Werwolf, p. 1?. 

ALDO. Although. East. 



ALE 



40 



ALE 



ALDREN. Elders. 

Thus ferden oure aldren bl Noees dawc. 
Of mete and of drinke hi fulden here mawe. 

MS. Bodl. 652, f. 1. 

ALDRIAN. A star on the neck of the lion. 
Phebus hath left the angle meridional, 
And yet ascending was the beste real, 
The gentil Lion, with his Aldrian. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 10579. 

ALDYN. Holden; indebted. 

Meche be 3e aldpn to the pore. MS. Douce 302, f. 20. 
ALE. (1) A rural festival. See Ale-feast, 
And all the neighbourhood, from old records 
Of antique proverbs, drawn from Whitsun lords. 
And their authorities at wakes and ales. 

Ben Jonson's Tale of a Tub, prol. 

(2) An ale-house. This is an unusual meaning 
of the word. See Two Gent, of Verona, ii. 5 ; 
Greene's Works, i. 116; Davies's York Records, 
p. 140 ; Lord Cromwell, iii. 1 ; Piers Plough- 
man, p. 101. 

When thei have wroght an oure ore two, 
Anone to the ale thei wylle go. 

MS. Ashmole 61, f. 25. 

(3) The meaning of the words beer and ale are 
the reverse in different counties. Sir R. Baker's 
verses on hops and beer are clearly erroneous, 
ale and beer having been known in England at 
a very early period, although hops were a later 
introduction. See Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 27. 
Sir Thopas, 1. 13801, swears "on ale and bred," 
though this oath may be intended in ridicule. 
Ale was formerly made of wheat, barley, and 
honey. See Index to Madox's Exchequer, in v. 

(4.) AU. 

And lafft it with hem in memore. 
And to ale other pristis truly. 

Judelay's Poems, p. 69. 

ALEBERRY. A beverage made by boiling ale 
vnth spice and sugar, and sops of bread. It 
appears from Palsgrave to have been given to 

invahds. 

They would taste nothing, no not so much as a 
poor aiebeiT!/, for the comfort of their heart. 

Becon's Works, p. 373. 

ALECCIOUN. An election. 

And seyd, made is this aleccioun. 

The king of heven hath chosen 30U on. 

LegendeB Catholicte, p. 63. 
Besechyng you therfore to help to the resignacion 
therof, and the kynges letlre to the byshop of 
Lincoln for the aleccion. 

Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 240. 

ALECIE. Drunkenness caused by ale. 

if he had arrested a mare instead of a horse, it 
had beene a slight oversight ; but to arrest a man, 
that hath no likenesse of a horse, is flat lunasie, or 
aiecie Lyly's Mother Bombie. 

ALECONNER. According to Kersey, "an officer 
appointed in every court-leet to look to the 
assize and goodness of bread, ale, and beer." 
Cf. Middleton's Works, i. 174; Harrison's 
Description of England, p. 163. 
A nose he had that gan show 
What liquor he loved I trow: 
For he had before long seven yeare, 
Beene of the towne the ale-conner. 

Cobler of Canterburle, 160R. 

^LECOST. Costmary. So called, because it 



was frequently put into ale, being an aromatic 
bitter. Gerard. It is not obsolete in the North, 
ALED. Suppressed. {A.-S.) 

And sayde, Maumecet, my mate, 

Y-blessed mote thou be. 
For aled thow hast muche debate 

Toward thys barnee. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 18. 
ALEDGEMENT. Ease ; rehef. Skinner. 
ALE-DRAPER. An alehouse keeper. 

So that nowe hee hath lefte brokery, and is be- 
come a draper. A draper, quoth Freeman, what 
draper, of woollin or linnen ? No, qd he, an ale- 
draper, wherein he hath more skil then in the other. 
Discoverie of the Knights of the Paste, 1597. 

A-LEE. On the lee. 

Than lay the lordis a-lee with laste and with charge. 
Depot, of Richard II. p. 29. 

ALEECHE. Alike. So explained by Mr. Colher 
in a note to Thynne's Debate, p. 20, "his gayne 
by us is not aleeche." Perhaps we should read 
a leeche, i. e. not worth a leech. 

ALEES. Aloe trees. 

Of erberi and alees. 

Of alle maner of trees. Pistill of Susan, st. i. 
ALE-FEAST. A festival or merry-making, at 
which ale appears to have been the predomi- 
nant Uquor. See an enumeration of them in 
Harrison's Desc. of England, p. 138; Brand's 
Pop. Antiq. i. 158-9, and the account of the 
Whitmn-ale, in v. A merry meeting at which 
ale was generally drunk, often took place after 
the representation of an old mystery, as in a 
curious prologue to one of the fifteenth century 
in MS. Tanner 407, f. 44. 

ALEFT. Lifted. 

Ac tho thai come thider eft, 
Her werk was al up uleft. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 22. 

A-LEFT. On the left. 

For a-left half and a right. 

He leyd on and slough down-right. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 182. 

ALEGAR. Ale or beer which has passed through 
the acetous fermentation, and is used in the 
North as a cheap substitute for vinegar. It is 
an old word. See the Forme of Cury, p. 56. 
ALEGE. To alleviate. (A.-N.) 

But if thei have some privilege. 
That of the paine hem woU alege. 

Rom. of the Rose, 6626. 
ALEGEANCE. Alleviation. (A.-N.) ''Allegyance, 
or softynge of dysese, alleviacio."— Prompt. 
Parv. p. 9. Cf. Chaucer's Dreame, 1688. 

The twelfed artecle es enoyntynge, that mene 

enoyntes the seke in perelle of dede for alegeance of 

body and saule. MS. Lincoln, A. i. 17. f. 202. 

ALEGGEN. To allege. {A.-N.) See Piers 

Ploughman, p. 207 ; Flor. and Blanch. 692 ; 

Gesta Romanorum, p. 48 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 422. 

Thus endis Kyng Arthure, as auctors aleggcs 

That was of Ectores blude, the kynge sone of 

Troye. MS. Lincoln, A. i. 17. f* 98. 

ALEGGYD. Alleviated. See Alege. 
Peraventure 36 may be aleggyd. 
And sun of joure sorow abreggyd. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f- 12. 

ALEHOOFE. Ground ivy. According to Gerard, 
it was used in the making of ale. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 250. 



ALE 



41 



ALE 






A.LEICHE. Alike; equally. 

Laye fourth iche man aleiche 
What he hath lefte of his livereye. 

Chester Plays, i. 122. 
ALEIDE. Abolished ; put down. 

Thes among the puple he put to the reaume, 
Aleide alle luther lawes that long hadde ben used. 
Will, and the Werwolf, p. 188. 
Do nom also ich have the seid, 
And alle thre sulen ben aleid. 

MS. Digby 86, f. 126. 

ALE-IN-CORNES. New ale. See Huloet's 
Abcedarium, 1552, in v. 

I will make the drincke worse than good ale in 
the cnrnes. Thersytes, p. 56. 

ALEIS. (1) Alas! North. 

(2) Aloes. 

Cherlse, of whiche many one faine is, 
Notis, and aleia, and bolas. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1377. 

(3) Alleys. 

Alle the aleia were made playne with sond. 

MS. Hart. 116, f. 147- 

ALEIVED. Alleviated; relieved. Surrey. 
ALEKNIGHT. A frequenter of alehouses. See 
Cotgrave, in v. Beste ; Florio, in v. Beone ; 
Baret's Alvearie, in v. Ale ; Harrison's Descr. 
of Engl. p. 170. 
ALEMAYNE. Germany. 

Upon the londe of Alemayne. 

Gotver, ed. 1522, f. 145. 

ALENDE. Landed. 

At what haven thai alende, 
Ase tit agen hem we scholle wende 
With hors an armes brighte. 

Rembrun, p. 428. 

ALENGE. Grievous. 

Now am 1 out of this daunger so alenge. 
Wherefore I am gladde it for to persever. 

Complaynte of them that ben to late Maryed. 

ALEOND. By "land. 

Warne thow every porte thatt noo schyppis a-ry ve, 
Nor also aleond stranger throg my realme pas. 
But the for there truage do pay markis fyve. 

Sharp's Cov. Myst. p. 99. 

ALE-POLE. An ale-stake, q. v. 
Another brought her bedes 
Of jet or of cole. 
To offer to the ale-pole. Skelton's Works, i. 112. 

ALE-POST. A maypole. West. 

ALE S. Alas ! See the Legendae Catholicae, p. 5. 

ALESE. To loose ; to free. {J.-S.) 

To day thou salt alesed be. MS. Digby 86, f. 120. 

ALE-SHOT. The keeping of an alehouse within 
a forest by an officer of the same. Phillips. 

ALE-SILVER. A rent or tribute paid yearly to 
the Lord Mayor of London by those who sell 
ale within the city. Miege. 

ALE-STAKE. A stake set up before an alehouse, 
by way of sign. Speght explained it a maypole, 
and hence have arisen a host of stupid blun- 
ders; but the ale-stake was also called the 
maypole, without reference to the festive pole. 
See Tarlton's Newes out of Purgatorie, p. 56. 
Grose gives ale-post as a term for a maypole. 
See his Class. Diet. Vulg. Song, in v. and supra. 
Palsgrave, f. 17, translates it by " le moy d'une 
taverne," From Dekker's Wonderful Yeare, 
1603, quoted by Brand, it appears that a bush 



was frequently placed at the top of the ale- 
stake. See Bush. Hence may be explained 
the lines of Chaucer : 

A garlond had he sette upon his hede. 
As gret as it werin for an ale-atake. 

Urry's ed. p. S. 

Which have been erroneously interpreted in 
Warton's Hist. Engl. Poet. i. 56. But the 
bush was afterwards less naturally apphed, for 
Kennett tells us " the coronated frame of wood 
hung out as a sign at taverns is called a bush." 
See his Glossary, 1816, p. 35. Cf. Hawkins' 
Engl. Dram. i. 109 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 12255 ; 
Rehq. Antiq. i. 14 ; Hampson's Calend. i. 281 ; 
Skelton's Works, i. 320. 

She as an ale-stake gay and fresh. 
Half hir body she had away e-giff. 

MS. Laud. 416, f. 56. 
For lyke as thee jolye ale-house 

Is alwayes knowen by the good ale-stake. 
So are proude jelots sone perceaved, to. 
By theyr proude foly, and wanton gate. 

Bansley's Treatise, p. 4. 

ALESTALDER. A stallion. East Sussex. 
ALESTAN-BEARER. A pot-boy. See Higins' 

adaptation of the Nomenclator, p. 505. 
ALESTOND. The ale-house. 

Therefore at length Sir Jefferie bethought him of 

a feat whereby he might both visit the akstimd, 

and also keepe his othe. Mar. Prelate's Epistle, p. 54. 
ALE-STOOL. The stool on which casks of ale 

or beer are placed in the cellar. East. 
ALET. (1) A kind of hawk. Howel says it is 

the " true faucon that comes from Peru." 

(2) A small plate of steel, worn on the 
shoulder. 

An alet enamelde he oches in sondire. 

Mitrte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 80. 

(3) Carved, applied to partridges and pheasants. 
BoJce of Huntinge. 

ALEVEN. Eleven. Cf. Maitland's Early Printed 
Books at Lambeth, p. 322; Bale's Kynge Johan, 
p. 80 ; Minsheu, in v. 

He trips about with sincopace. 

He capers very quicke ; 
Full trimly there of seven aleven, 
He sheweth a pretty tticke. 

Galfrido and Bernardo, 1570. 
I have had therto lechys aleven. 
And they gave me medysins alle. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. I. 6, f. 46. 

ALEW. Halloo. 

Yet did she not lament with loude alew. 
As women wont, but with deepe sighes and singulfs 
few. Faerie Queene, V. vi. 13. 

ALE-WIFE. A woman who keeps an ale-house. 

See Tale of a Tub, iv. 2. 
ALEXANDER. Great parsley. Said by Min- 
sheu to be named from Alexander, its pre- 
sumed discoverer. 
ALEXANDER'S-FOOT. Pelhtory. Skinner. 
ALEXANDRYN. Alexandrian work. 
Syngly was she wrappyd perfay. 
With a mauntelle of hermyn, 
Coverid was with Alexandryn. 

MS. Rawl. C. 86, f. 121. 

ALEXCION. Election. 

Be alercion of the lordys free, 

The erie toke they thoo. Erie of Tviotis, 130-2. 



ALG 



42 



ALI 



ALEYD. Laid down. See Aleide. 
Do nou ase ichave the seyd. 
Ant alle thre shule ben aleyd 
With huere foule crokes. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 105. 
For al love, leman, sche seyd, 
Lete now that wille be doun aleyd. 

Legenda; CatholiccB, p. 230. 

ALEYE. An alley. {A.-N.) 

An homicide therto han they hired 
That in an aleye had a privee place. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 13498. 

ALEYN. Alone. 

My lemman and I went forth aleyn. 

Guy of Warwick, Middlehill MS. 

ALEYNE. (1) To alienate. 

In case they dyde eyther selle or aleyne the same 
or ony parte therof, that the same Edwarde shulde 
bave yt before any other man. 

Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 86. 

(2) Laid down. So explained in Urry's MS. 
collections. 

ALF. (1) Half ; part ; side. 

The Brutons to helpe her alf, vaste aboute were. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 212. 

(3) An elf ; a devil. 

With his teth he con hit tug. 
And alfe Rofyn begon to rug. 

MS. Douce 302, f. 11. 
ALFAREZ. An ensign. (Span.) The tenn is 
used by Ben Jonson, and Beaumont and 
Fletcher. According to Nares, who refers to 
MS. Harl. 6804, the word was in use in our 
army during the civil wars of Charles L It 
was also written alferes. 
ALFEYNLY. Slothfully; sluggishly. Prompt. 

Parv. 
ALFRIDARIA. A term in the old judicial as- 
trology, explained by Kersey to be " a tempo- 
rary power which the planets have over the 
life of a person." 

I'll find the cusp and alfridaria. 
And know what planet is in cazimi. 

Albumazar, ii. 5. 

ALFYN. (1) So spelt by Palsgrave, f. 17, and also 
by Caxton, but see Aufyn. The alfyn was the 
bishop at chess. Is alfyns in Rehq. Antiq. i. 
83, a mistake for alkyns ? 
{2) A lubberly fellow ; a sluggard. 

Now certez, sais syr Wawayne, myche wondyre 

have I 
That syche an alfyne as thow dare speke syche 
wordez. Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 67. 

ALGAROT. A chemical preparation, made of 
butter of antimony, diluted in a large quantity 
of warm water, till it turn to a white powder. 
Phillips. 
ALGATES. Always ; all manner of ways ; how- 
ever ; at all events. Still in use in the North. 
It is, as Skinner observes, a compound of all 
and gates, or ways. (A.-S.) Tooke's etymo- 
logy is wholly inadmissible. Cf. Diversions 
of Purley, p. 94 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 7013; 
Thynne's Debate, p. 36. 

These were ther uchon aJgnte, 

To ordcyne for these rnasonus astate. 

Constitutions of Musii my, p. \'> 



ALGE. Altogether. {A.-S.) 

Sche muste thenne alge fayle 

To geten him whan he were deed. 

Cower, MS. Soc Antiq. 134, f. 148. 

ALGERE. A spear used in fishing. It is the 
translation of fuscina in the Canterbury MS. 
of the Medulla. See a note in Prompt. Parv. 
p. 186. 

ALGIFE. Although. 

Eche man may sorow in his inward thought 
This lordes death, whose pere is hard to fynd, 
Algife Englond and Fraunce were thorow saiight. 
Skelton's Works, i. 13. 

ALGRADE. A kind of Spanish wine. 
Both algrade, and respice eke. 

Squyr of Lowe Degre, 756. 
Osay, and algarde, and other y-newe.. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 55. 

ALGRIM. Arithmetic. 

The name of this craft is in Latyn algorsimus, 

and in EngUs algrim ; and it is namid oflF Algos, 

that is to say, craft, and rismus, that is, nounbre; 

and for this skille it is called craft of nounbringe. 

MS. Cantab. LI. iv. 14. 

ALGUS. A philosopher frequently mentioned 
by early writers, as the inventor of Algorism. 
According to MS. Harl. 3742, he was king of 
Castile. Cf. MS. Arundel 332, f. 68. 

ALHAFTE. See a list of articles in the Brit. 
Bibl. ii. 397. 

AL-HAL-DAY. All-hallows day, Nov. 1st. Gaw. 

ALHALWE-MESSE. All-hallows. 

The moneth of Norembre, after Alhalwemesse, 
That wele is to remembre, com kyng William alle 
fresse. Peter Langtoft, p. 145, 

ALHALWEN-TYD. The feast of All-hallows. 
Men shulle fynde but fewe roo-bukkys whan that 
they be passed two jeer that the! ne have mewed hure 
heedys by Alhalwentyd. MS. Bodl. 546. 

ALHIDADE. A rule on the back of the astro- 
labe, to measure heights, breadths, and depths. 
See Blount's Glossographia, p. 18 ; Cotgrave, 
in V. Alidade. 
ALHOLDE. " Alholde, or Gobelyn" is mentioned 
in an extract from the Dialogue of Dives and 
Pauper, in Brand's Pop. Antiq. i. 3. 
AL-HOLLY. Entirely. 

I have him told al holly min estat. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 7678. 

ALHONE. Alone. 

Alhone to the putte he hede. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 278. 

ALIANT. An alien. Eider. 
ALIBER. Bacchus ; liber pater. 

Aliber, the god of wyne, 

And Hercules of kynne thyne. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 2849, 

ALICANT. A Spanish wine made at Alicaiit, 
in the province of Valencia. It is differently 
spelt by our old writers. See Tymon, ed. Dyce, 
p. 39 ; Higins' Junius, p. 91. 
Whan he had dronke ataunte 
Both of Teynt and of wyne AUcaunt, 
Till he was drounke as any swyne. MS. Rawl. C 86, 

ALIED. Anointed. 

He tok that blode that was so br ght, 
.\nd alied that gentil knij^^ht. 

Amis and Amiloun, 23^0* 

ALIEN. To alienate. Nares, 



ALK 



43 



ALL 



ALIEN-PRIORY. A priory which was subordi- 
nate to a foreign monastery. See Britton's 
Arch. Diet, in v. Priory. 

A-LIFE. As my life ; excessively. See Win- 
ter's Tale, iv. 3 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, iv. 55, 
235, 309, 351. 

ALIFED. Allowed. Skinner. 

ALIGHT. (1) Lighted ; pitched. 

Opon sir Gy, that gentil knight, 
Y-wis mi love is alle alight. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 270. 
(2) To light ; to kindle. Surrey. 
ALINLAZ. An anlace. 

Or alinlaz, and god long knif. 

That als he lovede leme or lif. Havelok, 2654. 

ALIRY. Across. (A.-S.) MS. Rawl. Poet. 137, 
and MS. Douce 323, read alery ; MS. Douce 
104 has olery ; and MS. Rawl. Poet. 38 reads 
alyry. 

Somme leide hir legges aliry. 
As swiche losels konneth. 
And made hir mone to Piers, 
And preide hym of grace. 

Pieis Ploughman, p. 124. 

ALISANDRE. Alexandria. Cf. EUis's Met. 
Rom. ii. 36. 

At Alisandre he was whan it was wonne. 

Chauce)', Cant. T. 51. 

ALISAUNDRE. The herb alexander, q. v. 
With alisaundre thare-to, ache ant anys. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 26. 

ALI3T. Ahghted ; descended. 
And deyde two hondred jer. 

And two and thretty rijt. 
After that oure swete Lord 

In his moder ali-^t. MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 

ALKAKENGY. The periscaria. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 10 ; Higins's Junius, p. 125. 

ALKANET. The wild buglos. See the account 
of it in Gerard's Herball, ed. Johnson, p. 799. 
It is also mentioned in an ancient receipt in 
the Forme of Cury, p. 29, as used for co- 
louring. 

ALKANI. Tin. Howell. 

ALKE. Ilk ; each. 

Now, sirris, for your curtesy. 
Take this for no vilany. 

But alke man crye jow , . . The Feest, xvi. 
ALKENAMYE. Alchemy. {J.-N.) 
Yet ar ther fibicches in forceres 
Of fele mennes makyng, 
Experimentz of alkenamye 
The peple to decey ve. Piers Ploughman, p. 186. 
ALKERE. In the Forme of Cury, p. 120, is 

given a receipt " for to make rys alkereJ' 
ALKES. Elks. 

As for the plowing with ures, which I suppose to be 
unlikelie, because they are in mine opinion untame- 
able, and alkea, a thing commonlie used in the east 
countries. Harrison's Descr. of England, p. 226. 

ALKIN. All kinds. 

Dragouns and nlkin depenes. 

Fire, hail, snaweis. MS. Bodl. 425, f. 92. 

For to destroy flesly delite. 

And alkins lust of lichery. 

MS. Harl 4196, f. 102. 

ALKITOTLE. See Alcaiote. 
ALKONE. Each one. 



Then Robyn goes to Notyngham, 

Hymselfe mornyng allone, 
And litulle Johne to mery ScherewoQe, 
The pathes he knew alkone. 

MS. Cantab. Pf. V. 48, f. 196. 
ALKYMISTRE. An alchemist. 
And whan this alkymistre saw his time, 
Riseth up, sire preest, quod he, and siondeth by me. 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 16672 

ALL. (1) Although. 

All tell I not as now his observances. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 2266. 

(2) Entirely. Var. dial. Spenser has it in the 
sense of exactly. 

(3) " For all," in spite of. Var dial. " I'll do 
it ybr all you say to the contrary." 

(4) "All that," until that. So explained by 
Weber, in gloss to Kyng Alisaunder, 2145. 

(5) " For good and all," entirely. North. 

And shipping oars, to work they fall. 
Like men that row'd for good and all. 

Cotton's fVorks, ed. 1734, p. 127. 

(6) Each. Prompt. Parv. 
ALL-A-BITS. All in pieces. North. 
ALL-ABOUT. " To get all about in one's head," 

to become light-headed. Herefordsh. We 
have also " that's all about it," i. e. that is the 
whole of the matter. 
ALL-ABROAD. Squeezed quite flat. Somerset. 
ALL-A-HOH. All on one side. Wilts. 
ALL-ALONG. Constantly. Var. dial. Also 
" All along of," or " All along on," entirely 
owing to. 
ALL-AMANG. Mingled, as when two flocks of 

sheep are driven together. Wilts. 
ALL-AND-SOME. Every one; everything; 
altogether. 

Thereof spekys the apostell John, 
In his gospell all and some. 

MS. Ashmole 61, f. 83. 
We are betray d and y-nome ! 
Horse and harness, lords, all and some ! 

Richard Coer de Lion, 2284. 
Thi kyngdam us come. 
This is the secunde poynte al and some ! 

MS. Douce 302, (. 33 

ALLANE. Alone. 

Hys men have the wey tane ; 
In the forest Gye ys allane. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 174. 

ALL-ARMED. An epithet applied to Cupid in 
A Mids. Night's Dream, ii. 2, unnecessarily 
altered to alarmed by some editors, as if the 
expression meant armed all over, whereas it 
merely enforces the word armed. The ex- 
pression is used by Greene, and is found earher 
in the Morte d'Arthm-, i. 215. 

AliL-AS-IS. " All as is to me is this," i. e. all 
I have to say about it. Herefordsh. 

ALL-A-TAUNT-0. Fully rigged, with masts, 
yards, &c. A sea term. 

ALLAY. According to Kersey, to allay a phea- 
sant is to cut or carve it up at table. The sub- 
stantive as a hunting term was applied to the 
set of hounds which were ahead after the beast 
was dislodged. 

ALLAYMENT. That which has the power of 



ALL 



44 



AliL 



allaying or abating the force of something 

else. Shak. tt jy j t, 

ALL-B'EASE. Gently ; quietly. Herefordsh. 
ALL-BEDENE. Forthwith. Cf. Minot s Poems, 
p 34 : Havelok, 730, 2841 ; Coventry Mys- 
teries, p. 4; Gloss, to Ritson's Met. Rom. 

p. 360. 

Thane thay sayde al-bydene. 
Bathe kynge and qwene. 
The doghtty knyght in the grene 
Hase wonnene the gree. 

Sir Degrevante, MS. Lincoln. 
Whan thai were wasshen al-bedeue, 
He set hym downe hem betwene. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. V.48, f. 14. 

ALL-BE-THOUGH. Albeit. Skinner. 

ALLE. Ale. See this form of the word m 
Skelton's Works, i. 151 ; The Feest, v. It 
apparently means old in the Towneley Myste- 
ries, p. 101. 

ALLECT. To allure; to brmg together; to 

collect. (Lat.) 

I beyng by your noble and notable qualities 

allected and encouraged, moste hertely require your 

helpe, and humbly desyre your ayde. „^ , _ 

Hall's Union, 1548, Hen. IV. f. 27- 

ALLECTIVE. Attraction; allurement. Seethe 

Brit. Bibl. iv. 390. ^ . ^ 

For what better allective coulde Satan devise to 

allure and bring men pleasantly into damnable servi- 

tujje^ Northbrooke's Treatise, 1577. 

ALLECTUARY. An electuary. 

Allectuary arrectyd to redres 

These feverous axys. Skelton's Works, i. 25. 

ALLEFEYNTE. Slothful; inactive. Prompt.Parv. 

ALLEGATE. (1) To allege. See Peele's Works, 

iii. 68 ; Skelton's Works, i. 356. 
(2) Always; algate. (J.-S.) 
Ac, allegate, the kynges 
Losen ten ageyns on in werrynges. 

Kyng Jlisaunder, 6094. 

ALLEGE. To quote ; to cite. 

And for he wold his longe tale abrege, 
He wolde non auctoritee allege. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 9532. 

ALLEGYAUNCE. Citation ; the act of quoting. 
Translated bv allegacio, in Prompt. Parv. p. 9. 
ALLE-HALWEN. Allhallows. 

Here fest wol be, withoute nay. 
After Alle-halwen the eyght day. 

Co7ut. of Masonry, p. 32. 

ALLE-HOOL. Entirely ; exactly. See Reliq. 
Antiq. i. 151 ; Sir H. Dryden's Twici, p. 38. 
Alls answers to omnino, and strictly speaking, 
cannot grammatically be used in composition. 
Alle if, MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 24. See 
Alle-iif. 

ALLELUYA. The wood-sorrel. Gerard. 

ALLE-LYKELY. In like manner. Prompt.Parv. 

ALLEMAIGNE. A kind of solemn music, more 
generally spelt Almain, q.v. It is also the 
name of several dances, the new alleraaigne, 
the old, the queen's allcmaigne, all of which 
are mentioned in MS. Rawl. Poet. 108, and the 
figures given. See Brit. Bibl. ii. 164, 610. 
ALLEMASII-DAY. Grose says, i. e. Allumage- 
day, the day on which the Canterbury silk- 
weavers began to work by candle-light. Ken/. 



ALLEMAUNDIS. Almonds. 

Therfore Jacob took grete 5erdis jf popelers, and 
o( (illemaundis, and of planes, and in party dide awey 
the rynde. WickUffe, MS. Bodl. 277- 

ALLEN. Grass land recently broken up. Suffolk. 
Major Moor says, " unenclosed land that has 
been tilled and left to run to feed for sheep." 
ALLE-ONE. Alone; solitary. 

Alle-one he leved that drery knyghte. 
And sone he went awaye. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 109. 

ALLER. (1) An alder tree. A common form of the 

word, still used in the western counties. See 

Florio, in v. Alno; Holinshed, Hist. Ireland, 

p. 178 ; Gerard's Herball, ed. Johnson, p. 1469. 

(2) Of all. It is the gen. pi. 

Adam was oure aller fader. 
And Eve was of hymselve. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 342. 
Than thai it closed and gun hyng 
Thaire aller seles thareby. MS. Coll. Sion. xviii. 6. 
ALLER-FLOAT. A species of trout, usually 
large and well grown, frequenting the deep 
holes of rethed and shady brooks, under the 
roots of the aller, or alder tree. North. It is 
also called the aller-trout. 
ALLER-FURST. The first of all. 

Tho, aller-furst, he undurstode 
That he was ryght kyngis blod. 

Kyrig Alisaunder, 1569. 

ALLER-MOST. Most of all. 

To wraththe the God and paien the fend hit 
serveth allermost. IVrip^ht's Pol. Songs, p. 336. 

ALLERNBATCH. A kind of botch or old sore. 

Exmoor. Apparently connected with allers, a 

Devonshire word for an acute kind of boil or 

carbuncle. 
ALLERONE. Apparently the pinion of a wing, 

in the following passage. Roquefort has a^erion, 

a bird of prey. 

Tak pympernolle, and stampe it, and take the 
jeuse therof, and do therto the grese of the allervne 
of the gose-wenge, and drope it in thyne eghne. 

MS. Lincoln. Med. f. '283. 

ALLES. Very; altogether; all; even. See 
Rob. Glouc. p. 17 ; Ritson's Ancient Songs, 
p. 7 ; Rehq. Antiq. ii. 176. 

ALLE SAD. Lost. {A.-S.) 

Bisek him wij milde mod, 
That for ous allesad is blod. 

MS. Egerton 613, f. 2. 

ALLE-SOLYNE-DAY. All Souls' Day. See 
MS. Harl. 2391, quoted in Hampson's Kalen- 
darium, ii. 11. 
ALLETHER. Gen. pi. of all. 

Than doth he dye for oure allether good. 

Cov. Myst. p. i*- 

ALLETHOW. Although. 

Torrent thether toke the way, 
Werry allethow he were. 

Torrent of Portugal, Y>. V*- 

ALLETOGEDERS. Altogether. 

Into the water he cast his shcld, 
Croke and alletogeders it held. 

Torrent of Portugal, p 60. 

ALLEVE. Eleven. 

Kthiilfe in that ilke manere. 



VVunncil at Home nllevr ;cre. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48. f. 99. 



ALL 



4^) 



ALL 



ALLEVENTHE. The eleventh. 

The alleventhe wyntur was witturlj 
Ther aftir, as telleth us me to dy. 

Curaor Muridi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 13. 

ALLE-WELDAND. Omnipotent. 

That I before Gode alleweldand 
Weme in the liht of livyand. 

MS. Bodl. 425, f. 27. 

ALLEY. The conclusion of a game at football, 
when the ball has passed the bounds. Yorksh. 
A choice taw, made of alabaster, is so called 
by boys. See the Pickwick Papers, p. 358. 
ALLEYDE. Alleged. 

With alle hire herte sehe him preyde. 
And many another cause alleyde. 
That he with hire at horn abide. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 115. 

ALLE-3IF. Although. See Alle-hool. 
Y wyl make 50W no veyn carpyng, 
Alle ■^if hit myjte som men lyke. 

MS. Bodl. 48, f. 47. 

ALL-FOOLS-DAY. The first of April, when a 
custom prevails of making fools of people by 
sending them on ridiculous errands, &c. whence 
the above name. See further in Brand's Pop. 
Antiq. i. 76. The custom seems to have been 
borrowed by us from the French, but no satis- 
factory account of its origin has yet been given. 
ALL-FOURS. A well-known game at cards, said 
by Cotton, in the Compleat Gamester, ed. 1709, 
p. 81, to be " very much played in Kent." 
ALL-GOOD. The herb good Henry. Gerard. 
ALLHALLOWN-SUMMER. Late summer. In 
1 Henry IV. i. 2. it simply appears to mean an 
old man with youthful passions. 
A-LLHALLOWS. Satirically ^^Titten byHeywood 
as a single saint. See his play of the Foure PP, 
1569, and the following passage : 
Here is another relyke, eke a precyous one. 
Of Jll-helowes the blessyd jaw-bone. 
Which relyke, without any fayle, 
Agaynst poyson chefely dothe prevayle. 

Puidoner and the Frere, 1533. 
AI.L-HEAL. The herb panax. See Gerard's 
Herball, ed. Johnson, p. 1004 ; Florio, in v. 
Achilea. 
ALL-HID. According to Nares, the game of 
hide-and-seek. It is supposed to be alluded 
to in Hamlet, iv. 2, See Hide-Fox. It is 
mentioned by Dekker, as quoted by Steevens ; 
but Cotgrave apparently makes it synonymous 
with Hoodman-bUnd, in v. Clignemusset, Cline- 
mucette. Cotgrave also mentions Harry -racket, 
which is the game of hide-and-seek. See 
Hoodman-blind. " A sport call'd all-hid, which 
is a meere childi*en's pastime," is mentioned 
in A Curtaine Lecture, 12mo, Lond. 1637, 
p. 206. See also Hawkins' Engl. Dram. iii. 187; 
ApoUo Shroving, 1627, p. 84. 
ALL-HOLLAND'S-DAY. The Hampshire name 
for All Saints' Day, when plum-cakes are made 
and called All Holland cakes. Middleton uses 
the word twice in this form. See his Works, 
ii. 283, v. 282. 
ALLHOOVE. Ground ivy. Minsheu. 
ALLHOSE. The herb horsehoof. See Florio, 
in v. Dtchio, 



ALL-I-BITS. All in pieces. North. 

ALLICHOLLY. Melancholy. Shakespeare uses 
this word, put into the mouths of illiterate 
persons, in Two Gent, of Verona, iv. 2, and 
Merry "Wives of Windsor, i. 4. See Collier's 
Shakespeare, i. 148, 197, where the Avord is 
spelt two different wavs. 

ALLICIATE. To attract. {Lat.) 

Yea, the very rage of hiimilitie, though it be 
most violent and dangerous, yet it is sooner ulliciatrd 
by ceremony than compelled by vertue of office. 

Brit. Bibl. ii. 186. 

ALLIENY. An alley ; a passage in a building. 

See Britton's Arch. Diet, in v. Jlley. 
ALLIGANT. A Spanish wine. See Alicant. 
In dreadful darkenesse Alligant lies drown'd. 
Which marryed men invoke for procreation. 

Pasquil's Palinodia, 1634. 

ALLIGARTA. The alligator. Ben Jonson uses 
this form of the word in his Bartholomew 
Fair, ii. 1. 
ALL-IN-A-CHARM. Talking aloud. Wilts. 
ALL-IN-ALL. Everything. Shakespeare has the 
phrase in a well-known passage, Hamlet, i. 2, 
and several other places. 

In London she buyes her head, her face, her 
fashion. O London, thou art her Paradise, her 
heaven, her all-in-all ! Tuke on Painting, 1616, p. 60. 
Thou'rt all in all, and all in ev'ry part. 

Clobery's Divine Glimpses, p. 75. 

The iphrdise all in all with, meant veiy intimate 
or familiar with. See Howell's Lexicon, in v. 
ALL-IN-A-MUGGLE. All in a litter. Wilis. 
ALLINE. An ally. 

Wisdom is immortality's alline. 
And immortality is wisdom's gain. 

Middleton'/) Works, v. 394. 

ALLINGE. Totally; altogether. (A.-S.) Cf.Const. 
of Masonry, p. 37; Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 7; 
Rob. Glouc. p.48 ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 189. 
For hire faired and hire chere, 
Ich hire bou^te allinge so dere. 

Flor. and Blanch. 674. 
Teh bote that thou me telle, 
Nouthe thou art allingucs here. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 127 

ALL-IN-ONE. At the same time. 

But all in one to every wight, 
There was sene conning with estate. 

Chaucer's Dreame, 670. 

ALL-IN-THE-WELL. A juvenile game in 
Newcastle and the neighbourhood. A circle is 
made about eight inches in diameter, termed 
the well, in the centre of which is placed a 
wooden peg, four inches long, with a button 
l)alanced on the top. Those desirous of playing 
give buttons, marbles, or anything else, accord- 
ing to agreement, for the privilege of thro\\ing 
a short stick, with which they are furnished, 
at the peg. Should the button fly out of the 
ring, the player is entitled to double the stipu- 
lated value of what he gives for the stick. The 
game is also practised at the Newcastle races, 
and other places of amusement in the north, 
with three pegs, which are put into three cir- 
cular holes, made in the ground, about two feet 
apart, and forming a triangle. In this case 
each hole contains a peg, about nine inches 



ALL 



long, upon which are deposited either a small 
knife or some copper. The person playing 
gives so much for each stick, and gets all the 
articles that are thrown off so as to fall on the 
outside of the holes. 
ALLISON. The wood-rose. So at least Florio 

seems to understand it, in v. Alisso. 
ALL-LANG-OFF. Entirely owing to. North. 
That I have no childe hidur tille. 
Hit Is al'longe-on Goddes wille. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 64. 
Therby wist the! it was alle 
Longe one her, and not one Landavalle. 

MS. Rawl. C. 86, f. 124. 

ALL-LOVES. The phrase of all loves, or for all 
loves, i. e. by all means, occurs twice in 
Shakespeare, and occasionally in contemporary 
writers. The earliest instance I have met with 
is in the romance of Ferumbras, below quoted. 
Other examples are given in Boswell's Malone, 
viii. 82 ; and Nares, in v. Loves. 
And saide to him she moste go 

To viseten the prisoner is that daye. 
And said, sir, for alle loves, 

Lete me thy prisoneres seen ; 
1 wole the gife both golde and gloves, 

And counsail shalle it bene. Middlehill MS. 

Alack, where are you? speak, an if you hear! 
Speak, of all loves J I swoon almost with fear. 

J Midi. Night's Dream, il. 2. 

ALL-MANNER-A-WOT. Indiscriminate abuse. 
Sufolk. 

ALLMEES. Alms. East Sussex. See the ex- 
ample under Almesse. 

ALL-OF-A-HUGH. All on one side. Suffolk. 

ALL-OF-A-ROW. A child's game. Suffolk. 

ALLONGE. All of us. Somerset. 

ALLONELI. Exclusively. Cf. Wright's Mo- 
nastic Letters, p. 126 ; Supp. to Hardyng, f. 44 ; 
Prompt. Parv. p. 54 ; Maundevile's Travels, 
p. 8 ; Morte d' Arthur, ii. 427 ; Hall, Edw. IV. 
f. 12 ; Patterne of Painefull Adventures, p. 239 ; 
Minot's Poems, pp. 133, 152. 

Now wold I fayne sum myrthis make, 
Aile-oneli for my ladys sake. MS. Cantnh. Ff. i. 6. 
We spered nojte the ^ates of citee to that entent 
for. to agaynestande the, bot allanly for the drede 
of Darius, kyng of Perse. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f. 10* 

ALL-ON-END. Eager; impatient. Somerset. 

ALLOTTERY. An allotment. Shak. 

ALLOUS. All of us. Somerset. 

ALL-OUT. Entirely; quite. Minsheu has it for 
a carouse, to drink all out. Cf. Rob. Glouc. 
pp. 26, 244 ; Rom. of the Rose, 2101. Still 
in use in the former sense in the north of 
England and in Scotland. 

Thane come theise wikkyde Jewes, and whene 
they sawe thise two thefes that hang by oure Lorde 
one-lyfe, they brake theyre thees, and slewe theme 
alle-owte, and caste theme vilainely into a dyke. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 184. 

ALL-OVERISH. Neither sick nor well. Var. 
dial. 

ALLOW. To approve. A Scripture word. See 
Romans, xiv. 22; Baret'sAlvearie,inv. Perhaps 
connected with alowe, to praise. {A.-N.) 

ALLOWANCE. Approbation. Shak. 



4 b ALM 

ALLOWED. Licensed. An " allowed fool" il 
a term employed by Shakespeare in Twelfth 
Night, i. 5. In HoUyband's Dictionarie, 1593, 
mention is made of "an allowed cart or 
chariot." 
ALL-PL AISTER. Alablaster. Yorksh. 
ALLS. (1) Aries, q. v. North. 
(2) Also. {A.-S.) 

Thare was crakked many a crowne 
Of wild Scottes, and alls of tame. 

Minot's Poems, p. 4. 

ALL-SALES. AU times. Suffolk. " Sales" is 
of course merely a form of cele or sele. See 
Prompt. Pai-v. p. 65. 

ALL-SEED. The orach. Skinner. 

ALL-SEER. One who sees everything. Shak. 

ALL-THE-BIRDS-IN-THE-AIR. A Suffolk 
game. See Moor's Suffolk Words, p. 238^ 
where another game is mentioned called all- 
the-fishes-in-the-sea. 

ALL-TO. Entirely. In earher writers, the to 
would of course be a prefix to the verb, but 
the phrase all-to in the Elizabethan writers 
can scarcely be always so explained. 
Mercutio's ycy hand had al-to frozen mine. 

Romeus and Juliet, 1562. 

ALL-TO-NOUGHT. Completely. Var. dial. 
ALL-TO-SMASH. Smashed to pieces. Somerset. 
The phrase is not peculiar to that county. A 
Lancashire man, telling his master the mill- 
dam had burst, exclaimed, " Maister, maister, 
dam's brossen, and aw's to-smash !" 
ALLUTERLY. Altogether ; wholly. 
As yf thy love be set alluterly 
Of nice lust, thy travail is in vain. 

MS. Seld. Arch. B. 24, j 

ALLUVION. A washing away. (Lat.) | 

ALL-WATERS. " I am for all waters,'' i. e. I 
can turn my hand to anything. A proverbial 
expression used by the clown in Twelfth 
Night, iv. 2. 1 

ALLY. The aisle of a church. Var. dial. ^ 

ALLYFE. Although. This form of the word 
occurs in a letter dated 1523, in Monast. 
Angl. iv. 477. 
ALL-Y-FERE. Altogether. 

And hurre lappe was hole ajeyn all-y-fere. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. 74 

ALMAIN. (1) A German. 

Upon the same pretente, to furnish them a band 
Of Almains, and to them for their stout captain gave 
The valiant Martin Swart. ^ 

Drayton, ed. 1753, p. 1102. J 

(2) A kind of dance. A stage direction in 
Peek's Works, i. 28, is, " Hereupon did enter 
nine knights in armour, treading a warlike 
almain, by drum and fife." 

ALMAIN-LEAP. A dancing leap ; a kind of 
jig. See Florio, in v. Chiarantdna. 
Skip with a rhyme on the table from New-Nothing, 
And take his almain-leap into a custard . 

Devil is an Ass, i. 1. 

ALMAIN-RIVETS. Moveable rivets. The term 
was apphed to a light kind of armour, " so 
called," says Minsheu, "because they be 
rivetted, or buckled, after the old Alman 



I 



ALM 



47 



ALM 



fashion." See Test. Vetust. p. 622 ; Holinshed, 
Hist. Ireland, p. 56 ; Sharp's Gov. Myst. 
p. 195. 
ALMAN. A kind of hawk, mentioned by 
Howell, and also called by him the Dutch 
falcon. 
ALMANDIN. Made of almond. 

And it was an almandin wand. 
That ilk frut tharon thai fand, 
Almandes was groun tharon. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. f. 39. 

ALMAND-MILK. Almonds ground and mixed 
with milk, broth, or water. See an old re- 
ceipt in Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 5. 

ALMANDRIS. Almond-trees. 

And trees there werin grete foison, 
That berin nuttes in ther se.son, 
Suche as menne nutemiggis y-call. 
That sote of savour ben withall ; 
And of almandris grete plenty, 
Figgis, and many a date tre. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1363. 

ALMANE-BELETT. A part of armour, men- 
tioned in an account of Norham Castle, temp. 
Hen. VIII. in Archaeologia, xvii. 204. 
ALMANY. Germany. 

Now Fulko comes, that to his brother gave 
His land in Italy, which was not small. 
And dwelt in Almany. 

Harrington's Ariosto, 1591, p. 19. 

ALMARIE. A cupboard ; a pantry ; a safe. 
See Kennett's Gloss. MS. Lansd. 1033. The 
North country word aumbry seems formed 
from this. It is glossed by the French ameire, 
in MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab. B. xiv. 40. Cf. 
Prompt. Parv, pp. 10, 109, 315; Becon's 
Works, p. 468. In the latter place Becon 
quotes Deut. xxviii. 17, where the vulgate 
reads basket ; a reference which might have 
saved the editor's erronious note. Howel has 
the proverb, ** There is God in the almery." 
Ther avarice hath almaries. 
And yren bounden cofres. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 288. 

ALMARIOL. A closet, or cupboard, in which 
the ecclesiastical habits were kept. See Brit- 
ton's Arch. Diet, in v. Armarium. 
ALMATOUR. An almoner. 
After him spak Dalmadas, 
A riche almatour he was. Kyng Alisaunder, 3042. 

ALMAYNE. Germany. 
Thane syr Arthure onone, in the Auguste theraftyre, 
Enteres to Almayne wyth ostez arrayed. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 78. 

ALME. An elm. {Dan.) " Askes of alme-barke" 
are mentioned in a remedy for *' contrarius 
hare" in MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 282. 
ALMESFULLE. Charitable. It is found in 
Pynson's edition of the Prompt. Parv. See 
Mr. Way's edition, p. 10. 

I was chaste enogh, abstinent, and almesfulle, and 
for othere [th]yng I ame note dampned. 

MS. Harl. 1022, f. 1. 

ALMESSE. Alms. Cf. Prompt. Parv. p. 117. 
And thus ful great almesse he dede, 
Wherof he hadde many a bede. 

Gotver, ed. 1532, f. 35. 



ALMESTE. Almost. 

And as he priked North and Est, 
I telle it you, him had almeste 
Betidde a sory care. Chaucer, Cant. T. 13G88, 
ALMICANTARATH. An astrological word, 
meaning a circle drawn parallel to the horizon. 
Digges has the word in his Stratioticos, 1579, 
appHed to diaUing. Cf. Brit. Bibl. iv. 58; 
Chaucer on the Astrolabe, ed. Urry, p. 441. 
Meanwhile, with scioferical instrument, 
By way of azimuth and almicantarath. 

Albumazar, i. 7. 

ALMODZA. An alchemical term for tin. It is 
so employed by Charnocke in an early MS. in 
my possession. 

ALMOND-FOR-A-PARROT. A kind of prover- 
bial expression. It occurs in Skelton's Works, 
ii. 4 ; Webster's Works, iii. 122. Nash and 
Wither adopted it in their title-pages. Douce, 
in his MS. additions to Ray, explains it " some 
trifle to amuse a silly person." 

ALMOND-FURNACE. " At the silver mills in 
Cardiganshire, they have a particular furnace 
in which they melt the slags, or refuse of the 
lithurge not stamped, with charcoal only, 
which they call the almond furnace." Kennett, 
MS. Lansd. 1033. 

ALMOND-MILK. The Latin amigdolatum is 
translated by almond-mylke in MS. Bodl. 604, 
f. 43. See Almand-milk. 

ALMONESRYE. The almonry. In a fragment 
of a work printed by Caxton, in Douce's Col- 
lection, the residence of our earliest printer is 
stated to be at " the almonesrye at the reed 
pale." 

ALMOSE. Alms. Cf. Hall, Edward IV. f. 11 ; 
Becon's Works, p. 20. 

He bad hir love almose dede. 

LegendCB Caiholicte, p. 53, 
And therto gude in alle thynge. 
Of almous dedes and gude berynge. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f. 115. 

ALMOYN. Alms. 

For freres of the crbice, and monk and chanoun, 
Haf drawen in o voice his feez to ther almoyn. 

Peter Langtoft, p. 239. 

ALMS-DRINK. " They have made him drink 
alms-drinJcy* an expresMon used in Anthony 
and Cleopatra, ii. 7, to signify that liquor of 
another's share which his companion drinks to 
ease him. 

ALMSMAN. A person who lives on alms. See 
Richard II. iii. 3. In Becon's Works, p. 108, 
the term is applied to a charitable person. 

ALMURY. The upright part of an astrolabe. 
See Chaucer's treatise on the Astrolabe, ed. 
Urry, p. 442. 

ALMUSLES. Without alms. 

For thef is reve, the lond is penyles ; 
For pride hath sieve, the lond is almugie». 

Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 2J).^ 

ALMUTE. A governing planet. An astrolo- 
gical term. 

One that by Ylem and Aldeboran, 
With the almvtes, can tell anything. 

Randolph's Jealous Lovers, 1P46, p. M. 



ALO 



48 



ALO 



A T \ HT Ll'E N T . B eneficent. 

\nd we Tour said humbUe servants shal eTermore 

^\ rn 'hs - -r.-.-^.u^nt God for your prosperus estate, 

'^ - XVjrvf/* 1 ori- Rscord*, p. SW. 

ALMY^-DTSSHE. Tne dish in the old baro- 
aial haU. in which was put the bread set aside 

for the poor. 

\nd his a'»«y»-<fy»*'»?.- as I ;ou say, 
To the porest man that he can fynde, 
Other dly* I ^nJtheiswnkynde. 

Bok€ of Otrtofye, p. 30. 

ALMy5HT. All-powerfuL 

Pray we now to God aJm^-yht, 

Knd to hv5 moier Mary bryjht, 

That wemowe keepe these artyculus here. 

Const, uf Mofonnf, p. 31. 

U.>' ^TH. The first star in the horns of Aries. 
Whence the first mansion of the moon takes 

its name, 

\n • bv his ei^hte speres in his werking. 
He knew ful wel how fer Alnath was shove 
Fro the hed of thilke fix Aries above. 
That in the ninthe spere considered is. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 11593. 
ALNTIR. A purse, or bag to hold money. (^.- A,) 

I wyll ^e yeve an alner, 
I.n^d of svlk and of gold cler, 

Wy:h fayre ymages thre, Launfal, 3iy. 

He lokede yn hys alner, 
That fond hym spendyng all plener. 

Whan that he hadde nede, 
And ther na» noon, for ioth to say. T>»d. 733, 
/^LNEWAY. Always. See the extracts from 

the Ayenbite of Inwit. in Boucher. 
ALNIL.' And only. 

Sertis, sire, not ic nojt ; 
Ic ete sage a'ni: gras, 
More harm ne did ic nOjt. 

Wri^^i^t Poi. Son^, p. 201. 

ALOD. Allowed. 

Therfor I drede lest God on us will take venjance. 
For svn is now aJoa without any repentant, 

Toumeiey Mftterxe*, p. rl. 

ALOES Aji oho. or savoury dish, composed of 
meat,' herbs, e^^s, and other ingredients, 
«m»elhin2 similar to the modem dish of ohves. 
The receipt for aloes is given in the Good 
Housewife's Jewel. 1596. See also Coopers 
Elvot. in v. Tucetum. 
ALOFEDE. Praised- {A.-S.) 

Now they spede at the spurres, withowttyne 

spechemore, 
To the marche of Meyes, theis manbche knyghtex. 
That e« Lorra%-ne al.fede, as Londone es here, 

ifjrte Jrthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 7y- 

ALOFT. " To come aloft," i, e. to vault or play 
the tricks of a tumbler. 

Do vou grumble ? vou were ever 

\ b!^inle« ass ; but if this hold, 111 teach you 

T 3 wTMoio/*, and do tricks like an ape 

Mauing^t Bmdman, 1624, ui. 3. 

A-LOFTE. On high. {A.-S.) 

Leve thow nevere that yon light 

Hem aA^fte brynge, 

Ne have hem out of helle. 

P'uirt PlfAighman, p. 378. 

iLOGE. To lodge ; to pitch. (A.-S.) 
On that ich fair rourae 
To aloge her paviloun. 

Jrthour and Merlin, p. 298, 



A-LOGGIT. Lodged- {A.-S.) 

I am a4oririt, thought he, best, howsoenr it fooa- 
Chaucfr, ed, Uny, p. *7 

A-LOGH. Below. {A.-S.) 
Lewed men many tymes 
Maiiires thei apposen. 
Why Adam ne hiled noght first 
His mouth that eet the appul. 
Rather than his likame n-logh. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 242. 

ALOMBA. Tin. HoweH 
ALO'DE. On land. 

For the kende that he was best, 
Alonde men he gnou5. MS. Coil. TriJU Oion. 57. 
AXONG. (1^ Slanting. Ororu ^ 

(0) U-ed in somewhat the same sense as ' all 
along of," i. e. entirely owing to, a provmaal 

phrase. 

I can not tell wheron it was along, 
Butwellwotgretstrifisusamong. 

Chancer, Cant. T. 16393 

(3) Long. . 

Here I salle the gyve alle myn heritage, 
\nd als along as f lyve to be in thin ostage. 

Peter I/in^T'/f, p. 196. 

(i) The phrases up along and doim along answer 
sometimes to up the street and down the 
street. The sailors use them for up or down 
the channeL Sometimes we hear to go along, 
the words irith me being understood. 
\LO\GE. To lone for. Cf. Richard Coer de 
Lion, 3049, 3060 ; Piers Ploughman, p. o2b. 
' Alle thou; my wit be not stronge, 
It isnou;t on my willea/ona'e. 
For that is besy ny5te and day 
To leme alle that he lerne may. 

G'.urer, MS. Sor. Antiq. 134, f. 109 
This worthy Jason sore o^/^-ne-ef/j 
To se the straun^e regionis. Ii>^- f- 147. 

He goth into the boure and wepeih for blisse ; 
Soie he is alonged his brethren to kisse. 

MS.Bodl.652,f.9. 

AXONGST. Along ; lengthwise. Somerset. See 
* ear'lv instances in HoUnshed. Hist. _ Engl, 
pp. '24. 146; Dekker's Knight's Conjunng, 
1607, repr. p. 46. 
iaOORKE. Awry ; out of order. {Jst.) 
Hi> heed in shappe as by natures worke, 
Notonehaireamisse.orlyethoioor&e. 

MS. Lansd. 206, (quoted tn Boucher.) 

A.-LORE. Concealed. 

Whereof his schame was the more, 
Whiche ou;te for to ben a-lore. . _, ^ ,^ 

Go^jcer, MS, Soc. Antiq. 134. f. 13?. 

A.LORY>'G. A parapet walL See Wilhs-s 
Architectural Nomenclature, p. H. it is 
merelv another form of alure, q. v. 

ALOSED. Praised; f ?^°^^^°^^'J- , ,^V. ys 
Glouc. p. 450 ; Rom. of the Rose, 23o4. {A.-^.) 
Ones thou >chaU justi with me, 
As knight that welea/o«ed is. 
^^ ^ Gy of Warunke, p. 64. 

So that he blgon at Oxenford °f f '^'°'^*^.'. ^ - 
SO noble alosed ther nas non in all the ""^J^^^- , 
MS. Aihmole43, t. IK". 

ATOSSYXGE. Loosing; making loose. See 
the eariy edition of Luke, c. 19, quoted by 
Richardson, in v. Alosing. 

ALOST. Lost. Somerset. 



ALP 

AI.OUGH. Below. SeeAlogh. 

And wiliest of briddes and of beestes. 
And of hir bredyng, to knowe 
Why some be alough and some aloft, 
._^^ Thi likyng it were. Piers Ploughman, p. 241 
ALOL R. An alure, q. v. 

Alisaunder rometh in his toiui. 
For to wissen his masons, 
The touris to take, and the torellis, 
Vawtes, alouru, and the comeris. 

K^ng Alitaundtr, 7210. 
Into her cit^ thai ben y-gon, 
Togider thai asembled hem ichon, 
And at the alourg thai defended hem. 
And abiden bataile of her fomen. 

Gy nf Warwike, p. 85. 

ALOUTE. Tobow. {A.-S.) Cf. Piers Plough- 
man, p. 495 ; Lybeaus Disconus, 1254. 
And schewede hem the false ymages. 
And hete hem aloute ther-to. 

^S. Coll. THn. Omti. 57 
J his gret ymage never his heed enclyne. 
But he alout upon the same nyjte. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. IM, f. 15. 
Alle they schalle aloute to thee, 
V'f thou wylt alowte to me. 

ALOW. Halloo. ^'^- <^"'»'- "•«■»• f- 38- 

Pillicock sat on pillicock hill ; 
Alow, alow, loo, loo ! 

King Lear, ed. 1623, p. 297 

ALOWE(l) Low down. {A.-S.) Cf. Court of 
Love 1201; Tusser's Works, p. 101; Dial. 
Creat. Moral, p. 2. 

Do we, sayden he. 
Nail we him opon a tre 

Alowe, 
Ac arst we sullen scinin him 

(2)TohumbIe. 4r./r- «""• -""■»•'•'»'• I 

(3) To praise ; to approve. (A.-N.) 
Cursyd be he that thy werk alowe! 
A T nVTMT? T J 1 Richard Coer de Lion, 4662. 

ALOYNE. To delay. (A.-N.) 
That and more he dyd aloyne. 
And ledde hem ynto Babyloyne. 

MS, Bodl 415 

^^?^^f . ^^'- ^^ "^P^^°^^ ^y the editors." 
A kind of precious stone so caUed is mentioned 
in the Book of St. Albans, sig. F. i. 
Aloyse, aloyse, how pretie it is ! 

A T 1317 . 1. „ . ^"^'* *""* Pithias, 1571. 

ALPE. A bull-finch. ^«./. Rav savs it was in 
general use in his time. It is glossed bv 
/cec?«/ainPrompt. Par%-. p. 10. 
There was many a birde singing, 
Thoroughouttheyerdeall thringing: 
In many placis nightingales. 
And alpea, and finches, and wode-wales. 
ALPES-BON. Ivory. ^^^' ^f the Rose, ^ 

Thai made hir b^dy bio and blac. 
That er was white so a/p<.j^„. 

ALPL Single. {A.-S.) '^^- <^*^^'V.m. 

A, quod the vox, ich wiUe the telle. 
On alpi word ich lie nelle. 

ALPICKE. Apparently a kinT^f e^h': "• S 
Cotgrave, in v. Chercee. 



49 



ALS 



ALPURTH A halfpenny-worth. See Monast 
piknce '^^ '^^ '^^"'"^'^ in common 

ALRE-BEST. The best of aU. Cf. Wright'8 
L>-nc Poetry, p. 104. {A.-S.) 
For when je weneth alrebest 

ALKE-MOST. Most of all. {A.-S.) 

The flour of chyvalarie now have y lost 
In wham y trust to alremott. ' 

A TUT? w-r^T^c^,^ ^ ^^' -^'fimole 33, f. 31. 

ALRE-\A ORST. The worst of all. {A.-S.) 
Men, thou havest wicked fon, 
The alre-worgt is that on. 

ALKICHE. An ancient name for a doe It or- 
A t"^?" \°/^^^- ^'^- ^^S- 7 E. iv. f. 163. 
n ,'°'^^^ev^-ise;inUkemanner. The 

^iUAl''{A%T ''" ' ""^"^^^' '^"° '' 
He made calle it one the morne, 
AU hia fadir highte byforne. 

AT<5ATlfT? A , P«'-<:e^'^i. Lincoln MS. e. 162, 

^^T?,^^- APP^ently the name of a place 
The Cambndge MS. reads " Evlyssham '' 

With towels of ^/«arr.e, 
Whytte als the see fame. 
And sanappis of the same. 
Served thay ware. 

AT<!ATTA *• , ^''' ^^'»^'<'rite, MS. Lincoln, 
^du r ^^^"^^ "^"'^ ^°^ the Whitefriars, 
which was formerly an asylum or sanctuary for 
insolvent debtors, and persons who had of- 
fended against the laws. ShadweU's comedy 

^nH^". .IT' °^ ^^^'^^^^ ^"^^^ to this place ; 
and Scott has rendered it famihar to aU readers 
0} his Fortunes of Nigel. 
ALSAUME. Altogether. 

He cursed hem there alsaume. 
As they karoled on here gaume. 
ATSF n^ AT T , ^S- Hart, 1701, f. 60. 

ALSE. (1) Ahce. In the ancient parish re- 
pter of Noke, co. Oxon.,is the folio Jng entr^-: 

Ju^e^586/'" "" '^'^ ^^' ''• '^y^ «^ 

(2) Also. {A..S.) 
The fowrthe poynt techyth us aUe, 
That no mon to hys craft be false. 

(3) As. {A..S.) ^"^^- Of Masonry, p. 23. 
Fore aUe mon^ as je may myn. 

A T crix-T^ Audelay's Poems, p. 74, 

220 . .^-^l^' ^''' ^°"°^ ^" MS. Arundel, 

sensP m"" w ^T^ ^^ ^5^^^"^ ^° the same 
sense. Mr. A^ ay derives it from French al^ue, 

but perhaps more probably Teut. aelsene, su' 
bula. See Brockett, in v. El^in. Jamieson 
g^ves al^son as still in use in the same s^se! 
Wo (y^^J^- Itocciu^occasionallvin 
p SOsT "^ ^ "" *^' "^"^^ °^ ^^'its. I6O4! 

Kyrtyls they had oon of sylke, 

Ah-o whyte as any mylke. 

ro\ All „, '*^*^- C3«'a6. Ff. ii. 38. f. 14c 

(2) AU save ;aU but. Mid4and C 
ALSOME. M-holesome. 

Tak a halvpeny worthe of schepe talghe molter e. 



ALT 



oO 



ALT 



,„d alle thecrommes of a halpeny lafc ofaJsomehrede 
--ete.an.a.o..eofa^a..^a.a.^ane^.. 

inene. 

ATSONE As soon; immediately. U. Ky^^S 
^"luslndev. 5024 ; Sevyn Sages, 2847. 

And Pausamy pxirsued after hyme. and overhied 

hvm and strake hym thurghe with a spere and ^ " 

i/ea'ne he were grevosely wonded. he dyde ncjte 

alsone bot he laye halfe dede in the waye. 

atoone, Dot y AHsander, MS, Lincoln f. 3 

ALSQUA. Also. {A.-S.) 

The signe of pes alsqua to bring 
Bitwix William and the tother king. 

AfS. Fairfax 14 

ALSTITE. Quiclfly. 

Unto the porter spekehe thoe, 
Sayd, To thi lord myn ernde thou go, 
Hasteli and alstite. 

Robson'a Romances, p. 5U. 

ALSTONDE. To withstand. Rob. Glouc. Is 

this a misprint for at-stonde ? 
ALSUITHE. As soon as ; as quickly as. 

For alsuithe als he was made 
He fell : was tharna langer bade. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. A. ni. f. 4. 

-"'-. -- "> -'"^ ■•°^'" t; c* *r '0. f- >• 

And, sir, I drede me yit alswa, 
That he sold have the empire the fra. 

Sevyn Sages, »594o. 

Oure lantarnes take with us alsway, 

And loke that thay be light. w ., „ irr 

Tmnnelcy Mi/st. p. lob 

ALTEMETRYE. Trigonometry. 

The bookis of aJtemetrye, 

Planemetrye and eek also. i,. r oo2 

Gower, i»/5. S«c. Antiq. 134, f. 2(W. 

ALTERAGE. One of the amends for offences 
short of murder. Hearne, m gloss, to Peter 
Langtoft, explains it, " the profits ^vl^^c^ fC; 
crueand are due to the priest by reason of the 

^^Tem. the beginneng and thendeng of the decaie of 
this lande growethe by the immoderate takeng of 
rovne and lyverey. withou.'htorder,after mennes awne 
sen" all appetite's, cuddees. gart.e. takeng of caanes 

or felonies: murdours, --^ ^' f^'^ ^""^^^Zf^ 
ages, biengis, saultes, slauntiaghes, and other hke 
abusions and oppressions. State Papers, u. 163. 

ALTERATE. Altered; changed. Palsgrave has 
it as a verb, to alter. 
/ Undir smiling she was dissiitiulate. 



/ 



Unuir smuuig sue "»^ — — 

Provocative with blinkis amorous, 
AndsodainlychaungidandoZ<era<e. 

Test, of Cresetde, 227. 

And thereby also the mater ys alterate. 
Both inward and outward substancyally. 

Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Bnt. p. IM. 
ALTERCAND. Contending. 

The parties wer so felle altercand on ilk side. 
That non the soth couth telle, whedir pes or werre 
suld ti.le. P^^«'- Langtoft, p. 314. 

ALTERN. Alternately. Milton. 

ALTHAM. In the Fraternitye of Vacabondes, 
1575, the wife of a "curtail" is.said to be 
called his alfham. See the reprmt of that 
rare tract, p. 4. 



\LTHER-BEST. The best of all. Cf. Kyng 
Alisaunder, 4878; Prompt. Parv. p. 161. 
When y shal slepe, y have good rest; 
Somtyme y had not alther-lest. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 202. 
The barne alther-beste of body scho bare. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17i f- 231. 
Kepe I no more for al my service. 
But love me, man, altherbest. 

MS. Coll. Caii Cantab. E. 55. 

ALTHER-FAIREST. The fairest of all. See 
Rom. of the Rose, 625 ; Hartshorne s Met. 

Tales, p. 82. ^ , , r n 

ALTHER-FEBLEST. The most feeble of all. 
Now es to alther-feblest to se, 
Tharfor mans lyve schort byhoves ho. 

MS. Cull. Sion. xvm. 6. 

\LTHER-FIRSTE. First of all. Cf. Le Bone 
Florence of Rome, 292 ; Hartshorne s Met 
Tales, p. 85. 

Alther-firste, whanne he dide blede 
Upon the day of Circumcisioun. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 20. 
Before matyns salle thou thynke of the swete 
byrthe of Jhesu Cryste alther-fyrste, and sythyne 
eftyrwarde of his Passione. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f- 2o6 

ALTHER-FORMEST. The first of all. 

For there thai make semblant fairest, 
Thai wil bigile ye alther-formest. 

Sevyn Sages, 2726 

ALTHER-FOULLESTE. The foulest of all. 
That schamefuUe thynge es for to saye. 
And fouUe to here, als sayse the buke. 
And alther-foulleste one to luke. 

Hampole, MS. Lincoln, f. 2/7. 

ALTHER-GRATTEST. Greatest of all. This 
compound occurs in an imperfect hne m byr 

Gawayne, p. 54. , , j, ,, 

ALTHER-HEGHEST. The highest of all. 

I sal syng til the name of the Lorde altner-Hegkest 
' MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f. 12. 

Whenne hir frendes gan hir se 
Upon the alther-heyst degre, 
Thei wondride how she thider wan. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 66. 
This es the name that es abowne alle names, 
name althir-Hegeste, withowttene *h''.^« "^/"^^ 
hopes hele. MS. Lmcfn A. i. 17. f- 192. 

ALTHER-LASTE. Last of all. 

And alther-laste, with fuUe gret cruelte, 
For us he suffreth circumcisioun. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antxq. 134, f. IV- 
Hur own lorde, alther-laste. 
The venom out of hys hedd braste. 

Le Bone Florence of Rome, zUi. 

ALTHER-LEEST. Least of all. 
Hir lif in langure lastyng lay, 
Gladshipe had she alther-leest. 
Cur.«or Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 65. 
That of the alther-leste wounde . ^ ,„-{. 

Were a stede brouht to grunde. Havelok, 1978. 

ALTHER-MIGHTIEST. See Alther-wisest. 
ALTHER-MOST. Most of all. See the Sevyn 

^ The'nfa^re v'anlt^ it es and a«;,ermfl*<e agayn man« 
deed, when lufe is perfitest. MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f. 1. 
He dud hym ynto the hethen ooste. 
There the prees was alther-moost. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. »* 



i 



ALU 



51 



The firste poynte of alle thre 
Was this, what thynge in his degr^ 
Of alle this world hath uede leste. 
And jit men helpe it alther-meate. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 58. 
And to hem speke I alther-moost. 
That ledeth her lyves in pride and boost. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 2 

And j.t mare fole es he. for he Wynnes hym na 

mede in the tyme. and althermaste fole he es, for 

he Wynnes hym payne. MS. Lincoln A. i 17 f 245 

ALTHER-NEXT. Next of all. Cf. LydgaS's 
MiDor Poems, p. 20; Le Bone Florence of 
Kome, 1963. 
Or thou art yn state of prest. 
Or yn two ordrys alther-nest. 

c-,, , ^S' Harl. 1701, f. 12. 

Ssithen althernext honde, 

Meke beestis thei shul undirstonde. 

Cumor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 11 
Aftir Sampson altherneest. 

Was domes-man Holy the preest. Jbid. f 4fi 

ALTHER-TREWIST. The truest of alL 

That alther-trewist man y-bore 
To chese amonge a thousande score. 
* r r^,,,.^ Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134. f. fi4 

ALTHER-WERST. The worst of all. 

Alther-werst then sha! hem be. 
That for mede come to dygnyte. 

. , ,^ ^S. Harl. 1701, f. 73. 

And thus a mannis ye firste 
Himselfe greveth alther-werstp. 

ALTHER-WISEST'^^^hft^^oTy"' ^^ "' 

om?lV^*L!' ^^*'^«^"y"« begynnynge. and es with- 
owttene cheungeyng,. and duellys withowttyne 
endynge, for he es althir-myghtyeste and althir. 
tvyseste, and alswa althire-beste 

ALTHER.30NGEST. ^heToX^e^t'ofiu ^^ 

Samuel seide, sir Jesse, say 
Where is thin alther.-^ongest son. 

ALTIFICATION. An alchemical term. See 
Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit, p 97 

^ M-J.?^^^^- V Thundering fr;m 'on high. 
Middleton apphes the term to Jupiter. See 
A T^.i'T.iy^^''^'' ^- 1 ^^ 5 Minsheu, in v. 
ALTRICATE. To contend. (Lat) 

Bishops With bishops, and the vulgar train 

Do with the vulgar altricate for gain. 

'^^rJ:-: S^^hmmg-pots without bottoms, 
htted into each other, without luting. An 
alchemical term. ° 

Look well to the register. 

And let your heat still lessen by degrees. 

To the aludels. ThJ Ai.t 1 i- , 

ATTTTTT?!? Ai r The Alchemist, \u I. 

Thf. A """"iK "''''^ "^^^ly to the wind. 

b'ylirtht^li]^^'^^^^^^^^^'^^^^ 

Aluffe at helm there, ware no more, beware' 

ALUMEEE. Bri;hr:;;r';x"r"' '■ ■" 

Noht may be feled lykeriisere. 
Then thou so suete alumere. 

fhPh ;./ ^'""^ ""^ S""^^ o^ channel behind 
the battlements, which served to carry off the 
ram-water, as appears from the Prompt. Parv 



ALl 



p. 10. It is certainly sometimes used for an 
alley, or passage from one part of a building 
to another. See Ducange, in v. Jllorium, and 
a quotation from Hearne in Warton's kist 
Engl. Poet. 11. 300 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 192. The 
parapet-wall itself is even more generally meant 

ALUTAT ON • t'' '^' ^^"°^P^^^ uudeLlour. 

iLU?f Twe^^!^^)^^^^^^^- ^^■-^- 
That child that was so wilde and wlonc 

vor^no,?'"' "'" ^' ''°"* ^y""" ^^^ ^yj"°ker and 

ALVERER Alfred. See the'^ namri; ^d^' 

Glllf'^'t'' ^f'^' ^S. of Robert of 

JMred ' *'^* ^P- ^26) reading 

ALVISCH. Elfish; having supernatural power 

Hadet wyth an alvisch mon, for angardez p^ydl 
ALWAY. Always. ^i''' ^""'a^ne, p. 27. 

Daughter, make mery whiles thou may. 
For this world wyll not last alwa;/ 

al^San^^?"'^-"^-'--"^- 

''il^^Ke^Sl^e™?,?;-^-!^ 
I prai to grete God alweldand. 
That thai have noght the hegher hand. 
D - . Ytvaine and Gaivin, 2199 

Befyse betajt hym God alleweld^ng. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38 f ISS 
Oure Lord God al-weldj^nge. 
Him liked wel her offrynge 

alwes. n£:ti^''"'°'- ''■'"■ '■'■'■ 

And than be-kenned he the kouherde Crist and to hal 
ALY: Go. (Fr.) '^•■«- "»■'"««'-»'/. P. 14. 
-^^1/ .'he saide, aly blyve ! 
No leteth non skape on ly ve. 

ALYCHE. Alike. ^^"*' ^«-««de,-, 4370. 

In kyrtelsand in copes ryche. 
They were clothed all al^che. ' 

ALYCKENES. Similarity. '="""'"^- "^. '• ?»• 

And lyke of alj/ckenes, as hit is devysed. 
ALYE. (1) To mix. (Fr.) ''-"<^^^'P-B7. 

And if it be not in Lent, al^e it with jolkes of eyren. 
(2) Kindred. Formeo/Cur^.p.U. 

If I myght of myn alpe ony ther fynde. 
It wold be grett joye onto me. 

ATYF<5 Ai * 1 (Gentry Mu9teries, p. 1A5. 

\ArlSS' A^gates; always. Percy. 

\vlli^^^'' ^^- ^y'^g^*^'^ Minor Poem«, 

And he ne wolde leve als/fe 
Man, beste, chylde, ne wyfe 

A-LYGHTELY. LighC""'"'-"-"-^- '•»»• 

A-lyghtely they sey, as hyt may falle, 

ILyN aT f ; '."^'^^°^^«"«^- Prompt. Parv. 

rJfer's i^J^"'^ °^'"'^°"^^ ^^ Skinner, wha 
reters to Juhana Barnes as his authority. 



AMA 



52 



AMA 



ALYS. Hales; tents. See the Fasten Letters 
V. 412, quoted in Prompt. Parv. p. 222. Ihey 



See the Archaeologia, 



were made of canvas. 

at^y?J;on' The herb madwort. It is men- 

^"oned by Hlat. 1572, as a core for the bue 
of a mad dog. 

A-LYVED. Associated. 

And whanne the bycche of hem is moost hoot, ^if 
ther be any wolfes yn the contr6. thei goith alle after 
hure as the houndes doith after the bycche when she 
r joly, but she shal not be a-ly^e. wUh^noo^ of ^the 
wolfes saf on. . , . i. -n 

ALYZ. Isabel, Countess of War^vack, in her will 
dated 1439, leaves a "gown of green a/yz 
cloth of gold, with wide sleeves," to our Lady 
of Walsyngham. See the Test. Vetust. p. 240. 

AM tS An old form, and still in use in 
the provinces. See an example in Middleton s 
Works! i. 351, where the editor erroneously 
prints it a^m, which implies a wrong source of 

'"' TntmaUe a.e amend ^-^^^^^^^J^,^ , ,, 

^'^^pS Ab^oTn Jmoost fayre. moost a^a.le ! 

* ace oi A Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 25. 

AMACKILY. In some fashion; partly. North. 

A-MAD. Mad. 

Heo wendeth bokes un-brad, 
Antmakethmenamonetha-marf. 

Wright's Pol. Songt, p. 156. 
Here was Jhesus i-lad to scole, and over cam alle the 

r^lro-rllA'^^nr'^.. w. m. r. .3. 
AMADETTO. A kind of pear so named by 
Evelyn after the person who first introaucea 
it. Skinner. 

wifhTword and dagger ,o defend himself agams.^ll 
T/je Fortunate Lovers, \M^. 
assaults. ' ^r +1.0 

AMAIMON. A king of the East, one of te 
principal devils who might ^^ ^ound or re 
strained from doing hurt from the third hour 
:mnot,andfrom'theninthhour^^^^^^^^^^ 
He is alluded to in 1 Henry IV. u. 4, ana 
Mer y T of Windsor, ii. 2. According to 
Holme he was "the chief whose dominion 
!:rn%h; nonh part of the ^^^£^^ 
See Douce's Illustrations, 1. 428 ; Malone s 
Shakespeare, ed. 1821, vm. 9 ^ ' 
AMATN All at once. A sea term, i"^ 
^IZ ustd in boarding ; and to stn^earnam 
is to let the top-sails fall at their full run not 
cently. Waving amain, is waving a sword for 
f sTgnal to othef ships to strike then- t^p-sad • 
See the Sea Dictionary, 12mo. Lond. 1708, 

in v. , p 7 

AMAISTEll. To teach, i^alop. „ .„^ ^r 

AM AISTREN. To overcome ; to be master of. 

U.-N.) 

And now wolde I wite of thee 

What were the beste ; 

And how I myghte a-maMren hern. 

And make hem to werche. Piers Ploughman, p. 12.' 



AMALGAMING. A chemical term for n>lxic? 
quicksilver with any metal. 

And in amalgaming, and calcening 

Of qtiiksilver. y-cleped mercurie crude. 

Chaucer, Cant. r. VjJS* 

AMALL. Enamel. See Amell. 
Upon the toppe an ern ther stod 
Of bournede gold ryche and good, 

I-florysched with ryche amall. Launfal, ^70. 
AMAND. To send away ; to remove. {Lat.) 
Opinion guideth least, and she by faction 
Is quite amanded. and in high distraction. 

^ MS. Rawl. 437. f. 11- 

AMANG. Among. Var. dial. 

He outtoke me thar among 
Fra mi faas that war sa Strang. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. D. vi 

AMANG-HANDS. Work done conjointly with 
oiher business. In Yorkshire it sometimes 
means lands belonging to diiferent proprietors 

intermixed. / ^ o \ 

AMANSE. To excommunicate. f^A.-^.) 

And the kyng hymsulf was therate ; hh amansecie 

AUe ^hulke. that elerkes such despy t ^^^^^^^ J; 
A-MANY. Many people. North. SeeMassinger's 

Works, i. 35. . • . 

If weather be fayre. and tydie thy grame, 
Make spedely carrige for feare of a raine : 
For tempest and showers deceaveth a-meny. 
And lingering lubbers >oose^many a W-^^ ^ ^^ 

AMARRID. Marred; troubled. Cf. Deposition 
of Richard II. p. 2; Gesta Romanorum. 
p. 207. 

Eld me hath nmarrid, 
Ic wene he be bi charrid. 

That trusteth to ^uthe. Rehq. Anttq. .1. 211. 

A-MARSTLED. Amazed ? 

Hupe forth, Hubert, hosede pye, 
Ichottharta-ma««ed into the mawe. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. HI. 

AMARTREDE. Martyred. 

And amartre.de so thane holie man. 

And a-slou3h him in a stound. ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 

AMASEDNESSE. Amazement. 

Not only the common sort, but even men of place 
and honour, were ignorant whlcii way to duect h.r 
course, and therby. through amasednesse ^^^^^^^ 
run from the place affected, as to make to tbe succour 
of it Lambarde's Perambulation, ed. 1596. p. bJ. 

AMASEFULL. Frightened. Palsgrave. 

A-MASKED. " To go a-masked," to wander ^r 
be bewildered. This is given as a Wilt^h re 
phrase in MS. Lansd. 1033, f. 2, m a letter 

AMASTK An amethyst. Rider. Minsheu gives 

the form amatyste. r>ravton's 

AM AT. To daunt; to dismay. Cf. DraUons 
ptems. p. 303 ; Florio in v. Spontare ; Coven- 
try Mysteries, p. 294. {A.-N.) 

There myght men snrow see, 
^mamd that there had be. j 

MS. CantJh. Ff. ii. 38, t. mi. 
And all their light laughyng turnd and translated 
Into sad syghyng; all myrlh was «maf.d 
Heyivood on Englishe Proverbes, 1561. s.g- A. Miu 



AMB 



53 



AME 



AM AWNS. To excommunicate ? 
With a penyles purs for to pleye, 
Lat scho can the pepul amawns. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 74. 

AMAWST. Almost. West. 
AMAY. To dismay. Cf. Kyng Alisaunder, 
7243 ; Arthour and Merlin, p. 86. {Fr.) 
With thyn aunter thou makest heer 
Thou ne mijt no3t me amaye. 

MS. Aahrmle 33, f. 6. 
Whereof he dradde and was amayed. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 232 

AMAZE. To confound ; to perplex ; to alarm. 

Shak. 
AMBAGE. Circumlocution. See the Spanish 
Tragedy, i. 1 ; Marlowe's Works, iii. 257. In 
an old glossary in MS. Rawl. Poet. 108, it is 
explained by " circumstance." See the Brit. 
Bibl. ii. 618. It is used as a verb, apparently 
meaning to travel round, in the Morte d' Ar- 
thur, i. 135. {Lat.) 
AMBASSADE. An embassy. {A.-N.) 

Aboute him there, th'ambassade imperyall 
Were fayre brought unto his royal dignity. 

Hardyrig-'s Chronicle, p. 138. 

AMBASSADOR. A game played by sailors to 
duck some inexperienced fellow or landsman, 
thus described by Grose. A large tub is filled 
with water, and two stools placed on each side 
of it. Over the whole is thrown a tarpaulin, 
or old sail, which is kept tight by two persons 
seated on the stools, who are to represent the 
king and queen of a foreign country. The per- 
son intended to be ducked plays the ambassa- 
dor, and after repeating a ridiculous speech 
dictated to him, is led in great form up to the 
throne, and seated between the king and queen, 
who rise suddenly as soon as he is seated, and 
the unfortunate ambassador is of course deluged 
in the tub. 

AMI3ASSAGE. An embassy. Shak. 

AMBASSATE. An embassy. See Hardyng's 
Chronicle, ff. 74, 95, 186, who sometimes 
sj)ells it ambassyate. In MS. Ashmole 59, f. 
45, is ** a compleynte made by Lydegate for 
the departing of Thomas Chancier into Fraunce 
by hes servauntz upone the kynges ambassate." 

AMBASSATRIE. An embassy. (.^.-A'.) 

1 say, by tretise and ambassatriet 

And by the popes mediation. 

And all the chirche, and all the chevalrie. 

That in destruction of maumetrie. 

And in encrese of Cristes lawe dere. 

They ben accorded so as ye may here. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 4653. 

AMBER'D. Scented with ambergris. 

The wines be lusty, high, and full of spirit. 
And amber'd all. Beaumont and Fletcher, iv. 433. 

AMBER-DAYS. The ember days. 

And sufferages of the churche, bothe amber-dayes 
and lentes. Bale's Kynge Johan, p. 4). 

AMBES-AS. The two aces, the lowest throw 
in the dice ; and hence often used figuratively 
for bad luck. See Chaucer, Cant. T. 4544 ; 
Harrowing of Hell, p. 21 ; All's Well that 
ends Well, ii. 3. Howell, p. 19, tells us that 
whenthisthrowwas made, the dicers in London 
would say " ambling annes and trotting Joan." 



This is also the reading of one MS. in Rotak 
Glouc. p. 51. 

This were a hevy case, 

A chaunce of ambesase, 

To se youe broughte so base. 

To playe without a place. 

Skelton'a Works, ii. 438. 

AMBIDEXTER. In famihar writing a kind of 
Vicar of Bray. According to Cowell, " that 
jiu-or that taketh of both parties for the giving 
of his verdict." See Nash's Pierce Penilesse, 
p. 10 ; Florio in v. Destreggidre. 
AMBLANT. Ambhng. 

And mony faire juster corant. 
And mony fat palfray amblant. 

Kyny Alitaunder, 3462. 

AMBLERE. An amble. 

But Oliver him rideth out of that plas 

In a sof te amblere, 
Ne made he non other pas 
Til they were met in feie. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 5. 

AMBLINDE. Ambling. 

Y sett hir on a mule ambliude. 
In the way we dede ous rideinde. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 163. 

AMBOLIFE. Oblique. 

And take gode kepe of this chapiter of arisingeof 
celestiall bodyes, for ther tnisteth wel that neither 
mone neither sterre in our ambolife orizont. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 445. 

AMBROSE. Wild sage. See an old receipt in 
ReUq. Antiq. i. 55 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 11; 
Archaeologia, xxx. 404. 

AMBRY. A cupboard ; a pantry. See Aumbry. 
Cf. Florio in v. Gazzdra ; Skinner and Baret, 
in V. The almonry was sometimes so called, 
the alms being kept in an ambry. See Brit- 
ton's Arch. Diet, in v. Almonry. 

AMBULENDE. Ambling. 

On fayre ambulende hors they set. 

Gower, ed. 1532, f. 70. 

AMBULER. An ambhng horse. 

Sire, said Palomydes, we will be redy to conduyte 
you bycause that ye are sore wounded, and soo was 
Epynogrys and his lady horsed, and his lady behynde 
hym upon a softe ambuler. 

Morte d' Arthur, ii. 148. 

AMBUSCADO. An ambuscade, Shak. 
Nay, they have ambuscadoes laid within thee. 
Self against self suborn'd, thereby to win thee. 

Clobery's Divine Glimpses, p. 104. 

AMBUSION. An abuse. 

But this me thinketh an ambusion. 
To see on walke in gownis of scarlete 
Twelve ^erdis wide, with pendant sieves doun 
On the grounde, and the fUrroure therinne. 

Occleve, MS Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 2.'>2. 
Fy ! hit is to gret an ambusion 
To se a man that is but wormis mete. 

Ibid. f. 256. 
AMBYNOWRE. An almoner. 

Pet6 es spensere, that dose servesse to gud alle that 
scho maye ; and Mercy hir syster sallebe ambynowre, 
that gyffes to alle, and noghte kane kepe to hirselfe. 
MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 273. 
AME. (1) To guess ; to think ; to tell. From the 
German ahmen, according to Qu. Rev. Iv. 371 ; 
but it certainly, in middle English, is merely 
another form of aim^ q.v. In Palsgrave we have 



AME 



54 



AME 



**tayme, I mente or gesse to hyt a thynge." The 
meaning is clearly ascertained from Prompt. 
Parv. p. 190, " gessyne, or amyne, estimo, 
arbitror, opinor.'' Cf. Rom. and Jul. i. 1. 
Of men of armes bold the numbre thei ame, 
A thousand and tuo hundred told of Cristen men 
bi name. Peter Langtoft, p. 228. 

And alle Arthurs oste was amede with knyghtes, 
Bot awghtene hundrethe of alle entrede in rolles. 
Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 95. 
No mon upon mold mi3t apme the noumber, 
Al that real aray reken schold men never. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 58. 
Yes, wyth good handelyng, as I at/me, 
Even by and by, ye shall her reclayme. 

Commune Secretary and Jalowsye, «. d. 

(2) The spirit; the soul. {A.-S.) See Steven- 
son's ed. of Boucher in v. 

(3) For a third sense, see Warner's Antiq. Culin. 
p. 14. A dish is there called ** douce ame." 

AMEAUNT. Ellis and Utterson propose ada- 
mant as the meaning of this word. The 
Cambridge MS. reads, " Thys swyrde ys gode 
and aveaunt.'^ {A.-N.) 

Therfore my swearde he shall have. 

My good swerde of ameaunt. 

For therwith I slewe a gyaunt. Syr Degord, 105. 

AMEE. The herb ameos, Gerard. 

AMEKIDE. Soothed. 

Ande thenne spake he, Ne was not this yonge man 
getyne by me ? Yis, sir, quod she, dowtithe hit not, 
for he is your lawefuUy bigetene sone. Thenne the 
Emperoure was amekide, ande saide to his sonne, 
Son, quod he, 1 ara thi fadir. 

Ge^ta Romanorum, p. 177» 

AMEL-CORN. A kind of corn, said by 
Markham to be " of a middle size betwixt 
wheat and barlie, unlike altogether unto win- 
ter wheat whereof we last spake, but of a sort 
and facultie like unto spelt, whereof we will 
speake next in order." See Markham's 
Countrey Farme, 1616, p. 551 ; Cotgrave, in v. 
Scourgeon ; Florio, in v. Oriza. It appears 
from Markham that scourgeon is scarcely 
synonymous with amel-corn, and therefore 
Cotgrave's account of it is not quite ap- 
plicable. It seems to be the Teut. Amel- 
fforen, explained by Kilian /ar candidum, and 
the corn of which amydon is made. Gerard 
calls it the starch-corn, a species of spelt. 

AMELLi. (1) Enamel. It is also used as a verb 
by Chaucer, Palsgrave, and others. See 
Amiled; Beaumont and Fletcher, Introd. p. 
lix; Cotgrave and Hollyband, in v. Email f 
Prompt. Parv. p. 361 ; Twine, ap. CoUier's 
Shak. Lib. p. 206. Amall is a similar form, 
q. V. See an example in v. Amelyd. 

(2) Between. Northumb. It seems to be the 
Icelandic d milli. See Qu. Rev. Iv. 363, 
where it is stated not to be used in Scotland. 
It is inserted in the glossary' to the Towneley 
Mysteries, without a reference, and explained 
" among." 

AMELYD. Enamelled. 

The frontys therwith amelyd all 
With all iiiancr dyverse amell. 

MS. A^hmole Ch f. 154. 



AMEN AOE. To manage ; to direct by force. 

With her, who so will raging furor tame, 
Must first begin, and well her amenage. 

Faerie Queene, II. iv. il. 
AMENAUNCE. Behaviour ; courtesy. (Lat) 
And with grave speech and grateful amenaunc?, 
Himself, his state, his spouse, to them commended. 
Fletcher's Purple Island, xi. 9. 

AMENDABLE. Pleasant. 

That til oure lif is ful profitable. 
And to oure soule amendable. 

MS. Aahmole 60, f. 5. 

AMENDEN. A kind of oath. Suffolk. 
AMENDMENT. Dung or compost laid on land. 

Kent. 
AMENDS. An addition put into the scale of a 
balance, to make just weight. See the Nomen- 
clator, p. 337. So the modem phrase, to 
make amends. 
AMENE. Pleasant ; consenting. {Lat.) 
Whan that mercy wolde have ben amene, 
Rightwyssenesse gan hit anon denye. 

Lydgate, MS. Ashmole 39, f. 20. 
To thi servaunttis of grace now see. 
And to thi son befor hus amene. Tundale, p. 125 
AMENGE. To mingle. "We may perhaps read, 
" And menge it." 

Amenge it with gres of a swyne. 

Archeeologia, xxx. 357. 

AMENNE. To amend. 

As we be wont, erborowe we crave, 
Your life to amenne Christ it save. 

Rom. of the Rose, 7496. 

AMENSE. Amends. 

To tell you the cause me semeth it no nede. 
The amense therof is far to call agayne. 

Skelton'a Workii,i. 226. 

AMENTE. Amend. 

But y leve synne, hyt wole me spylle ; 
Mercy, Jhesu ! y wole amente. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 17. 

AMENUSE. To diminish ; to lessen. (A.-N.) 
See the Persones Tale, pp. 36, 38. 
His mercy is surmounting of foyson. 
Ever encreaseth without amenusyng. 

Bochas, b. ii. c. 31. 

AMEOS. The herb bishop's-weed. See Florio, 

in V. Ammi. 
AMERAL. An admiral, q. V. The word is very 
changeable in its orthography. In the Prompt. 
Parv. p. 11, it occurs in the modern sense of 
admiral. The word ameraltt in the following 
passage seems to mean the sovereignty of 
the sea. 

Cherish marchandise and kepe the ameralti. 
That we be maisters of the narow see. 

MS. Sac. Antiq. 101, f. 50. 

AMERAWD. An emerald. 

An amerawd was the stane. 

Richer saw I never nane. Ywaine and Gawin, 961 . 

His ston is thegrene amerawde, 

Tu whom is joven many a lawde. 

Gower, MS. Sac. Antiq. 134, f. 20l 

AMERAWDE S. The hemorrhoids. " A gud 
medcyne for the amerawdes" is mentioned in 
MS. Harl. 1600 and 1010. 

AMERCE. To punish with a pecuniary pe- 
nalty ; to inflict a fine or forfeiture. Some- 
times, to punish, in general. See Romeo and 
Juliet, iii. 1. 



AMI 



55 



AMM 



Aud yf thou kanste not lete thi playntcs be. 
Unlawful quarel oweth to ben amersed. 

Boetius, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 292. 

AMERCY. To amerce. (J.-N.) 

And though ye mowe amercy hem, 
Lat mercy be taxour. Piera Ploughman, p. 119, 
AMERE. Bitterly. So explained by Weber in 
the following passage, where the Lincoln's Inn 
MS. reads, ♦' and gan him beore." Stevenson 
considers it a noun, mischief, damage, a more 
likely interpretation. {A.-N.) 
Dariadas, Daries brother. 
He hadde y^slawe on and othir. 
Tauryn and Hardas he slowe with spere. 
With sweord lyden he dud amere! 
In this strong fyghtyng cas, 
He mette with Dalmadas. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 4427. 
AivIERELLE. The translation of umbraculum 
in the Canterbm^ MS. of the Medulla. See 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 301. The corresponding 
term in MS. Harl 2270 is " an umbrelle." 
AMERRE. To mai ; to spoil ; to destroy. See 
the Sevyn Sages, 2266, wrongly glossed bv 
Weber. (^.-.9.) ^ ^ 

He ran with a drawe swerde 

To hys mamentrye, 
Aud all hys goddys ther he amerrede 

With greet envye. Octovian, 1307. 

That we beth ofte withinne. 
The soule wolleth amen-e. 

MS. Digby 86, f. 128. 
Now thou hast, sir, alle y-herd 
Hou ich am bitreyd and amerd. 

Gy of Wartvike, p. 165. 

AMERS. Embers. Yorksh. 
AMERVAILE. To marvel; to be surprised. 
Cf. Hardyng's Chronicle, ff. 73, 120 ; Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 392 ; Syr Degore, 932; Riche's 
Farewell to Mihtarie Profession, ed. 1581, 
sig. P. i. (A.-N.) 
And Bwiftli seththe with swerdes swonge thei to-gkler. 
That many were amervailed of here doujti dedes. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 139. 
Then spake Tundale to the angyll bryght. 
For he was amerveld of that syght. Tundale, p. 54. 
The bisshope wos amerveld then, 
And in gret th03t he stode. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 78. 

AMES-ACE. See Ambes-as. This is the form 
used by Shakespeare. See Collier's Shake- 
speare, iii. 241 ; Nares, in v. 
AMESE. To calm. ''Amese you," calm your- 
self. This phrase is addressed by Anna to 
Cayphas in the Townley Myst. p. 194 
AMET. An ant. {A.-S.) 

So thycke hii come, that the lond over al hii gonne 

fulle. 
As thycke as ameten crepeth in an amete hulle. 

AMETISED. Destroyed. Skmner. 

AMEVED. Moved. {A.-N.) Cf. Chaucer, 

Cant. T. 8374 ; MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 4. 

But, Lorde, howe he was in his herte amevid. 

Whan that Mary he hathe with childe i-seyn. 

Lydgate, MS. Aahmole 39, f, 39. 
That grievaunce was him no thinge lefe, 
He was ful sore ameved. MS. Douce 175, p. 24. 

A.MIAS. The city of Amiens. 



He ran anon, as he were wode. 
To Bialacoil there that he stode, 
Whiche had levir in this caas 
Have ben at Reines or Amias. 

Romaunt of the Rose, 3<W. 
AMICE. The amtce or amite is the first of the 
sacerdotal vestments. It is, says Mr. Way, a 
piece of fine linen, of an oblong square form, 
which was formerly worn on the head until 
the priest arrived before the altar, and then 
thrown back upon the shoulders. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 11 ; Nom.enclator, p. 159 ; Dugdale's 
Monast. iii. 295. The following quotation 
may also be found in an early printed fragment 
in Mr. Maitland's account of the Lambeth 
Library, p. 266. See Ammis. 
Upon his heed the amyte first heleith. 
Which is a thing, a token and figure 
Outwardly shewinge and grounded in the feith ; 
The large awbe, by record of scripture, 
Ys rightwisnesse perpetualy to endure : 
The longe girdyl, clennesse and chastity ; 
Bounde on the arme, the fanoune doth assure 
All soburnesse knytte with humility. 

Lydgate, MS. Hatton 73, f. 3. 

AMIDWARD. In the middle. Cf. Kvng 
Alisaunder, 967 ; Richard Coer de Lion, 1926 ; 
Sevyn Sages, 179 ; ElHs's Met. Rom. iii. 29. 

He met that geaunt Pinogres 

Amidward al h is pres. Arthour ana Merlin, p. 301 . 

AMILED. Enamelled. {A.-N.) See the note on 
this word in Warton's Hist. Engl. Poet. ii. 155. 
And with a bend of golde tassiled. 
And knoppis fine of golde amilcd. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1080. 
AMINISH. To diminish. Palsgrave. This is 

perhaps another form of amenuse, q. v. 
AMIS. To miss ; to fail. 

Aurelias, whiche that dispeirid is 
Whithir he shall have his love, or amis. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 112'. 

AMISS. A fault; a misfortune. ShaJk. 
AM IT. To admit. 

Amd amy tt in g the impossibilitie that their cataill 

were saved, yet in contynuaunce of one yere, the 

same cataill shalbe deade, distroyed, stolen, strayed, 

and eaten. state Papers, ii. 329. 

AMITURE. Friendship. 

Thow, he saide, traytour, 
Vusturilay thow come in amiture, 
Y-armed so on of myne. 
Me byhynde at my chyne, 
Smotest me with thy spere. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 3975. 

AMLYNG. Ambling. 

Off ladys were they com ryde. 

Along under the wodys syde, 

On fayre amlyng hois y-sett. 
.,„,._ ^S. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 6. 

AMMAT. A luncheon. West. 

AMMIS. The canonical vestment, lined with 
fur, that served to cover the head and shoul- 
ders. Grey fur was generally used. The word 
is sometimes spelt amice, amyse, ammys, 
ammas, &c. In French the amict and aumuce, 
and in Latin the amictus and almucium, cor- 
respond to the amice and ammis, as we have 
spelt them ; but it is a grave error to confound 
the two, as Mr. Dyce does in his edition of 



AMO 



56 



AMO 



Skelton, ii. 134. See also the quotations in 
Richardson, where, however, the terms are 
not distinguished; and Prompt. Parv. p. 11, 
where the distinction between the two is 
clearly seen; Palsgrave, f. 17 ; Lockhart's 
Life of Scott, i. 309. In the Prompt. Parv. 
we also have ** amuce of an hare, almucium, 
habetur in horologio divines sapientice." 
And hym moost lowly pray. 
In his mynde to comprise 
Those wordes his grace dyd saye 
Of an ammus gray, Skelton's Works, ii. 84. 

AMNANT. Pleasantly (?). See Syr Gawayne, 

p. 31. Perhaps it should he avinant. 
AMNER. An almoner. Not an unusual form 

of the word. See Rutland Papers, p. 59; 

Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 49; Prompt. 

Parv. pp. 18, 19 ; Cotgrave, in v. Aumomier. 
A-MOD. Amidst; in the middle. Langtoft. 
AMOND. An almond. Minsheu. 
AMONESTE. To admonish; to advise. {A.-N.) 

Cf. Apology for the Lollards, p. 93; Wright's 

Christmas Carols, p. 31 ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, 

p. 201; Meliheus, p. 110. 

Bot of thas that he amonestes, the whilke er wonte 

for to thynke lyghtly the vengeance of God. 

MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f. 5. 

AMONESTEMENT. Advice; admonition. Cf. 
Morte d' Arthur, ii. 279. 

The kyng amonestement herde; 
Quykliche thennes he ferde. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 6974. 

AMONGE. Amidst; at intervals, Cf. Ellis's 
Met. Rom. ii. 387 ; Ritson's Anc. Pop. Poet, 
p, 44. The phrase ever among, in Rom. of the 
Rose, 3771, and 2 Henry IV. v. 3, means ever 
from time to time, ever at intervals. 
Be it right or wrong. 
These men among 

On women do complaine. Nutbrowne Maid, i. 
And ever amonge, mercy ! sehe cryde. 
That he ne schulde his counselle hide. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 59, 
Thai eten and dronken right i-nowe. 

And made myrth ever amonge : 
But of the sowdon speke we nowe, 
Howe of sorowe was his songe. 

Sir Ferumhras, Middlehill MS. 
€ometyme thei schul be pyned longe 
With hete, and sometyme cold amonge. 

MS. Ashmole 41, f, 41. 

*.MONSI. To excommunicate. {A.-S.) 

To entredite and amonsi 

Al thai, whate hi evir be. 
That lafful men doth robbi, 

Whate in lond, what in see. 

WrighVa Political Songs, p. 196. 

AMONYE. An ointment wherewith the Egyp- 
tians used to embalm their dead bodies. See 
Wickliffe's New Test. p. 251. 
AMOOST. Almost. West. 
A-MORAGE. On the morrow. Rob. Glouc. 
AMORAYLE. An admiral, q. v. 

Two handred knyghtes withoute fayle, 
Fyve hundred of amorayle. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 6846. 

AMORETTE. A love affair. {A.-N.) Tyrwhitt 



says '* an amorous woman" in the second of 
these instances, where it may be merely a di- 
minutive, as in Florio, in v. Amorino. Jamie- 
son explains it, love-knots, garlands. 
For not i-cladde in silke was he. 
But all in flourisand flourettes, 
I-paintid all with amorettes. 

Rom. of the Rose, 892. 
For all so well woU love be sette, 
Undir raggis as rich* rotchette. 
And eke as well by amorettea 
In mourning blacke, as bright burnettes. 

Ibid. 476^. 
AMORILY. Perhaps, says Tyrwhitt, put by 
mistake for merily. The old glossaries ex- 
plain it " amorously." 

The seeonde lesson Robin Redebreste sang. 

Hail to the God and Goddes of our lay 2 
And to the lectorn amorily he sprang, 

Hail, quod he, G thou freshe seson of May. 

Courte of Love, 1383. 

AMORIST. An amorous person. 

An amorist is a creature blasted or planet-stroken, 

and is the dog that leads blind Cupid. [1614, sig. k. 

A Wife, now the Widow of Sir Thomas Overbury, 

AMORT. Dejected ; without spirit ; dead. (Fr.) 
" What sweeting, all amort /" — Tam. of the 
Shrew, iv. 3. See Hawkins's Engl. Dram. iii. 
358 ; Greene's Works, i. 146 ; Tarlton's Jests, 
app. p. 131 ; Euphues Golden Legacie, ap. Col- 
lier's Shak. Lib., p. 124. Howell, in his Lexi- 
con, translates all-amort by triste, pensatif. 
A-MORTHERED. Murdered. See the Herald's 
College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, quoted 
in Hearne's edition, p. 144. 
AMORTISEN. To amortize ; to give property 
in mortmain. {A.-N.) The word amortised 
occurs in the Persones Tale, p. 22, and is ex- 
plained killed in the glossaries. It may pos- 
sibly bear a figurative expression. 
Let mellerys and bakerys gadre hem a glide. 

And alle of assent make a fraternite, 
Undir the pillory a litil chapelle bylde. 

The place amorteyse, and purchase liberie. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 207. 
If lewed men knewe this Latyn, 
Thei wolde loke whom thei yeve. 
And avisen hem bifore, 
A fyve dayes or sixe, 
Er thei amortisede to monkes 
Or chanons hir rente. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 314. 
AMORWE. In the morning ; early in the morn- 
ing. Cf. Chaucer, Cant. T. 824, 2491 ; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 159. 

Knight, he seyd, yeld the bylive. 
For thou art giled, so mot y thrive ! 
Now iehave a-drink, 
Icham as fresche as ich was amorwe, 

Gy of Warwlke, p. 324. 
Amorue syr Amys dyght him 3are, 
And toke his leve for to fare. 

MS. Dow 326, f. d. 
AMORYG. Explained by Hearne ♦' to-morrow," 
Rob. Glouc. p. 234 ; but the Herald's College 
MS. reads "among," which clearly seems to be 
the right reading. 
AMOUNTE. Smeared ? Mr. Wright thinks it 
may be an error of the scribe for anointe. 



AMP 



57 



AMY 



And I will goe gaither slyche, 
The shippe for to caulke and pyche; 
^mounte yt muste be with stiche, 
Bordo, tree, and pynne. Chester Plays, i. 47- 

AMOUI^TMENT. Reckoning. 

Examend tham and cast ilk amountment , 

Peter Langtoft, p 248. 

AMOVE. To move. Cf. Davies's York Records, 
p. 85 ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 364. 

To Flaundres she fled then, full sore amoved. 
To erle Badwyn hlr cousyn nie of bloodde. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 122. 

AMOWNE. Gentleness. See an old document 
printed in Meyrick's Critical Enquiry, ii. 252. 
AMOWRE. Love. See Flor. and Blanch. 524 ; 
Hall. Edward IV. f. 11 ; Cov. Myst. p. 50. The 
term amours, intrigues, was introduced into 
England in the seventeenth century, according 
to Skinner. 

He luked up unto the toure. 
And merily sang he of amowre. 

Sevyn Sages, 2962. 

AMPER. A sort of inflamed swelling. East. 
"y/mpererf, corrupted, as ampred chees in Kent ; 
an amper or ampor in Essex, is a rising scab or 
sore,allso a vein swelled with corrupted bloud." 
Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033. Skinner also ap- 
propriates it to Essex, but Grose to Kent, who 
explains it, a " fault, a defect, a flaw ;" and 
Ray gives it as a Sussex word, " a fault or flaw 
in linnen, or woollen cloath." A person covered 
with pimples is said in Somersetshire to be 
ampery^ while the same word is used in the 
Eastern counties in the sense of weak, or un- 
healthy. Ampred or ampery is now applied to 
cheese beginning to decay, especially in Sus- 
sex ; and is sometimes used when speaking of 
decayed teeth. An ampre-ang is said in the 
glossaries to be a decayed tooth in East Sus- 
sex and Kent. 

AMPERESSE. An empress. 

The nexte jer therafter, the amperesse Mold 
Wende out of this live, as the boo ath i-told. 

Rob. Glouc p. 474. 

AMPERSAND. The character &, representing 
the conjunction and. It is a corruption of 
and per se, and. The expression is, or rather 
was, common in our nursery books. In Hamp- 
shire it is pronounced amperzed, and very 
often amperst-and. An early instance of 
its use is quoted in Strutt's Sports and Pas- 
times, p. 399. 

AMPHIBOLOGICAL. Ambiguous. This word 
occurs in Greene's Planetomachia, 1588. 
Rider, 1640, has " amphibologie," and so has 
Chaucer, Troilus and Creseide, iv. 1406. 

AMPLE. (1) To go. Apparently a corruption 
of amble. See Watson's Halifax vocab. in v. 
North. 

(2) Liberal; generous. Shak. 

AMPLECT. To embrace. (Lat.) 

With how fervent heart should we profligate and 
chase away sin ! With how valiant courage should 
we amplect and embrace virtue ! Becon's Works, p. 66. 

AMPOLY. Same as ampulle, q. v. 

AMPOT. A hamper. Salop. 

AMPTE. An ant. " Serphus, a littell beaste, 
not unlike-an an^t or pismere." — Cooper. 



Calcicatres a graver most notable. 
Of white ivory he dide his besynesse. 
His hande, his eye, so just whs and stable. 
Of an ampte to grave out the lyknesse. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 38. 
Bote as the ampte to eschewe ydulnesse 
In somer is so ful of bysynesse. 

MS. Coll. S. Joh. Oxon. 6, f. if. 
AMPTY. Empty. 

In o gerner that ampty wns, 

Amorwe hy foundeand noma 
Two hondred sak ful of guod whete, 
Thej nyste whannes yt come. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57, f . 3 
My ampty skyn begynneth to tremble and quake. 
MS. Soc. jtntiq. 134, f. 28.5. 

AMPULLE. A small vessel. {A.-N.) 
A bolle and a bagge 
He bar by his syde. 
And hundred of ampulles 

On his hat seten. Piers Ploui^hman, p. 1(1.9. 

Late it stande in that bacyne a daye and a nyghte, 

and do thane that other that standis abovene in a 

ampulle of glase or coper. MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 293. 

AMRELL. An admiral. 
Whan he herde tell 
That my lorde amvell 
Was comyng downe. 

To make hym frowne. Skelton's Works, ii. 69. 
AMSEL. A blackbird. Var. dial. 
AMSEREY. A consistoiy court. 

Thow fals boye, seyde the freyre, 
Y somon the affbre the amserey. 

The Frere and the Boy, Ixv. 
AMSOTE. A fool. Prompt. Parv. [Anisote ?] 
AMTY. Empty. 

j4mty place he made aboute, and folc fleu hym faste ; 
A wonder maister he was on, that hem so kowthe 
agaste. Rob. Glouc. p. 17. 

With nailes thicke al abrod, 

Ase thare mijten strikie one. 
That man ne mijte finde ane amtie place 
On al heore bodie so luyte. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 99. 

AMUD. Annoyed ; repulsed. So explained by 
Hearne, in Rob. Glouc. p. 524, who suggests 
anuid with great probability. 

AMUSED. Amazed. 

Let not my lord be amused. Ben Jonson, iii. 131. 

AMWOAST. Almost. Wilts. In the North, 

the form of this word is sometimes amyast. 
AMY. A friend ; a lover. {A.-N>) Cf. Kyng 
Alisaunder, 376, 520, 1834. 

But oon oldeknyjt that hyght Gryssy, 
He lefte at home for hys amy. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 111. 
What is thi name, thou swete amy ? 
Gladly wite therof wolde I. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 123. 
Ther was mani levdi 
That sore biwepe her ami. 

Arthour and Merlin , p. 256. 

AMYD. Amidst. In the Deposition of Richard 
II. p. 1, we have amyddis in the same 
sense. 

Amyd the launde a castel he sye. 
Noble and ryche, ryght wonder hie. Sir Orpheo, 341. 

AMYDON. According to Cotgrave, " fine wheat- 
flower steeped in water ; then strained, and let 
stand untill it settle at the bottome ; then 
drained of the water, and dried at the suime ; 



ANA 



58 



ANA 



used for bread, or in brothes, it is ver}' nou- 
rishing ; also, starch made of wheat." It is 
mentioned in an old receipt in the Forme of 
Cury, p. 26 ; Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 10. 
AMYL. Starch. 

Of wheate is made amyl, the making whereof Cato 
and Dioscorides teacheth. Googe's Husbandrie, 1568. 
AMYLLIER. An almond-tree. 

The briddes in blossoms thei beeren wel loude 
On oly ves, and amylliera, and al kynde of trees. 

The Pistill of Susan, St. 7- 

AMYRID. Assisted ; remedied. (A.-N.) 

To help the with my power, thow shalt be ami/rid 
As ferforth as I may. Chaucer, ed. Urri/, p. 61/. 

AMYTTE. To approach. (A.-S.) 
Any science that is trouthe, 

Y shal ami/tte me ther-to. MS. Harl. 2382, f. 119. 
AN. (1) A. 

The king of Spayne and his sones, and here semli 

puple, 
Went with him on gate wel an five myle. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 184. 

(2) On. Cf. Piers Ploughman, p. 2; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 3 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 11161 ; Rom. of 
the Rose, 2270; SirEglamour, 906. 

Wanne Gy was armed and wel an horce. 

Than spronf, up is herte. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 40. 

Thou olde and for-horyd man, 

Welle lytulle wytt ys the an. 

That thou folowest owre kynge. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 219. 
Sche no told him nought al her cas, 
Bot that sche was a wriche wiman, 
That michel sorwe so was an. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 170. 

(3) Prefixed to a verb, in the same manner as A, 
q. V. See instances in Virgilius, ed. Thoms, 
p. 13 ; Matthew, iv. 2 ; Pegge's Anecdotes of 
the EngUsh Language, p. 180 ; Prompt. Parv. 
p. 172. 

(4) Than. North and East. 

hi) If. Sometimes a contraction of and before 
if, where it occasionally means as if, (Mids. 
Night's Dream, i. 2,) and it is sometimes re- 
dundant, especially in the provincial dialects. 

(6) And. This sense is not uncommon. See 
Jennings, p. 118; Octovian, 1078. 

For they nolde not forsake here trw fay. 
An byleve on hys falsse lay. 

Const, of Masonry, p. 31. 

(7) To give. (A.-S.) Sometimes as unnan in 
the primary sense, to favom, to wish well to ; 
as in Sir Tristrem, p. 173. See Qu. Rev. 
Iv. 372 ; Sir Tristrem, pp. 168, 264. 

(8) A dwelling. 

So wele were that ilke man, 
That mi3te wonnen in that an. 

Flor. and Blanch. 258. 

(9) To have. Lane. 

(10) One. North. Cf. Chester Plays, i. 233, 
238; Sir Tristrem, p. 150. 

And but an yje 

Amonge hem thre in purpertye. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 41. 

ANA. In an equal quantity. Still used by 
physicians. 

Tak ^arow and waybrede ana, and stampe 
tham«, aa) temper thame with wyne or ale, and 
4{ltf 1« t>v' flcke at drynke. MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 293. 



ANACK. Fine oaten bread. 

Also with this small meale, oatemeale Is made in 
divers countries sixe severall kindes of very good and 
wholesome bread, every one finer then other, as your 
anacks, janacks, and such like. 

Markham's English House-wife, 1649, p. 240. 
ANADEM. A ^vreath ; a chaplet ; a garland. 

And for their nymphals, building amorous bowers, 
Oft drest this tree with anadems of flowers. 

Drayton's Owl, ed. 1748, p. 411. 
ANADESM. A band to tie up wounds. Minsheii. 
ANAGNOSTIAN. A curate that serveth onely 
to reade, or a clarke or scoller that readeth to 
a writer or his master. Minsheu. 
ANAIRMIT. Armed. Gaw. 
AN ALE M. A mathematical instrument for 
finding the course and elevation of the sun. 
Minsheu. 
AN-ALL. Also. A Yorkshire phrase, the 
use and force of which are correctly exhibited 
in the following stanza : 

Paul fell down astounded, and only not dead. 

For Death was not quite within call : 
Recovering, he found himself in a warm bed. 
And in a warm fever an-all. 

Hunter's Hallamah. Gloss, p. 4> 
ANALYNG. Weber thinks this may be a cor- 
ruption of annihilating, i. e. killing. See 
Kyng Alisaunder, 2166, ^^ analyng oi stronge 
knighttes," but we should no doubt read 
avalyng, descending from or falling oflf their 
horses. 
ANAMELDE. Enamelled. Cf. Tundale, p. 64 •, 
Warton's Hist. Engl. Poet. ii. 42. 
Thay were anamelde with asure, 
With terepys and with tredoure. 

Sir Degrevante, Lincoln MS. f. 133. 

ANAMET. A luncheon. Hants. 
ANAMOURD. Enamoured. Cf. Emare, 226. 
A grete mayster and a syre 

Was anamourd so on hyre. MS. Harl. 1701, f. 54. 
Al anamourd on him thai ware. 
And loved Gij for his feir chere. 

Gy of Warunke, p. 5. 

ANAMZAPTUS. This word repeated in the ear 
of a man, and anamzapta in that of a woman, 
is said to be a cure for the falling sickness, in 
a curious early English MS. printed in the 
Archaeologia, xxx. 399. 

ANAN. How ? What do you say ? It is made 
use of in vulgar discourse by the lower class 
of persons addressing a superior, when they 
do not hear or comprehend what is said to 
them. It is going out of use now. It is also 
a corruption of anon, immediately. 

ANANSY. To advance ; to exalt. So Hearne 
explains it, in Rob. Glouc. p. 199. The 
Heralds' College MS. reads avaunce ; and 
perhaps we should here print it avansy. 

ANAPE. Apparently the name of a herb. It is 
mentioned in an old receipt in a MS. of the 
15th century, penes me. 

ANAPE S. Cloth. It seems to be some fine 
kind of fustian. See Cotgrave, in v. Velours. 
It is generally found as an adjunct to fustian, 
as in Laneham, p. 31 ; Brit. Bibl. ii. 403. 
This is of course the proper reading in Mid- 



ANC 



59 



ANC 



dleton's Works, iv. 425, " set a-fire my fustian 
and apes breeches," which the editor proposes 
to correct to Naples breeches. To mend the 
matter, we actually find apes' breeches set down 
in the index to the notes ! Fustian anapes is 
also mentioned in the Strange Man telling 
Fortunes to Englishmen, 1662. 
ANARWE. To render timid. The Bodl. MS. 
reads " an-arewest." Perhaps it means, to 
narrow, to diminish. 

He makith heom way with scharpe launce ; 

Thy men anarwith thy continaunce. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 3346. 

ANATOMY. A skeleton. Lister tells us he was 
so thin he " was like an anatomy." See his 
Autobiogi-aphy, ed. Wright, p. 45. 

ANAUNTRINS. If so be. North. In East 
Sussex the form anaimtrins is in use. It 
seems to be connected with the old word 
aunter; so that anauntrins would correspond 
to peradventure. See Rob.Glouc. pp. 206, 311. 

AN BERRY. A kind of bloody wart on a horse. 
See Topsell's Hist, of Four-Footed Beasts, 
p. 420 ; Markham's Cavelarice, b. vii. p. 80 ; 
Florio, in v. Moro; Diet. Rustic, in v. Anbury. 
In the East of England, a knob or excrescence 
on turnips or other roots is called an anberry. 

ANBLERE. An ambling nag. 
The ineyr 4lod, as ye may here. 
And saw hym come ride up anblere. Laun/al, 92. 

AN BY. Some time hence; in the evening. 
Somerset. 

ANCAR. A hermit. See Anchor. 

With horn in every place I have moche besynes, 
and also with an ancaf in that howse. 

Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 212. 

ANCEANDE. Anciently. 

For men may oppen and se thrugh this kay, 
Wat has been miceande, and sail be aye. 

Clavis Scientice, p. 3. 

ANCESSOURE. Ancestor. 

To the and to thi kynde haf thei don honoure, 
Londes haf thei gy ven to thin ancessoure. 

Peter Langtoft, p. 116. 

ANCHAISUN. Reason ; cause. 

And for anchaisun of mi sone, 

The more and for is lore. MS. Laud. 108, f. 1 15. 

ANCHANTEOR. An enchanter. 
Ac anchanteor Edwyne adde of Spayne wyth hym tho. 
That couthe hym segge of ys dedes al hou yt ssolde go. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 243. 

ANCHILATION. Frustration. It is so explained 
in an old glossary in MS. Rawl. Poet. 108. 

ANCHOR. (1) A Dutch liquid measure, or cask, 
often used by smugglers to carry their brandy 
on horseback. See the notes of the commen- 
tators on Merry Wives of W. i. 3. 

(2) An anchoret ; a hermit. 

To desperation turn my trust and hope, 
An anchor's cheer in prison be my scope. 

Hamlet, iii. 2. 4to ed. 

(3) To hold like an anchor. In the East of 
England, the strong tenacious spreading roots 
of vigorous plants are said to anchor out. 

ANCHORIDGE. A church porch, particularly 
that belonging to the cathedral church of 
Durham ; perhaps so called in allusion to a 



ship, of which some parts gave names to the 
parts of a church. Kennetfs MS. Gloss. 
ANCHYRCHE. A church. See Hearne's gloss, 
to Rob. Glouc. and the Chron. p. 232. It 
should probably be two words. 
ANCIENT. A standard-bearer, or ensign-bearer 
an officer now called an ensign. The word was 
also used for the flag or ensign of a regiment 
or of a ship. The old editions of the Merry 
Wives of Windsor mention on their titles, 
" the humours of Corporal Nym and Ancient 
Pistol." See also Collier's Old Ballads, p. 31 ; 
Percy's Reliques, pp. 73, 144 : Leycester Cor- 
respondence, p. 17; Account of the Grocers' 
Company, p. 330. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, 
has anshent, the flag in the stern of a ship. 
ANCILLE. A maid-servant. {Lat.) Cf. 
Chaucer's ABC, 109 ; Lydgate's Minor Poems, 
p. 37. 

That she was doughtre of David by discent, 
Sterre of the see and Goddes owne ancille. 

Lydgate, MS. Anhmole 39, f. 10. 
Biholde, quod sehe, of God the meke ancille. 
With alle my herte obeyinge to his wille. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 2. 

ANCLE-BONE. A name given by sailors to the 
prickly lobster. See Kennett's Glossary, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, f. 16. 
ANGLERS. Ancles. Salop. 
ANCLET. The ancle. North. Sometimes a 

gaiter. 
ANCLIFF. The ancle. North. 
ANCLOWE. The ancle. {A.-S.) Cf.Arthour 
and Merhn, 5206. 

In blood he stode, ich it abowe. 
Of horse and man into the anclowe. 

Ellis's Met. Rom. i. 279. 

ANCOME. A small ulcerous swelUng, formed 
unexpectedly. Rider translates it morbus ad- 
ventitius. According to Diet. Rustic. " a 
swelling or bump that is hard and hot." See 
Estward Hoe, iii. 1 ; Qu. Rev. Iv. 372. In 
Scotland, an attack of disease is called an on- 
come; and in a curious MS. of old receipts in 
Lincoln Cathedral, f. 300, is one " for onkome 
one arme," which agrees with what Mr. Garnett 
says of the form of the word in the place just 
cited. See (Income. 
ANCONY. A term in the iron works for abloom, 
^\Tought into the figure of a flat iron bar, about 
three feet in length, with a square rough knob 
on each end. See Kennett's MS. Gloss, f. 1 6. 
In Staffordshire one of these knobs is called an 
ancony-end, the other a mocket-head. 
ANCRE. An anchor. 

Right so fareth Love, that selde in one 

Hokieth his ancre, for right anone. 

Whan thei in ese wene best to live. 

They ben with tempest all for-drive. 

Rom. of the Rose, 3780. 
ANCRES. A female anchoret, or hermit. The 
term ancre is applied to a nun in Reliq. Antiq. 
ii. 1 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 380. Palsgrave, f. 17, has, 
''Anchre, a religious man ; anchres^ a religious 
woman." 

Nowe wyll I take the mantelland therynge, 

Ami become an ancresse in my lyvynge. 

Squyr o/Lowe i)eg^c, 96& 



AND 



60 



ANE 



Or for what cause she may no husband have. 
But live an amn-esse in so strict a roome. 

Haywood's Great Britaines Troy, 1600, p. 95. 

ANCYLE. A kind of javelin or dart, or the 
leather thong with which it is thrown. 
Pliilllps. 
AND. (1) If. North. 

So wole Crist of his curteisie. 
And men crye hym mercy, 
Bothe forgy ve and foryete. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 362. 

(2) Used redundantly in old hallads. 

Robin Hood he was, and a tall young man, 

And fifteen winters old. Robin Hood, ii. 12. 

(3) Breath. See Aande. (Isl.) 

Myn ees are woren bothe marke and blynd, 
Myn and is short, I want wynde. 
Thus has age dystroed my kynd. 

Towtieley Mysteries, p 154. 
Thai rested than a litel stound. 
For to tak thair ande tham till, 
And that was with thair bother will. 

Ywaine and Gawin, 3555. 
Ryghte es it by prayere als by draweyng of nnde, 
for ever to jemyng of oure bodily lyfe us nedis to 
drawe oure ande, that es, to drawe ayere. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 250. 

AND-AW. Also; likewise. North. 
ANDEDE. (1) Indeed. So explained by Hearne; 

but see Rob. Glouc. p. 320, where it is " an 

dede," i. e. a deed. 
(2) Confessed. Verstegan. 
ANDELONG. Lengthways. {A.-S.) 

Andelong, nouht overthwert. 
His nose went unto the stert. Havelok, 2822. 

ANDERSMAS. The mass or festival of St. An- 
drew. Yorksh. 
ANDERSMEAT. An afternoon's luncheon. 

Cf. Florio in v. Mertnda. See also Aunder. 
ANDESITH. Previously. {A.-S.) 
Affrik that es the tother parti, 
That andesith was cald Libi. 

MS. Cott. Vespuft. A. iii, f. 13. 

ANDIRONS. The ornamental irons on each 
side of the hearth in old houses, which were 
accompanied with small rests for the ends 
of the logs. The latter were sometimes 
called dogs, but the term andirons frequently 
included both, as in the proverb recorded by 
Howell, " Bauds and attorneyes, like andyrons, 
the one holds the sticks, the other their clients, 
till they consume." Mr. J. G. Nichols, glossary 
to the Unton Inventories, considers the dogs 
to be synonymous with the creepers, q. v. l)ut 
the term was also applied to part of the and- 
irons, and the latter are still called andogs in 
the Western counties. We find in Ducangc, 
" andena est ferrum, supra quod opponuntur 
ligna in igne, quod alio nomine dicitur hyper- 
pyrgium ;" and Miege makes the andiron and 
dog synonymous. The andirons were some- 
times made of superior metal, or gilt, and of 
very large dimensions. See Malone's Sliake- 
speare, xiii. 85 ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 84 ; Halle of 
John Halle, i. 600 ; The Alchemist, v. 1. 

ANDULEES. Puddings made of hog's guts and 
spice. They are mentioned in an old MS. 
printed in the Archajologia, xiii. 371, 388. 



AN-DUR. Either. {Dan.) 

Thow I me to townward drawe, 

Andur to lurke or to leyke. 
The wy ves wil out me drawe. 

And dere me with her doggus grele. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 110. 

ANDYRS. Other. (^.-5'.) The more usual form 
is endres, as in the Lincoln MS. f. 149. See 
a similar phrase in Sharp's Coventry Myst. p. 
113. Jamieson explains it St. Andrew's day, 
the 30th of November ; but it is difficult to 
reconcile this explanation with the " mery 
mornyng of Mag." 

As I me went this andyrs day, 

Fast on my way makyng my mone. 
In a mery mornyng of May, 

Be Huntley bankes myself alone. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. t. 48, f. 11(J. 

ANE. (1) A beard of corn. See an account of 
different kinds of wheat, and the anes, in 
Fitzharbert's Booke of Husbandrie, ed. 1598, 
p. 22. See Aane. 

(2) One; a. Cf. Hartshorne's Met. Tales, p. 
47 ; Cokwold's Daunce, 194 ; Ritson's Anc. 
Songs, p. 23. 

The kyng of Charturs was tane, 
And other Sarsyns many ane. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 168. 
Thay faht wiht Heraud everilk ane, 
Wiht gud wjl thay wald him slane. 

Guy of Warwick, Middlehill MS. 
And souner to many then to ane. 
That here hath the rijt trouthe tane. 

MS. Bodl. 48, f. S** 
Thus was Thow aye and evere salle be, 
Thre yn ane, and ane yn thre. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 189. 

(3) Alone. " Bi hyme ane," by himself. 

And he lighte off his horse, and went bi hyme ane 
to the Jewes, and knelid downe to the erthe, and 
wirchippede the hye name of Godd. 

Life of Alexander, MS. Lincoln, f. 6. 

(4) A. See n°. 2. 

Alas ! thou sell Fraunce, for the may thunche shome. 
That ane fewe fullaris maketh ou so tome. 

Wright's Political Songs, p. 194 

(5) Own. North. 

(6) To aim at. Somerset. 

(7) On. 

The heade and armes hangynge on the one syde of 
the horse, and the legges ane the other syde, and all 
byspryncled wyth myre and bloude. 

Hall, Richard III. f. 34. 

ANEAOUST. Near to; almost. Herefordsh. 

AN EAR. (1) Near. Somerset. Richardson quotes 
an example of this word from Bishop Atter- 
bury. Let. 50. 

(2) To approach. 

I hyre say that all men that wylbe sworne unto 
hym, they shall take noo hurte by hym, ne by none 
that is toward hym ; by meanes whereof diverse hus- 
bandmen aneryth unto hym, for fere of lostys of 
ther goodes. State Papers, ii. 200. 

ANEARST. Near. Exmoor. The more com- 
mon Somersetshire form is aneast. Nares says 
aneirst, a provincial term for the nearest wag. 
See his Gloss, in v. An-heirs. 

ANEATH. Beneath. North. 

ANE-BAK. Aback. Gaw. 

ANEDE. United; made one. Atf. 227oftb« 



ANE 



()1 



ANE 



Lincoln MS. anede is given as the translation 
of rnhaditavit. 

We may noghte hafe the vis of his luf here in ful- 
filling, bot we may hafe a desyre and a gret jernyng 
for to be present to hym for to se hym in his blysse, 
and to be anede to hym in lufe. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 226. 
ANE-END. Upright ; not lying down ; on one 
end. When applied to a four-footed animal, it 
means rearing, or what the heralds call ram- 
pant. Far. dial. In Cheshire, it signifies per- 
petually, evermore. In some glossaries the or- 
thography is anind. Cotgrave has " to make 
one's haire stand annend" in v. Ahurir, 
Dresser. 
ANEHEDE. Unity. 

For God wald ay with the Fader and the Son, 
And with the Haly Gast in anehede won. 

MS. HarZ. 4196. f. 215. 
Dere frende, wit thou wele that the ende and the 
soveraynt^ of perfeccione stundes in a verray anehede 
of Godd and of manes saule, by perfyte charyt6. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f- 219. 
ANELACE. A kind of knife or dagger, usually 
worn at the girdle. It is mentioned by 
Matt. Paris, who seems to say it was for- 
bidden priests to wear. See Ducange, in v. 
Anelacius ; Halle of John Halle, i. 212. 
At sessions ther was he lord and sire ; 
Ful often time he was knight of the shire. 
An anelaci: and a gipciere all of silk 
Heng at his girdel, white as morwe milk. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 359. 
Sche schare a-to hur own halse 
Wyth an analasse. MS Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 94. 
Bot Arthur with ane anlace egerly smyttez, 
And hittez ever in the hulke up to the hiltez. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 65. 

AN EL AVE. To gape. This word occurs in an 
old vocabulary in MS. Harl. 219 of the fif- 
teenth century, as the translation of the French 
verb " beer." 
ANELE. (1) To anoint with holy oil. Cf. 
Prompt. Parv. p. 11 ; Wright's Monastic Let- 
ters, p. 34. See Aneling. 
(2) To temper in the fire. Cf. Ashmole's Theat. 
Chem. Brit. p. 96 ; Baret's Alvearie, in v. 
So as the fyre it hath anelid, 
Llche unto slym whiche is congeled. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 194. 

ANELEDE. Approached. (J.-S.) 

Bothe wyth bullez and berez,and borezotherquyle, 
And etaynez, that hym anelede, of the he3e felle. 

Syr Gawajjne, p. 28. 

ANELING. (1) An animal that brings forth one 
young at a time. 

Their ewes also are so full of increase, that some 
dos usuallie bring foorth two, three, or foure lambes 
at onct, whereby they account our anelingx, which 
are such as bring foorth but one at once, rather bar- 
ren than to be kept for anie gaine. 

Harrison's Desc. of Brit. p. 42. 

{2) The sacrament of anointing. Cf. Sir 
T. More's Works, p. 345; Brit. Bibl. ii. .^32. 
These clerkys kalle hytoynament. 
On Englys hyt ys anelyng. MS. Harl. 1701, f. 74. 
ANELY. Only ; alone ; solitary. 
And that it be for chastiing 
Anel]/, and for none other thing. 

MS, Cott. Gulba E. \x. f. 7(». 



Wharfore oiirlevedy mayde.i Mary 
Was in pry v6 place anely. 

MS. Bibl. Coll. Sion. xviii. 6. 
So anely the lufe of hir was soghte. 
To dede thay were nere dyghte. 

MS Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 118. 
Worldes men that sees haly men have thaire hope 
anely in thyng that es noght in sight. 

MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f, 40 
Sir, je Hf an only life. 
We wald jow rede to wed a wife. 

MS. Cott. Galba E. ix. f. 2» 

ANELYNES. Solitariness. 

Noghte in delytes, bot in penance ; noghte in 
wantone joyeynge, bot in bytter gretynge ; noghte 
emange many, bot in anelynes. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 193. 
ANEMIS. Lest. Ray, under the word spar, 
says, " This word is also used in Norfolk, where 
they say spar the door anemis he come,i. e. shut 
the door lest he come in." It does not appear 
that this word is still in use. 
.\NEMPST. With respect to ; concerning. See 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 167 ; Rutland 
Papers, pp. 5, 14, where it is used in the same 
sense as anenst, q. v. 

And wee humbly beseech your highnes wee may 

knowe your Graces pleasure howe wee shall order 

ourselves anempst your graces saydcytie and caste'.l, 

for our discharge. State Papers, ii. 204. 

In the tother seven bene 

Anemptes our neyhebour, y wene. 

MS. Bodl 48, f. 63. 
AN-END. Onwards ; towards the end. A 
Norfolk clown calls to his companion " to go 
an-end" when he wants him to go forward. 
See the Two Gent, of Verona, iv. 4. In some 
counties we have the expression " to go right 
an-end,'^ i. e. to go straight forward without 
delay in any project. 
ANENDIE. To finish. [Amendie .^] 
And thene at then ende, 

Here sunnen al anendie. MS. Digby 86, f. 128. 
ANENS. Chains ; fetters. 

Now er his nnen.t wrouht of silvere wele over gilt ; 
Dayet that therof rouht, his was alle the gilt. 

Peter Lnngtoft, p. 167. 

ANENST. Against ; opposite to ; over against. 
" Ex opvosito ecclesiee, Anglice, anens the 
cherche."— MS. Bib. Reg. 12 B i. f. 84. It is 
also used in the sense of concerning. See 
Plumpton CoiTespondence, pp. 7, 172; Apo- 
logy for the Lollards, pp. 29, 80 ; W^right's 
Monastic Letters, p. 54 ; Florio, in v. Ardnda a 
rdnda ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 298. 

Tak thane and mye it smalle, and do it alle to- 
gedir, and mak it in a playster, and lay it one thi 
breste anense thi hert. MS. Medicin. Catli, Line f. 239. 

ANE NT. Over against ; immediately opposite. 
Watson says it is common in Halifax to hear 
the expression opposite anent. The Scottish 
meaning concerning does not appear to be now 
used in Yorkshire. Anentis occurs in Reliq. 
Antiq. ii. 47, in the sense of concerning ; and in 
Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 170, in the sense of 
against. See also Wickhffe's New Test. p. 23 ; 
Plumpton Corresp. p. 77. 

Of that doun-cast we may hi chaunce 
Anent this world get coveraunce. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Cantab, f. 141. 



ANE 



62 



ANG 



Abstinence is than ryght clere anenytte God. 

MS.Harl.6SS0 
ANEOUST. Near ; almost. Var. dial. 
ANERDIS. Adheres ; dwells with. Gaw. 
ANERLUD. Adorned ? 

With tniche and nevyn, 

Anerlud with ermyn. MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 84. 

ANERN. See Kyng Alisaunder, 560, where 
Weher conjectures anon, doubting whether it 
should not be an em, i. e. an eagle. 
ANERRE. To draw near to ; to approach. See 
Anear. 

As long as the gale puffeth full in your sailes, doubt 
not but diverse *iU anerre unto you, and feed on 
you as Crowes on carion. 

Stanihurst's Hist, of Ireland, p. 90. 

ANERTHE. On the earth. Cf. Rob. Glouc. 
pp.311, 441 ; Black's Cat. of Ashmol. MSS. 
col. 67 ; St. Brandan, p. 3. 
After that God anerthe com 

Aboute vif hondred jere. MS. Aahmole 43, f. 172. 
ANES. (1) Just like; similar to. Somerset. In 
the same county we have anes-to, almost, ex- 
cept, all but. 
(2) Once. Cf. Ywaine and Gawin, 292 ; Reliq. 
Antiq. ii. 280. Stili used in the North. 
For why thay dide the bot anes that dede, 
And they knewe the noghte Gode in manhede. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 190. 

ANESAL. A term in hawking. See a tract on 

the subject in Reliq. Antiq. i. 299. 
ANET. The herb dill. See a receipt in MS. 

Med. Cath. Line. f. 286 ; Minsheu, in v. 
ANETHE. Scarcely. The more usual form is 
unnethe, but anethys occurs in Prompt. Parv. 
p. 12. {A.-S.) 
Som dansed so long. 
Tell they helde owt the townge, 
And anethe meyt hepe. 

Ft-ereandthe Bot/, st. Ixxxi. 

But if Mars hathe be with theluneor mercury of 

sol, it shall be a gret infirmy t<^, and ane^/ie he shalle 

speke. MS. Bodl. 591. 

ANETHER. To depress. See a passage in the 

Heralds' College MS. quoted by Hearne, p. 46. 

In thys half there were aslawe the noble men and 

hende, 
SyreLyger due of Babyloyne, and another due al-so, 
And the erl of Salesbury, and of Cycesire therto ; 
And also the erl of Bathe, so that thoru thys cas 
The compaynye a thes half muche anethered was. 

Rob. Olouc p. 217. 

ANEUST. Much the same. Grose gives the 
Gloucestershire phrase, " aneust of an aneust- 
nefts,'* corresponding to the more common 
" much of a muchness," though the a is gene- 
rally dropped. Florio has *^ Arente, anenst, 
anemt, very neere unto ;" and Grose says in 
Berkshire it has the sense of *' about the 
matter, nearly." In an old grammatical tract 
in MS. Bib. Reg. 12 B. i. f. 82, is "Quantum ad 
hoc, Anghce, aneust that." 

ANEW. (1) To renew. Cf. Depos. of Richard 
II. p. 15. 

Thannecome the tothir ij. kyngis, and toke his 
body, and anewed it with bysshopys clothis and 
kyngi.s ornainentes, and bare hym to this tombe, and 
with grete devocioun Icyde hym therynne. 

MS. Harl. 1704. 



Tak May butter and comyne, and Btampe thanie 
samene, and laye it on lyve, and thane laye it on the 
eghe, and ofte anewe it. MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 284. 
(2) Enough. Var. dial. 

Take j ws of rubarbe ful aney, 
Andasmekylof eysyl, Ithesey. 

Archceologia, xxx. 355. 

ANEYS. Aniseed. 

Thenne messe it forth, and florissh it with aneys in 
confy t rede other whyt. Forme of Cury, p. 26, 

ANFALD. Single; one. {A.-S.) 
Therfor is he cald Trinity, 
For he es anfald Godd in thre. 

MS- Cott. Vespaa. A. iii. f. 3. 

ANFELDTYHDE. A simple accusation. {A.-S.) 
See Bromton's Chronicle, quoted by Skinner 
inv. 

ANG. The hairy part ofan ear of barley. North. 
Probably a corruption of awn. 

ANGARD. Arrogant. {A.-N.) ThefoUowing 
is quoted in the glossary to Syr Gawayne. 
Thire athils of Atenes, ther angard clerkis, 
Than reverenst thai the riche seele, and red over 
the pistllle. MS. Ashmole 44, f. 40. 

ANGEL. (1) A gold coin, varying in value from 
about six shillings and eightpence to ten shil- 
lings ; affording a subject for many a wretched 
pun to Shakespeare and his contemporaries. It 
was introduced by Edward IV. in the early part 
of his reign. See Davies's York Records, 
p. 168. It is used in the primitive sense of a 
messenger, in Tam. of the Shrew, iv. 2. "There 
spake an angel," an old proverbial expression. 
See Sir Thomas More, p. 6. 

(2) An angular opening in a building. See 
Willis's Architectural Nomenclature, p. 52. 

ANGEL-BED. A kind of open bed, without 
bed-posts. Phillips. 

ANGEL-BREAD. A kind of purgative cake, 
made principally of spurge, ginger, flour, and 
oatmeal. A receipt for it is given in an old 
MS. of receipts in Lincoln Cathedral, f. 291. 

ANGELICA. A species of masterwort. See 
Gerard, ed. Johnson, p. 999, and the Nomen- 
clator, 1585, p. 128. 
And as they walke, the virgins strow the way 
With costmary and sweete angelica. 

Heywood^s Marriage Triumph, 1613. 

ANGELICAL-STONE. A kind of alchemical 
stone, mentioned by Ashmole, in his Pro- 
legomena to the Theat. Chem. Brit. 1652. 
Howell inserts angelical-water in the list of 
perfumes appended to his Lexicon, sect. 32. 

ANGELICK. Dr. Dee informs us in MS. 
Ashmole 1790, that his magical works are 
" written in the angelick language." i. e. the 
language of spirits ; and they are certainly most 
incomprehensible documents. 

ANGELOT. (1) A small cheese brought from 
Normandy, and supposed by Skinner to have 
])een originally so called from the maker's 
name. 

Your angelotx of Brie, 

Your Marsolini, and Parmasan of Loili. 

The Wits, iv. 1. 

(2) A gold coin of the value of half an angel, 
current when Paris was in possession of the. 
English 



A^G 



63 



ANH 



ANGEL'S-FOOD. Apparently a cant term for 
heavy ale. See a curious account in Harrison's 
Description of England, p. 202. 
ANGEK. Sorrow. {J.-S.) It is both a substan- 
tive and a verb. Cf. Erie of Tolous, 914 ; 
Prompt. Parv. p. 12 ; Towneley Myst. p. 99 ; 
Will, and the Werwolf, p. 21. 

Than sayd the lady fayre and free, 
If je be angrede for the luflFe of mee. 
It greves me wondir sare. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f. 139. 

And as thay went one this wyse with grete angere 

and disese, aboute the elleved houre they saw a litille 

bate in the rivere made of rede, and mene rowande 

therin. Lt/e of Alexander, MS. Lincoln, f. 28. 

ANGERICII. Angrily. 

And aiigmich I wandrede 
The Austyns to prove. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 466. 

ANGERLY. Angrily. Shak. 
ANGILD. A fine. Skinner. 
ANGIRLICHE. Angrily. 

But for that he with angir wroujte, 

His angris angirliche he boujte. 

Ginver, MS. Sue. Antiq. 134, f. R6. 

ANGLE. (1) A corner. 

Go, run, search, pry in every nook and angle of 
the kitchens, larders, and pastries. 

The Woman Hater, i. 2. 

(2) An astrological term applied to certain 
houses of a scheme or figure of the heavens. 

ANGLE-BERRY. A sore, or kind of hang-nail 
under the claw or hoof of an animal. North. 
See Kennett's Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033. 

ANGLE-BOWING. A method of fencing the 
grounds wherein sheep are kept by fixing rods 
like bows with both ends in the ground, or in 
a dead hedge, where they make angles with 
each other. See the Exmoor Scolding, p. 9. 

ANGLEDOG. A large earthworm. Devon. The 
older word is angle-twitch, as in MS. Sloane 
3548, f. 99, quoted in Prompt. Parv. p. 279. 
In Stanbrigii Vocabula, 1615, lumbricus is 
translated by angle-touch ; and they are called 
tweyanglys in Archaeologia, xxx. 376. 

For senowys that be kutt. Take anggwi/ltwacht/x, 
and put them in oyle olyfF smale choppyd, and than 
ley therof in the wownde, and so let it ly iij. or iiij. 
dayys. Middlehill MS. L U. 

ANGLER. One who begs in the daytime, ob- 
serving what he can steal at night. A cant 
term. See Dodsley's Old Plays, vi. 109. 

ANGLET. A httle corner. {Fr.) Cotgrave 
Anglicises it in v. Anglet. 

ANGNAIL. A Cumberland word, according to 
Grose, for a corn on the toe. Lye says, 
*' Northamptoniensibus est clavus pedum, ge- 
mursa, pterugium." See Agnail, which Howell 
explains " a sore between the finger and nail." 

ANGOBER. A kind of large and long pear. 
Diet. Rust. 

ANGORAS. An anchorite. 

And lever he had, as they trowedon ychon. 
To sytte upon a matte of the angoras. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. 35. 

ANGROMED. Grieved; tormented. (A.-S.) 
And mi gost angromed is over smert. 
In me to-dreved is mi hcrt. 

MS. Bodl. 425, f. 89. 



ANGRY. Painful ; inflamed ; smarting. Forby 
says " painfully inflamed," and applies it to 
kibes, as Florio does, in v. Pedignoni. It is the 
gloss of the Latin molestus in Reliq. Antiq. i 
8 ; and it seems to be used in a somewhat simi- 
lar sense in Julius Caesar, i. 2. In a collection 
of old MS. recipes, in Lincoln Cathedral, is 
one for anger in the Mver, f. 305, meaning 
of course inflammatio'» See the example 
quoted under Thonwange ; and Piers Plough- 
man, p. 266. 

ANGRY-BOYS. A set of youths mentioned by 
some of our early dramatists as dehghting to 
commit outrages, and get into quarrels. See 
the Alchemist, iii. 4. 

Get thee another nose, that will be pull'd 
Oflfby the angry boys for thy conversion. 

Scornful Lady, iv. %, 

ANGTJELLES. A kind of worms, mentioned by 
early writers, as being troublesome to sick 
hawks. In MS. Harl. 2340 is given an ac- 
count of a medecine " for wormys called an- 
yuelles /" and another may be found in the 
Book of St. Albans, ed. 1810, sig. C.iii. See 
also Reliq. Antiq. i. 301. (Lat.) 
ANGUISHOUS. In pain; in anguish. Wick- 
litfe used it as a verb. New Test. p. 141. 
I was bothe anguishous and trouble 
For the perill that I sawe double. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1755. 
My wordes to here, 
That bought hym dere. 

On crosse anguyously. New Notbornne Mayd, 
For hure is herte was angwischoae. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 3. 
Herhaud to nim angwuous thai were. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 75. 

ANGUSSE. Anguish. 

Whan he schal with thebodi deye. 
That in strong angusse doth smurte, 

Wright's Pop. Treat, on Science, p. 140. 

ANHANSE. To raise ; to advance ; to exalt. 
The holi rode was i-founde, as 36 witeth, in May, 
And anhansed was in Septembre, the holi rode day. 

« MS. Ashmole 43, f. 68. 

Hye nou to anhansy us alle, and y nelle nojt be 
byhynde. Rob. Glouc. p. 198. 

And of my fortune, sooth it is certeyne 
That wondir smartly hath sche me anhaunsid. 

Boetius, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 293. 
For ech man that him anhansez here, 
I-lowed he schal beo. MS. Laud. 108, f. S. 

The mete that thei ete ys alle forlore, 
On the galwys they schold anhaunse. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 125. 
AN-HEH. Aloud. In the third example it ap- 
parently means on high, as in Rob. Glouc. pp. 
202, 311 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 8. 

Ther stont up a jeolumen, jejeth with a jerdc. 
Ant hat out an-heh that al the hyrt herde. 

Wright's Pol. Songs, p. ISB. 
This ladyes song tho Te Deum an-hey^e. 
And the sextens rong tho the belle. 

Chron, Vilodun. p. 107. 
Angeles here my soster soule 
Into hevene an-hei^e. MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 
ANHEIGHE. To hang .> {A.-S.) 
And told hem this vilanie, 
And seyd he wold horn anheighe, 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 8(f. 



ANI 



64 



ANN 



Tristrem to Ysoude wan. 
Anight with hir to play. Sir TrUtrem, p. 2» 
H is fader he tolde a s wefne 
Jni'it that him mette. MS. Bodl. 652, f. 1. 

ANILE. Imbecilefromoldage. Walpole uses 
this adjective, and Sterne has the substantive 

paoo«5^ n • . I anility. See Richardson, in v. 

wc wag ? shall we wag ?" but it occurs m an- ^^jj^g^ ^ white gum or resin brought out ot 
other part of the play, although Shallow s | ^^^ ^^^^ Indies. Bullokar. 

ANIMOSITE. Bravery. 

His magnanymyte 



/IN-IIETRES. The Host of the Garter, in the 
Merrv \Vives of Windsor, ii. 1, addressing Page 
and Shallow, says, " Will you go, an-heires ? 
So the folios read, and no sense can be made 
of the expression as it there stands. A similar 
passage in the quartos is, " here boys, shall 



answer is the same. Sir T. Hanmer makes 
German of it, in which he is followed by Mr. 
Knight. In proposing a bold conjectural 
emendation, the general style of language em- 
ployed by the Host must be considered. Thus 
in act iii. sc. 2, he says " Farewell, my hearts, 
a method of expression also used by Bottom, 
" Where are these hearts r Mids. Night s 
Dream iv. 2. See another instance in Clarke s 
Phraseologia Puerilis, 1655, p. 109. In pro- 
posing to read, " Will you go, my hearts I 
we approach as near the original as most ot 
the proposed emendations; or, perhaps, as 
Steevens proposes, " Will you go on, hearts ? 
Perhaps, however, Mr. Collier has pursued the 
wisest course in leaving it as it stands m the 
old copies. 
ANHERITED. Inherited ? , . , ,^ 

The cite of Aeon, that in this contr^ is clepld 
Akres, florishede and stode in his vertue, joy. and 
Droperit^, and was anherited richely with worshipfuU 
princes and lordes. MS.Harl.nOi. 

AN-HOND. In hand, i. e. in his power. 
Me to wreken ye schul go 
Of a treytour tha is mi fo. 
That is y-come up mi lond, 
Wer he thenketh to bring me an-hnnd. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 43. 

ANHONGED. Hanged up. {A.-S.) Cf. Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 12193, 12209 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 509 ; 
Sevyn Sages, 502, 651 ; Launfal, 686 ; Reliq. 
Antiq. i. 87. 

That thei schuld be do to dethe deulfulli in hast. 
Brent in briit fur, to-drawe or an-honged. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 172. 

And al that he my3te on-take, 
Non other pes ne most they make. 
But leet hem to-drawe and an-honghe. 
But certayn hit was al with wronghe. 

MS. Douce 236, f. 13. 

ANHOVE. To hover. Skinner. 
ANHYTTE. Hit; struck. 

The kyng Arture a3en the brest ys felawe vorst 
anhytte. I^ob. Glouc. p. 185. 

ANIENTE. To destroy ; to annihilate. (A.-N.) 
It is also an old law term. See Cowell's 
Interpreter, in v. 

That wikkedliche and wilfuUiche 

Wolde mercy aniente. Piers Ploughman, p. 365. 

The which three thinges ye ne han not anientissed 

or destroyed, neither in youreself ne in youre con- 

seillours, as you ought. Melibeus, p. 107. 

AN-IF. Used for if. The expression is very 

common in our old writers. 
ANIGH. Near. Salop. Sometimes in the 

western counties we have anighst, near to. 
ANIGHT. In the night. Cf. Legende of 
Hypsipyle, 108 ; As You Like It, ii. 4 ; Gesla 
Komanorum, p. 51. 



His animositt. Skelton'a Works, ii. 81. 

ANIOUS. Wearisome; fatiguing. 
Then thenkkez Gawan ful sone 
Of his anious vyage. Syr Gawayne, p. 21 . 

AN-I.RED. Angry. 

He sauh Richard an-ired, and his mykelle myght, 
His folk armed and tired, and ay redy to fight. 

Peter Lan^toft, p. 151. 

ANIS-KINES. Any kind of; any. 

Withouten ants-Wne* duelling, 
Sche gan Gregori to threte. 

Leg. of Pope Gregory, p. 26. 
ANKER. An anchoret ; a hermit. Cf. Prompt. 
Parv. pp. 12, 83 ; Robin Hood, i. 36 ; Rom. 
of the Rose, 6348. 

Certis, wyfe wolde he nane, 
Wenche ne no lemmane, 
Bot als an ankyre in a stane 
He ly ved here trewe. 

Sir Degrevante, MS. Lincoln, f. 13^'. 

ANKERAS. A female hermit. 

Hou a recluse or an ankeraa shuld comende Mr 
chastity to God. itfS.Bod/.423.f.l83. 

ANKLEY. An ankle. West Sussex. 
ANLEPI. Alone; single. {A.-S.) Hence single, 
applied to unmarried persons. See instances 
in Sir F. Madden's reply to Singer, p. 34. 
He stod, and totede in at a bord. 
Her he spak anileri word. Havelok, 21C7. 

Anothere is of anlepi. 
That hase bene filede and left foly. 

MS. Cott. Faust. B. vi. f. 122. 
Ane es fornicacion, a fleschle synne 
Betwene an a7ielepy man and an unelepy womrm. 

MS. Hurl. 1(1-22, f. /3. 
On ich half thai smiten him to. 
And he ogain to hem also ; 
Never no was an/epi/ knight, 

That so mani stond might. Gy of Warwike, p. 13S. 
Say also quo wos thi fere. 

For wele more synne it is 
To synne with a weddid wife. 
Then with an anlepe i-wis. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 8«). 
ANLET. An annulet ; a small ring. Yorksh. 
According to Mr. Jerdan, "tags, or pieces of 
metal attached to the ends of laces or points.^ 
See Rutland Papers, p. 6 ; Brit. Bibl. ii. 39/. 
Carr says it is the mark on a stone, an ancient 
boundary in Craven. / c j \ 

ANLETH. The face; the countenance, {bwed.j 
Ne turne thine anleth me fra, 
Ne helde in wreth fra thi hine swa. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. D. vli. f. 16- 
ANLICNES. A resemblance; an image 

Versfegan. 
ANLIFEN. Livelihood ; substance. Verstega 
ANLOTE. To pay a share of charges, according 

to the custom of the place. Mimheu. 
AN NARY. A yearly description. Fuller. 



ANO 65 

ANNE. One. The objective case of «w. Cf. Reliq 
Antiq. ii. 272 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 223. 
Ac Sarrazins were, bi mi panne. 
Ever fourti ogaines anne. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 295. 
He slough thre ogaines anne, 
And craked mani hern-panne. lUd. p. 214. 
Heo nadden with hem bote anne lof, 
Tharefore heo careden ech one. 

ANNET. The common gull, so called in 
Northumberland. See Pennant's Tour in 
Scotland, ed. 1790, i. 48. 

ANNETT. First-fruits ? 

The L. Governour, as touching the workes to be 
taken in hand, noe municion to be lookt for, with 
some occurances of the English and Spanish fleets; 
for the coming up of Capt. Case, and touching Sir 
John Selby's meadow, Townsdales annett. 

ArchtBologia, xxx. 169. 

ANNEXMENT. Anything annexed, or sub- 
joined. See Hamlet, iii. 3. 
ANNIHILED. Destroyed. 

Which els had been long since annihiled. 

With all other living things beside. 
» -Ky^T^r^^ Lows Owle, 1595. 

ANNOTE. A note 



ANO 



In annote is hire nome, nempneth hit non. 
Whose ryht redeth ronne to Johon. 
* ATXT^^r . Wright's Lyric. Poetry, p. 26 

ANNOY. Annoyance. 

Farewell, my soveraigne, long maist thou enjoy 
Thy father's happie daies free from annoy. 
. ^,,,,, . ^ ^^''^^ -f"'"' ^fthe Contention, 1594. 

ANNUARY. Annual. Hall. 
ANNUELLERE. A priest employed for the 
purpose of singing anniversary masses for the 
dead. It is spelt annivolor in Skelton, ii. 440. 
In London was a preest, an annuellere. 
That therin dwelled hadde many a yere. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 16480. 

ANNUELYNGE. Enamelling. See an extract 
from Horman in Prompt. Parv. p. 261, where 
perhaps vye should read ammelvnae 

ANNUNCIAT. Foretold. {Lat.) 

Lo Sampson, which that was annunciat 
By the angel, long or his nativitee. 

* xTXT^r-r^ A ^^('^CB'-' Cant. T. 14021. 
ANNYD. Annoyed; vexed. [Anuyd .?] 

So that King Philip was annyd thor alle thing. 

ANNYE. Annoyance. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 429- 
Kyng Alisaunder, 10. [Anuye?] 
With sorwe was his herte betreid. 
With care and eke annye. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 44. 
Thanne sayde the Duk Terry, 

* xTxr,..'^° ^'^^® *^"^ ^^"^ y^ ^'■^* «""•?'• Ibid. f. 45. 

ANNYLE. Anise seed. Huloet. 

ANO. Also. North. 

ANOIFUL. Hurtful; unpleasant. 

For al be it so, that al tarying be anoiful, algates it 
IS not to repreve in yeving of jugement, ne in ven- 
geance taking, whan it is suffisant and resonable. 

ANOIING. Harm. 

No might do with hir wicheing, 
> In Inglond non anoiing. 

L TkT^,-.Tr., Arthour and Merlin, p. 166. 

ANOINTED. Chief; roguish. ^^ kn aminted 
scamp." West. 



ANOIOUS. Fatiguing; wearisome; unpleasant. 
t5ee Harrison's Description of England, p. 214 • 
Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 360; and Anions. 
Late him be ware he have no delite, 
Ne him rejoyce of his annoyous plite. 

Occleve, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 2()6 

ANOISAUNCE. A nuisance. Cowell refers to 
Stat. 22 Henry VIII. c. 5, for an example of 
this word. 

The fisshegarth of Goldale, and other fisshegnrthes 
withm the ryver of Ayre. is stondynge as yjt. to the 
greit common anoisaunce and intollerable hurt of the 
kynges chamber of the cit^ of Yorke. 

Davies's York Records, p 87. 

ANGLE. Too; also. Yorksh. 

ANOMINATION. An opinion contrary to 
law. (Gr.) "^ 

He that adornes his whole oration with no other 
trope but a sweet subjection or an anominatinn, may 
be thought a trim man in the ears of the multitude 
but m the judgement of the elegant orators, he shall 
be known as rude in his art of rhetorick.as thebutcher 
that scalded the calfe was in his craft of butchery. 

Brit.Bibl. ii. 441. 
ANON. What do you say? YorJcsh. SeeJnon 
It IS more usual in the sense of immediately, 
but IS now seldom heard in the southern 
counties. The phrase "anon, sir," is often 
tound m our old dramatists, put into the 
mouth of waiters, who now say, " coming su- " 
See 1 Henry IV. ii. 4 ; Douce's Illustrations, 
1. 427. 

ANONEN. See Ritson s Ancient Songs, p. 19 
and the observations on this word in Warton's 
Hist. Engl. Poet. ii. 72. - Anone" occurs in 
Wrights Political Songs, p. 199, explained by 
the original scribe " at one time." Mr. Wright 
translates it " in the first place :" 
Tho .spek the lion hem to, 
To the fox anone his wille. 

ANONER. Under. North. 

ANON-RIGHTES. Immediately. Cf. Ellis's 
Met. Rom. ii. 332 ; Erie of Tolous, 193 ; Kyna 
Alisaunder, 170, 824 ;' Hartshorne's Met. Tale^ 

He hadde in toun v. hundred knightes. 
He hem of sent anon-rightea . 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 88. 
The chyld ansuerd anonrypit. 
He was withouten begynnyng. 

MS. Ashmole 61, f . 83. 

ANONT. Against ; opposite. Wilts. 

ANONXCION. Anointing. 

This was their charge and verey dewe servise 
Of anonxcion tyrae, to dooe and excersise. 

A xT/^xT^rxTT . -r^ Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 71. 

ANONYWAR. At unawares. 

Tho the Brytons come myd the prisons thar. 
The Rom^yns come a3en hem al anonywar. 

ATVT/-kO-nT-w i , ii"6. G^OMC. p. 212. 

ANOSED. Acknowledged. 

Thanne ther begynnyth all grace to wake. 
If It with synne be not anosed. 

AAiriTtJ -P 1 , . I>igby Mysteries, p. 175. 

ANOTH. Enough. (A.-S.) 

Anoth, dameseile ! quath Blauncheflour, 
To scorne me is litel honour. 

Flortce and Blauncheflour , 483 
5 



ANO 



66 



ANS 



And pitoulichebigan tocrie, 
Anouthe, merci, Loverd, thin ore ! 

MS. Laud 108, f. 126. 

ANOTHER. " AT another," in a different way. 
But Avelok thouthe al another. Havelofc, 1395. 

ANOTHER-GATES. A different kind ; another 
sort. Lane. 

When Hudibras, about to enter 
Upon another-gates adventure. 
To Ralpho call'd aloud to arm. 
Not dreaming of approaching storm. 

Hudibras f I. iii. 428. 

ANOUGH. Enough. West. Cf. Gv of War- 
wike, pp. 11,20,25,40,63, 153; Sir Tristrem, 
pp. 18L 301. (A.-S.) 

The fischers wer radi anou-^ 
To don his will that ich day. 

Legend of Pope Gregory, p. 20. 

ANOUR. (1) Honour. 

Herhaud onswerd, I chil you telle 
The best conseyl ich have in wille ; 
Gif thou themperours doubter afo, 
Riche thou best ever mo ; 
After him thou best emperour, 
God hath the don gret anour. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 149. 
Tho was he erl of gret anour, 
Y-knowen in alle Aquiteyne. 

Leg. Cathol. p. 43. 
(2) To honour. 

With this he ras out of his place 
That he anoured him in. 

MS. Fairfax 14. 
In diademe anoured and with palle 

MS. Harl. 3869, f. 367- 

ANOUREMENT. Adornment. 

I am tormentide with this blew fyre on my hede, 
for my lecherouse anourement of myne heere, ande 
other array ther one. Gesta Romanorum, p. 431. 

ANOURENE, pi. Honour. 

With gud ryghte thay love the for thaire gud- 
nes ; with gud ryghte thay anourene the for thaire 
fairenes ; withe gud righte thay gloryfye the for 
thaire profet. MS. Lincoln, f. 199. 

ANOURN. To adorn. {J.-N.J 

Whan a woman is anoumed with rich apparayle, it 
setteth out her beauty double as much as it is. 

Palsgrave. 

ANOURNEMENTIS. Adornments. 

For as alle anournementis ben fayred by hem that 
avenauntly uysith hem, so alle the halowys of heven, 
as wele aungels as men or wymmen, ben anournedand 
worschipped oonly thoru God. MS. Tanner 16, p. 53. 

ANOW. Enough. West. See Jennings, p. 120. 
He kcst the bor doun hawes anowe. 
And com himself doun bi a bowe. 

Sevyn Sages, 921. 

ANOWARD. Upon. See Rob. Glouc. pp. 186, 
211. Hearne explains it, " thorough, onward." 
And anoward his rug fur y-maked. 
And doth from 3ere to jere. 

MS. Harl. 2277, f. 47. 
A cold welle and fair ther sprong, 

Anoivardi; the doune. 
That jut is there, fair and cold, 
A myle from the toune. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. .57. 
The hors hem lay anoward. 
That hem thought chaunce hard. 

Arthour and Merlin, \.. 123. 



ANOWCRYAND ? 

Also ther is fyr of coveytyse, of tho whiche it Ib 
seyd alle anowcryand as chymney of fyre. 

MS. Egerton 842, f 223. 

ANOWE. Now; presently. So explained by 
Mr. Utterson, Pop. Poet. ii. 147 ; but perhaps 
we should read avowe, as in a similar passage at 
p. 153. 

ANOYLE. To anoint. The last sacrament of the 
Roman Catholic church. See a curious inven- 
tory, written about 1588, in Reliq. Antiq. i. 255. 

ANOYMENTIS. Tliis word is the translation of 
limafes in an early gloss, printed in Reliq. Antiq. 
i. 8. 

ANOYNTMENT. An ointment. 

And ther Mare Mawdelayn 

Anoyntet oure Lordes fette 
With a riche anoyntment, 

And his hede i-wis. MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 86. 
ANOYT. Turning? 

That other branche ful ryjt goyt 
To the lytil fyngere, without anoyt. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 190. 

ANPYRE. Empire. The following is an extract 
from the Metrical Chronicle of England. 
All Cornewalleand Devensliire, 
All thys were of hys anpyre. Rob. Glouc. p. 733. 
ANREDNESSE. Unity of purpose. {A.-S.) 
AN'S-AFE. I am afraid. Yorksh. 
ANSAUMPLE. An example. 

Ore Loverd wende aboute and prechedethat folk. 
And seide hem ansanmp/es faJe. 

3IS. Laud. 108, f. 2. 

ANSEL. Generally s])elt hansel, q. v. It seems 
to be used in the sense of hansel in Decker's 
Satiro-Mastix, ap. Hawkins, iii. 137. See also 
a similar orthogray)hv in Prompt. Parv. p. 14. 

ANSHUM-SCRANCHUM. When a number of 
persons are assembled at a board where the 
provision is scanty, and each one is almost 
obliged to scramble for what he can get, it 
will be observed perhaps by some one of the 
party that they never in all their life saw such 
anshum-scranchum work. Line. 

ANSINE. Appearance; figure. {A.-S.) 
Not nomon so muchel of pine, 
As povre wif that falleth in ansine. 

Dame Sirith, MS. Digby 86, f. 167. 

ANSLACHTS. Surprises. ( (;erm.) SeeMeyrick's 

Critical Enquiry, iii. 118. 
ANSLAIGHT. Surprised. {Germ.) 

I do remember yet, that anslaight, thou wast beaten. 

And fledst before the butler. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, Mons. Thomas, ii. 2. 

ANSQUARE. Answer. 

Then gaf Jhesus til ham ansquare 

To alle the Jewes atte ther ware. MS. Fairfax 14. 

ANSTOND. To withstand. 

He byvond vorst an queintyse ajen the Deneys to 

anstond. Rob. Glouc. p. 267- 

ANSURER. The answerer; tbe person who 

answered to the Court of Augmentation for 

the rents and profits. 

As conserning one farme hold, late belonging to 
the hold of St. Robarts, which you know I did spcake 
to tlie ansiirer for the use of the said children, and 
he permised not to suit them. 

J'lumpton Correspondence, p. 234 



ANT 



67 



ANT 



ANSWER. To encounter at a tournament. See 
the Paston Letters, ii. 4. Shakespeare uses 
the substantive in the sense of retahation, re- 
quital, in CjTnhehne, iv. 4. A very common 
though peculiar sense of the word has not 
been noticed by lexicographers. To answer 
a front door, is to open it when any one knocks. 
At a farm-house near South Petherton, a maid- 
servant was recently asked why she did not 
answer the door. The girl, who had an im- 
pediment in her speech, replied, " Why — 
why — why, if you plaze, mim, I — I — I did'n 
hear'n speak !" 

ANT. (1) Am not. Devon. 

(2) And. This form of the conjunction is found 
chiefly in MSS.of the reign of Edward II. when 
it is very common. 

(3) *' In an ant's foot," in a short time. A 
Warwickshire phrase. 

ANTEM. (1) A church. This cant word is 
given in the Brit. Bibl. ii. 521, more generally 
spelt autem. We have also an antem-morte, 
" a wyfe maried at the churche, and they be 
as chaste as a cow." See the same work, 
ii. 290, 520 ; and Harrison's Description of 
England, p. 184. 

(2) An anthem. (A.-S.) 

To me she came, and bad me for to sing 
This antem veraily in my dying. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 13590. 

ANTEPHNE. An antiphon. 

With hool herte and dew reverence 
Seyn this antephne, and this orison. 

MS. Harl. 2278, f. 5. 

ANTER. The foUoAving is extracted from an 
old play : 

That's hee that makes the true use of feasts, sends 
all unto their proper places ; hee is call'd the anter ; 
he hath a monopoly for all butterie bookes, kitchinge 
bookes, besides old declamations and theames. 

MS. Bodl. 30. 

ANTERS. (1) In case that. North. 
(2) Adventures. North. 

Listuns now, lordinges, o? anters grete. 

Rohson's Romances, p. 49. 

ANTE-TEME. A text or motto placed at the 
head of a theme, oration, or discourse. From 
the Merrie Tales of Skelton, p. 61, it would 
appear to be synonymous with theme. See 
also Skelton's Works, ii. 241. 

ANTE VERT. To avert. Hall. 

ANTGATE. An occasion. Skinner. 

ANTH. And the. North. 

ANTHONY-NUT. The bladder-nut; the sta- 
phyladendron. See Florio, my. St aphilodtndro; 
Cotgrave, in v. Baguenaudes. 

ANTHONY-PIG. The favourite or smallest pig 
of the litter. A Kentish expression, according 
to Grose. " To follow like a tantony pig," 
i. e. to follow close at one's heels. Some de- 
rive this saying from a privilege enjoyed by 
the friars of certain convents in England and 
France, sons of St. Anthony, whose swine were 
permitted to feed in the streets. These swine 
would follow any one having greens or other 
provisions, till they obtained some of them ; 



and it was in those days considered an act of 
charity and religion to feed them. St. Anthony 
was invoked for the pig. See Becon's Works, 
p. 138; and a quotation from Horman in 
Prompt. Parv. p. 29. 
ANTHONY'S-FIRE. A kind of erysipelas. Var. 
dial. Higins says, " A swelling full of heate 
and rednes, with paine round about a sore or 
wound, commonly called S. Anthonies fier." 
See the Nomenclator, 1585, p. 439. 
ANTHROPOMANCY. Divination by the en- 
trails of men. This species of divination is 
alluded to in Holiday's Tecnogamia, 4to. 
Lond. 1618. 
ANTHROPOPHAGINIAN. A ludicrous word 
introduced by Shakespeare for the sake of a for- 
midable sound, ixova. Anthropophagi, cannibals. 
See the Merry Wives of Windsor, iv. 5. 
ANTICK. (1) Old. 

And though my antick age was freely lent 
To the committing of accursed evill. 

Nicholson's Acolastus, 1600. 
(2) An antimasque. 

I saw in Brussels, at my being there. 
The duke of Brabant welcome the archbishop 
Of Mentz with rare conceit, even on a sudden 
Perform'd by knights and ladies of his court. 
In nature of an antick. Ford's Works, i.440. 

ANTICKS. This word occurs in a variety of 
senses. Shakespeare has the verb to antick, 
to make anticks, and antickly, in an antick 
manner. See Anthony and Cleopatra, ii. 7 ; 
Much Ado about Nothing, v. 1. Actors are 
frequently termed anticks, as in the Nomen- 
clator, p. 530. The ancient sculpture and 
paintings in parish churches fall under the 
same denomination, and it is even apphed to 
the sculptured figures in pavements. 
And cast to make a chariot for the king. 

Painted with antickes and ridiculous toyes, 
In which they meane to Paris him to bring, 
To make sport to their madames and their boyes. 
Drayton's Poems, p. 43. 
A foule deform'd, a brutish cursed crew. 
Bodied like those in aM(JA:e worke devised, 
Monstrous of shape, and of an ugly hew. 

Harrington's Ariosto, 1591, p. 45. 

ANTICOR. A swelling on a horse's breast, op- 
posite to the heart. Markham. Miege spells 
it antocow. 
ANTIDOTARY. Having the quahties of an 
antidote. 

From hence commeth that noble name or compo- 
sition antidotary, called Theriaca, that is, triacle. 

Topsell's History of Serpents, p. 280. 

ANTIENTS. Ancestors. Carr gives this word 
as still used in Craven, and it occurs apparently 
in the same sense in the Pickwick Papers, 
p. 205. 

ANTIMASQUE. Something directly opposed 
to the principal masque, a light and ridiculous 
interlude, dividing the parts of the more serious 
masque. It admitted of the wildest extrciva- 
gances, and actors from the theatres were 
generally engaged to perform in it. See 
Beaumont and Fletcher, ii. 459 ; Ben Jonson, 
ed. Gifford, vii. 251 ; Nares, in v., and an ac 



ANT 



68 



ANV 



count of Mr. Moore's revels at Oxford in 1636, 
in MS. Ashmole 47. 

ANTINOMIES. Rules or laws, in opposition to 
some others deemed false, and having no au- 
thority. See an example of tliis word in 
Taylor's Great Exemplar, p. 50. 

ANTIOCHE. A kind of wine, perhaps imported 
or introduced from that country. A drink for 
wounded persons, called " water oi Anteoche," 
is described at length in MS. Jamys, f. 40. 
See also some verses on lechecrafte in MS. 
Harl. 1600. 

Autiiiche and bastarde, 
Pyment also and garnarde. 

Squyr of Lowe Degre, 757« 

ANTIPERISTASIS. " The opposition," says 
Cowley, " of a contrary quality, by which the 
quality it opposes becomes heightened or in- 
tended." This word is used by Ben Jonson. 
See his Works, ed. GiflFord, ii. 371. 
ANTIPHONER. This term is frequently met 
with in the inventories of church goods and 
ornaments in old times. It was a kind of 
psalm-book, containing the usual church mu- 
sic, with the notes marked, as we still see 
them in old mass books ; and so called from 
the alternate repetitions and responses. See 
the Archseologia, xxi. 275. 

This litel childe his lltel book lerning. 
As he sate in the scole at his primere. 
He Alma redernptoris herde sing. 
As children lered hir antiphonere. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 13449. 

ANTIQUITY. Old age. 

For false illusion of the magistrates 
With borrow'd shapes of false antiquity. 

Two Tragedies in One, 1601. 

ANTLE-BEER. Crosswise ; irregular. Exmoor. 
ANTLING. A corruption of St. Antonine, to 
whom one of the London churches is dedicated, 
and occasionally alluded to by early writers 
under the corrupted name. See the Roaring 
Giri, i. 1. 
ANTO. If thou. YorJcsh. 
ANTOYN. Anthony. Langtoft. 
ANTPAT. Opportune ; apropos. Warw. 
ANTRE. (1) A cavern ; a den. {Lat.) 
Wherein of antres vast and desarts idle, 
Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch 

heaven, 
It was my hint to speak. Othello, i. 3. 

(2) To adventure. 

And, Lord, als he es maste of myght. 
He send his socor to that knyght, 
That thus in dede of charity 
This day antres hys lif for me. 

Ywaine and Gawin, 3508. 
Thou anterd thi life for luf of me. Ibid. 3809. 

ANTIIESSE. Adventured. {A.-N.) 

Thanne Alisaundrine at arst than antrex.se hem 
tllle. Will, and the Werwolf, p. 38. 

ANTRUM S. Affected airs ; insolences ; whims. 
*' A's in as antrums this morning," would be 
said of a rude person as well as of a skittish 
horse. Tliis form of the word is given in the 
Suffolk and Cheshire glossaries, but the more 
usual expression is tantrums. 

ANTUL. An thou wilt ; if thou wilt. Yorksh. 

I 



ANTUO. Explained " one two, a two," bj. 

Hearne, but we should read an tito, i.e. on two. 

See Rob. Glouc.p.241. 
ANT- WART. A kind of wart, " deepe-rootcd, 

broad below, and htle above," mentioned in. 

the Nomenclator, 1585, p. 444. 
ANTWHILE. Some time ago. Wanv. 
ANTY. Empty. Somerset. 
ANTY-TUMP. An ant-hill. Herefords. 
ANUAL. A chronicle. Rider. 
ANUDDER. Another. North. 
ANUEL. A yearly salary paid to a priest for 

keeping an anniversary ; an annuity. 

And henten, gif I mighte. 

An anuel for myne owen use, 

To helpen to clothe. Piers Ploughman, p. 475. 

Suche annuels has made thes frers so wely and so gay. 
That thermay no possessioners mayntene thairarrav. 
MS. Cott. Cleop. B. ii. f. 63. 

ANUETH. Annoyeth. 

Moch me anueth 

That mi drivil druith, Reliq. Antiq. li. 210. 

ANUNDER. Beneath; under. North. To keep 
any one at anunder, i. e. to keep them in a sub- 
ordinate or dependent situation. See also a 
quotation in gloss, to Syr Gawayne, in v. 
Atwaped. 

Ten schypmen to londe yede, 
To se the yle yn lengthe and brede. 
And fette water as hem was nede 
The roche anundyr 

Octovian Imperator, 550. 
The prisone oore than wend heo ner. 
And putte hure staf anunder. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 16. 
He fouten ationder selde. 
Some of hem he felde. MS. Laud. 108, f . 219. 

ANURE. To honour. 

Anurith God and holi chirch. 

And ^iveth the povir that habbith nede; 

So Godis wille je ssul wirche. 
And joi of heven hab to mede. 

Wright's Political Songs, p. 205. 

ANURTHE. On the earth. This word occurs in 

the Life of St. Brandan, p. 3. 
ANUY. (1) To annoy ; to trouble ; to harass. 
Hire fader was so sore anuyed. 
That he muste non enAe. MS. Harl. 2277. f- 93. 
For thai hadde the country anuwed, 
And with robberie destrwed. Sevyn Sages, 2613. 
(2) Trouble ; vexation. 

Al eselich withouteaww;/. 
And there youre lyf ende. 

MS. Harl. 2277. f- 46. 
And for non eorthelich anuy, 
Nefor dethe ne flechchie nou3ht. 

MS. Laud 108, f. 18". 
ANVELT. An anvil. See Rcliq. Antiq. i. 6 ; 
Malory's Morte d'Arthur, i. 7. 
Upon his anvelt up and downe, 
Therof he toke the firste sowne. 

The Dreme of Chaucer, 1165. 

ANVEMPNE. Toenvenome. 

I am nott wurthy, Lord, to loke up to hcfiie, 
My synful stcppys anvempnyd the grounde. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 75. 

ANVERDRE. To overthrow. Somerset. Pcr- 
liaps a mistake for auverdre. I insert it on 
Mr. Ilolloway's authority. 



APA 



69 



APE 



ENVIED. Explained by Weber envied, enraged, 
in tlie following passage ; but we should cer- 
tainly read anuied, part, of the verb anuy, q. v. 
Sec also Annye, which may perhaps be a similar 
ermr. 

Alisaundre anvied was ; 

Over the table he gon stoupe. 

And sniot Lifias with the coupe. 

That hefeol doun in the flette. 

Kt/ng Jlisaunder, 1102. 

ANVIL. (1) The handle or hilt of a sword. 

Here I clip 

The a7wil of my sword. Coriolanus, iv. 5. 

(2) A little narrow flag at the end of a lance. 

Mei/rick. 
ANWARPE. To warp. Minsheu. 
ANWEALD. Power; authority. Skinner. 
ANWORD. An answer ; a reply. Verstegan. 
ANY. Either ; one of two. It usually signifies 
one of many. 

And if that any of us have more than other. 
Let him be trewe, and part it with his brother. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 7115. 
A-NYE. In nine. 

The kyng won Normandye, and also god Aungeo, 
And wythynne a-nye jer al thys was y-do. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 186. 

ANYNGE. Union. 

By the vertu of this blysfulle anynge, whilke may 
noghte be saide ne consayved be manes wit, the 
saule of Jhesu ressayvede the fulhede of wysedome 
and lufe. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 227. 

ANYSOT. A fool. See Pynson's edition of 
the Prompt. Parv. quoted in the Prompt. Parv. 
p. 11. See Amsote. 

ANYWHEN. At any time. South. Rider gives 
anywMle in the same sense, and anywhither, 
into any place. Mr. Vernon tells me anyivJien 
is considered a respectable word in the Isle of 
Wight. 

A-ONE. An individual ; one person. 

There's not a one of them, but in his house 

I keep a servant fee'd. Macbeth, iii. 4. 

AOURNED. Adorned. 

So that he that tofore wente clothed in clothes of 
golde and of sylke, and aourned wyth precyous stones 
in the cyt^. FittB Patrum, f. 86. 

AOY. High. Glouc. 

APAID. Satisfied; pleased. {A.-N.) 
Mas friar, as I am true maid, 
So do I hold me well apaid. 

Peele's Woi-Tcs, i. 91. 

APAISE. Peace. 

Tho thai were al at aise, 

Teh went to his in apaise. Arthour and T^erlin, p. 87. 
APAN. Upon. 

^pun the XX. dai 

Of Averil, bi-for Mai. 

Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 39. 
APARAELYNG. Preparation. It is the transla- 
tion of apparatus, in Reliq. Antiq. i. 8, an old 
gloss, of the 15th century. 
APARTI. Partly. 

Now wil I schewe apnrti 

Qwy thai aren so grysly. Hampole, MS. Digby 87. 
And hou foul a mon is afturward, 
Tellitb aparty Semt Bernard. 

MS. AshmoleW, f. 6. 



He that es vcrrayly meke, Cod sal safe hym of 

there, here aparty^ and in the tother worldeplenerly. 

MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f. 40. 

APAST. Passed. Still used in the West of Eng- 
land. Cf. Gy of Warwike, pp. 148, 457; 
Strutt's Regal Antiquities, ed. Planche, p. 77. 
The nyjt hure nejehede faste. 
That the day was nej ago ; 
The lordes buth than apaste 
Wythoute more ado. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 20, 
Apassyd be twenty jere 
That we togedyr have lyvyd here. 

MS. Uarl. 1701, f. 13. 
To grete disport and daliaunce of lordes and alle 
worthi werrioures tliat ben apassed by wey of age 
al labour and travaillyng. 

Vegecius, MS. Douce 291, f. 120. 
Tho this lijth apassed was, 

Huy in the put to grounde, 
Thare inne of this holie man. 

No thing huy ne sei3en ne foundej 

MS. Land 108, f. 174. 

APAYEN. To satisfy ; to please ; to Hke. {A.-N.) 
Therwith was Perkyn apayed. 
And preised hem faste. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 123. 
In herte I wolde be wele upayede, 
Myghte we do that dede. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 119> 
But never the lees y sehalle assay 
How thou wylt my dynte apny. 

3IS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 108 

APAYERE. To impair. (A.-N.) 

For alle your proude prankyng, your pride may 
apayere. Slcelton's Works, i. 116. 

APE. (1) A fool. To put an ape into a person's 
hood or cap was an old phrase, signifying to 
make a fool of him. Sometimes we have the 
phrase, to put on his head an ape, in the same 
sense. Apes were formerly carried on the 
shoulders of fools and simpletons ; and Malone 
says it was formerly a term of endearment. 
Tyrwhitt considers *' win of ape," in Cant. T. 
16993, to be the same with vinde singe. See 
his note, p. 329 ; Robert of Sicily, p. 58. 
A ha, felawes, beth ware of swiche a jape. 
The monke put in the mannes hode an ape. 
And in his wifes eke, by Seint Austin. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 1337a 

(2) To attempt ? 

And that sche nere so michel ape 
That sche hir laid doun to slape. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 32. 

APECE. The alphabet. Prompt. Parv. We 
have also apece-lerner, one who learneth the 
alphabet. 

APE IRE. To impair. {A.-N.) See Appair. Cf. 
Prompt. Parv. p. 12 ; Deposition of Richard II. 
p. 3 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 3149 ; HaU's Satires, 
iv. 2. 

And thanne youre neghebores next 

In none wise apeire. Piers Ploughman, p. 111. 

APEL. An old term in hunting music, con- 
sisting of three long moots. See Sir H. Dry- 
den's notes to Twici, p. 71. 

APELYT. Called ; named. It is glossed by 
nominatus in an early MS. quoted in Prompt. 
Parv. p. 315. 



APE 



70 



API 



APENT. Belonging. See Append. In the Ches- 
ter Plays, i. 131, it is used as a verb. 
Aganippe her lorde was Kyngof Fraunce, 
That grauiite hym menne, and good sufficiente, 
And sent his wife with hym, with greate puissaunce, 
With all aray that to her wer app.nte. 
His heire to been, by theii- bothes assents. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 23. 

APENYONE. Opinion. 

Jhesu, Jhesu, quat deylle is him that? 
I defye the and thyn apenyone. 

Digby Mysteries, p. 131 . 

APERE. To appear. 

To the nexte semble ^e schul hym calle, 
To apere byfore hys felows alle. 

Const, of Masonry, p. 27 

APERN. An apron. This is the usual early 
form of the word. See the Nomenclator, p. 
171. Mr. Hartshorne gives apparn as the 
Shropshire word, and apperon is sometimes 
found as the Northern form, as well as appren. 
APERNER. One who wears an apron ; a 
drawer. 

We have no wine here, methinks ; 

Where's this aperner ? Chapman's May Day, 1611. 

A-PER-SE. The letter A, with the addition of 
the two Latin words, per se, is used by some 
of our ancient poets to denote a person or 
thing of extraordinary merit. 

London, thowe arte of townes ^ per se, 
Soveragne of cities, most symbliest by sight. 

MS. Lansd. 762, f. 7. 
Thou schalt be an apersey, my sone. 
In mylys ij. or thre. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f, 51. 
APERT. (1) Open ; openly; manifest. Cf. Kyng 
Ahs. 2450, 4773; Hartshorne's Met. Tales, 
p. 70 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 6e96. 
Me hath smetyn withowten deserte. 
And seyth that he ys owre kynge aperte. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 241. 
(2) Brisk ; bold ; free. Skinner. In the pro- 
vinces we have peart, used in a similar sense. 
Toone quotes a passage from Peter Langtoft, 
p. 74, but I doubt its application in this sense, 
although it may be derived from A.-N. aperte. 
APERTE. Conduct in action. {A.-N.) 

For whiche the kyng hym had ay after in cherte, 
Consyderyng well his knightly aperte. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 198. 

APERTELICHE. Openly. {A.-N.) 

Ich have, quod tho oure Lord, al aperteliche 
I-spoke in the temple and y-taujt, and nothyng pri- 
veliehe. MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57, f. 8. 

APERTLY. Openly. {A.-N.) 

And forsothe there is a gret marveyle, for men 
may see there the erthe of the tombe apertly many 
tymessteren and meven. Maundevite's Travels, p. 22. 
APERY. An ape-house. 

And vow to ply thy booke as nimbly as ever thou 
didst thy master's apery, or the hauty vaulting 
horse. .Apollo Shroving, 1627, p. 93. 

APERYALLE. Imperial? 

For any thyng that ever I sed or dede. 
Unto thys owre securet or aperyalle. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 123. 

APES. To lead apes in hell, a proverbial expres- 
sion, meaning to die an old maid or a bache- 
lor, that being the employment jocularly as- 



signed to old maids in the next world. See 
riorio in v. Mdmmola, " an old maide or sillie 
virgin that will lead apes in heU." The phi-ase 
is not quite obsolete. 

But 'tis an old proverb, and you know it well,, 
That women, dying maids, lead apes in hell. 

The London Prodigal, i. 2. 

APE SIN. To appease. 

Ye fiers Mars, apesin of his ire, 

And, as you list, ye makm hertis digne. 

Troilus and Creaeide, iii, 22J. 

APE'S-PATERNOSTER. To say an ape's pa- 
ternoster, to chatter with cold. This prover- 
bial expression occurs several times in Cot- 
grave, in V. Barboter, Batre, Cressiner, Dent,, 
Grelotter. 
APETITELY. With an appetite. See Brockett,. 
ed. 1829, in v. Appetize. 

Goo to thy mete apetitely, 

Sit therat discretely. Reliq. Antiq. i. 233.. 

APE -WARD. A keeper of apes. 

Nor I, quod an ape-ward. 
By aught that I kan knowe. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 115.. 

APEYREMENT. Injury. 

Then cast the powder therupon, and with thi nail 
thou maist done awey the lettres that hit schal no- 
thyng been a-sene, without any apeyrement. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 109. 

APEYRYNGIS. Losses. 

But whiche thingis weren to me wynnyngis, I have 
demed these apeyryngis for Crist. 

Wickliffe's New Test. p. 159. 

APIECE. With the subject in the plural, "Now 
lads, here's healths apiece," i.e. healths to each 
of you. North. 

APIECES. To pieces. Still used in Suffolk. 

Nay, if we faint or fall apieces now. 

We're fools. The Island Princess, v. 1, 

APIES. Opiates. 

As he shall slepe as long as er the leste. 
The narcotikes and apies ben so strong. 

Legende of Hypermnestra, 109. 

A-PIGGA-BACK. A mode of carrying a child 
on one's back, with his legs under one's arms, 
and his arms round one's neck. Var. dial. 

APIS. A kind of apple-tree, which Skinner says 
was introduced into this country about the 
year 1670. 

APISHNESS. Playfulness. It is the transla- 
tion of badinage in HoUyband's Dictionarie, 
1593. 

APISTILLE. The epistle. 

The lyone made a wolfe to bare the holy watir; 
Ij. urchyns to here the tapers ; gete to rynge the belles; 
foxes to here the beere. The here seide the masse ; 
the asse redde the apistille ; the oxe redde the gos- 
pelle. Gesta Romanortim, p. 418. 

A-PISTY-POLL. A mode of carrying a child 
with his legs on one's shoulders, and his arms 
round one's neck or forehead. Dorset. 

A-PIT-A-PAT. A term apphed to the beating of 
the heart, especially in cases of anxiety. Var. 
dial. In Oxfordshire the village children on 
Shrove Tuesday bawl some lines in hopes of 
obtaining pence, which commence — 
•' J-pit-a-pat, the pan is hot. 
And we arc come a-shroving " 



APO 



71 



APP 



A-PLACE. In place. Gower. 
A-PLAT. On the ground. 

And Aroans with the swerd aflat. 

That he threwe of his hors a-plat. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 333. 

APLIGHT. Certainly; indeed; completely. 
Cf. Wright's Political Songs, p. 249 ; Ritson's 
Ancient Songs, p. 10 ; Gy of Warwike, pp. 3, 
6 ; Warton's Hist. Eng. Poet. i. 94 ; Harts- 
home's Met. Tales, p. 52 ; Lybeaus Disconus, 
45, 2060 ; Kyng of Tars, 109, 182, 523 ; Ri- 
chard Goer de Lion, 2265 ; Sevyn Sages, 204 ; 
Lay le Freine, 200. Sir W. Scott explains it 
" at once," gloss, to Tristem ; and Hearne, 
" right, compleat." It seems to be often used 
as a kind of expletive, and is the same as " I 
plight," I promise you. 
That if he wol lyve ary^t, 

I dar hole him hele ap/^3^ MS. Addit. 10036, f. 2. 
The chyld ansuerd son aplp^t. 
Fro my fader I com ryght. 

MS. Ashmole 61 , f. 83. 

APLYN. Apples. (A.-S) 

Nym flowre and ayryn, and grynd peper and safron, 
and make thereto a batour, and par aplpn, and kyt 
hem to brode penys, and kest hem theryn, and fry 
hem in the batour wyth fresch grees, and serve it 
forthe. Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 39. 

APOCK. A small red pimple. Somerset. 
APODYTERY. A vestry. 

1 call it a vestry, as containing the vestments ; but 
if any other place has that name, a longer word, 
apodytery, may be taken for distinction. 

MS. Letter, dated 1762. 

APOINT. At point. 

Maiden and wiif gret sorwegan make 
For thekinges fonessake, 
That were apoint to dye. 

Ritson's Met. Rom. iii. 308. 

APOISON. To poison. See Piers Ploughman, 
p. 326. 

Ah he ne reignede her 

Bote unnethe thre yer. 

That Estryld his stepmoder, 

Selde beth ther eny gode, 

Him apoisonede that he was ded. 

Chronicle of England, 781. 
Therfor cast awey wycchecraft and use it never. 
For it appoysenith the soule and sleithe it for ever. 
MS. Laud A16, f. 38. 

APOLOGETIK. An apology. In MS. Douce 
114, is a short piece which the writer entitles 
" a shorte apologetik of this Englissh com- 
pylour." 
APON. Upon. 

Have mynd apon joure endyng. 

MS. Douce 302, f. 1. 
And pay them trwly, apon thy fay. 
What that they deserven may. 

Const, of Masonry, p. 15. 
APONTED. Tainted. Dorset. 
APOPUAK. A kind of herb. See the Archae- 
ologia* XXX. 404. The " gumme apjjojjonacV 
is mentioned in MS. Sloane 73, which may be 
the same. 
APORET. Poor. 

That on partie he send be sonde 
To hem that were aporet in his londe. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 100. 



APOSTATA. An apostate. The usual early 
form of the word. See Prompt. Parv. p. 13 ; 
Harrison's Description of Britain, p. 25 ; Skel- 
ton's Works, i. 165. 

APOSTEMACION. An imposthume. 

Then sayde my paciente, I hadde a grevous sore 
legge, with greate upostemacions and hollownes, where- 
fore if he coulde have done nothing but talke, he 
myght have talked long enough to my legge before it 
would so have been whole. 

Hall's Expostulation, p. 24. 

APOSTHUME. An imposthume. This orthogra- 
phy is given by Rider, and is found much ear- 
lier in Prompt. Parv. p. 13. In a MS. col- 
lection of recipes in the Library of Lincoln 
Cathedral, f. 294, is a '* drynke for the a2)os- 
tymeJ^ 

APOSTILHEED. Apostleship. 

And though to othere I am not apostle, but nethe- 
les to jou I am, for je ben the litle signe of myn 
apostilheed in the Lord. 

WicTcVffe's New Test, p, 132. 

APOSTILLE. A marginal observation. Cot- 
grave says in v. Appostile, " An answer unto 
apetition setdowne in the margent thereof, and 
generally, any small addition unto a great dis- 
course in writing." 

I sende unto your highnes the copies of the same, 
with suche apostilles and declaration in the mer- 
gentes, as in reding of them with good deliberacion, 
came unto my myndc^ State Papers, i. 225. 

APOSTLE-SPOONS. It was anciently the cus- 
tom for sponsors at christenings to offer gilt 
spoons as presents to the child, which were 
called apostle-spoons, because very freqviently 
the figures of the twelve apostles were chased 
or carved on the tops of the handles. Opulent 
sponsors gave the whole twelve ; those in 
middhng circumstances gave four ; while the 
poorer sort often contented themselves with 
the gift of one, exhibiting the figure of some 
saint in honour of whom the child received its 
name. See Brand's Pop. Antiq. ii. 52. At 
Cambridge the last person in the tripos is 
called a spoon, and the twelve last in the poll 
are designated the twelve Apostles. 

APOSTOLIONE. An ingredient, perhaps a 
herb, mentioned in an old medical recipe in 
MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 295. In MS. Jamys, 
f. 9, in a long recipe to make an apostoli- 
cone, composed of frankincense, alum, and a 
variety of other things. 

APOSTROFACION. Apostrophe. 
I shall you make relacion. 
By waye of apostrofacion. 

Skelton'a Works, i. 156. 

APOURTENAUNT. Belonging. 

More than of alle the remenaunt, 
Whiche is to love apourtenaunt. 

Gotver, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 103. 
Ther was nothyngedesobeissant, 
Whiche was to Rome appuurtenaunt. 

Ibid. f. 77. 

APOZEME. A drink made with water and 

divers spices and herbs, used instead of syrup. 

Bullokar. 

APPAIR. To impair; to make worse. See 



APP 



72 



APP 



Hall, Edward IV. f. 34 ; Dial, of Great. Mor. 

pp. 74, 76 ; Morte d'Arthur, i. 72. {A.-N.) 
Her nature ys to apparyn and amende. 
She changyth ever and fletyth to and fro. 

Ragman's Roll, MS. Fairfax Ifi. 

APPALL. To make pale. (A.-N.) 

Hire liste not appalled for to be, 

Nor on the morwe unfestliehe for to see. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 10679. 

APPARAIL. To provide ; to equip ; to fur- 
nish. (A.-N.) 

Sundry yeomen that will not yet for all that 
chaunge their condition, nor desire to be apparailed 
with the titles of gentrie. 

Lambarde's Perambulation, 1596, p. 14. 

APPARANCY. Appearance. 

And thus the dombe ypocrysye. 
With his devoute apparantye, 
A viser sette upon his face. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f 42. 
Whose fained gestures doe entrap our youth 
With an apparancie of simple truth. 

Browne's Britannia's Pastorals, 1625, p. 54. 

APPARATE. Apparatus. 

The whole English apparate ,a.\\{\. the English popu- 
lar calculation tables, with an almanac forsooth for 
the next year, beginning at the spring equinox. 

MS. Bodl. 313. 
APP ARE IL. The sum at the bottom of an ac- 
count, which is still due. A law term, given 
by Skinner. 
APP ARE MENTIS. Ornaments. 

Pride, with appareinentis, als prophetis have tolde. 
S.i/r Gawuf/ne, p. 106. 

APPARENCE. An appearance. (Fr.) 
Thatistosayn to make illusion 
By swiche an apparence or joglerie. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 11577. 

APPARENTED. Made apparent. 

But if he had beene in his affaires stabled, then their 
fine devises for their further credit should have bcene 
apparented. Ilolinshed, Hist, of Ireland, p. 89. 

APPARITION. An appearance, in the literal 
sense of the word. It is so used by Shakespeare, 
Much Ado about Nothing, iv. 1. 
APPARYSSHANDE. Apparent. 

Wherfore the disposicyon and the forme of the 
dedly body withoute forth is not, as thou supposyd, 
to beholden foule and unscmely, but the moost fayr- 
est and apparysshande comelynesse. 

Caxton's Diuers Fruytful Ghostly Maters. 

APPASE. Apace. 

An actuarie, clarke or scribe, that writeth ones 
wordes appase as they are spoken. 

Nomenclator, p. 478. 

APPASSIONATE. To have a passion for. 
Florio has this word in v. Appassiondre, 
Martelldre. Boucher has appassionated, ex- 
plained " stedfast ;" but see Richardson, in v. 

APPATIZED. A term apphed to districts which 
have paid composition or contribution, in 
order to ransom their towns from military 
execution. See the Ancient Code of Militarj' 
Laws, 1784, p. 14. 

APPEACII. To impeach ; to accuse. Sec 
Warkworth's Chronicle, p. 25; Morte d'Arthur, 
ii. 13. (A.-N.) 

How, let furth youre geyse, the fox wille preche ; 
How long wilt thou \\\c appcrh 

With thi sermonyng ? Towneley Mysteries, p. 10. 



Why doe I appeach her of coinesse, in whom 
bountie showeth small curiousnesse. 

Greene's Gwydnnius, 1593. 

APPEAL. This word appears to have been 
formerly used with much latitude ; but accord- 
ing to its most ancient signification, it imphes 
a reference by name to a charge or accusation, 
and an offer or challenge, to support such 
charge by the ordeal of single combat. See 
Morte d'Arthur, ii. 25. 

Tell me, moreover, hast thou sounded him. 
If he appeal the duke on ancient malice. 

Richard II. i.l, 

APPEARINGLY. Apparently. 

Appearingly the burthen shortly will crush him. 

Baillie's Letters, 1775, ii. 407. 

APPECEMENTES. Impeachments. 

The seid seducious persones, not willing to leve the 
possessions that they hadde, caused the seid princes 
to lay suche imposicions and charges, as well by way 
of untrue appecementes to whom they owed evill wille 
unto. MS.Ashmole,U60. 

APPELLANT. One who appeals. 

Behold here Henry of Lancastre, duke of HerfFord, 
appellant, which is entered into the listes royall to 
dooe his devoyre against Thomas Mowbray. 

Hall, Henry IV. i. 3. 
APPEL-LEAF. The violet. It is the trans- 
lation of viola in an early list of plants in MS. 
Harl. 978 ; and is the Anglo-Saxon word. 
APPELYE. Haply. "Appyny," in Weber's 
Met. Rom. iii. 279, is probably an error for 
this word. See his Glossary, in v. 

And whennehesawehir hede oute, he smote in al 
the myght of his body to the serpent ; but the serpent 
drew hir hede ayene so appelye, ande so sodenlye, 
that the strook hitte al upone the vesselle. 

Gesta Romanorum, p. 197. 

APPELYN. Apples. (A.-S.) 

Nym appelyn and seth hem, and lat hem kele, and 
make hem thorw a clothe ; and on flesch dayes kast 
therto god fat brey t of bef, and god wy te grees, 

Warner's Antiq, Culin. p. 39. 

APPEND. To belong ; to appertain to. (A.-N.) 
See Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 4 ; Towneley Mys- 
teries, p. 239. 

Tel me to whom, madame. 
That tresour appendeth. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 17- 
When all lords to councell and parlement 
Wentt, he wold tohuntyngand tohaukyng, 
All gentyll disportt as to a lord appent. 

MS. Douce 378, f. 62. 

APPENNAGE. That which is set apart by princes 
for the support of their younger children. 
Skinner. (Fr.) 
APPERCEIVE. To perceive. (^.-A^.) See 
Wright's Monastic Letters, pp. 145, 183; 
Sharp's Cov. Myst. p. 179; Gy of Warwike, 
p. 178; Chaucer, Cant. T. 8476; Morte 
d'Arthur, i. 221, ii. 212 ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 276 
Sevyn Sages, 1021, 1434 ; Arthour and Merlin 
p. 30 ; Thynne's Debate, p. 28 ; Rom. of the 
Rose, 6312, 6371. 

This lettre, as thou hast herde devyse, 
Was counterfet in suche a wise, 
That no man schulde it aperceyve. 

Gi>ivcr,MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 67 

APPERCEIVING. Pcrccptioii. 



aPP 



'3 



APP 



Whoeoude tellen you the fdrme of daunces 
So uncouth, and so freshe contenaunces, 
Swiche subtil lokings and dissimulinf^s, 
For dred of jalous mennes apperceivings ? 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 10500. 
APPERIL. Peril. See Middleton's Works, 
i. 427 ; Ben Jonson, v. 137; vi. 117, 159. 

Let me stay at thine apperil. Timon of Athens, i. 2. 

APPERTAINMENT. That which belongs or 
relates to another thing ; to any rank or dig- 
nity. Shakespeare has the word in Troilus 
and Cressida, ii. 3. 

APPERTINAUNT. Belonging. An astrological 
term. 

He is the hows appertinaunt 
To Venus somdele discordaunt. 

Gower, ed. l.')32, f. 146. 

APPERTYCES. Dexterities. (^.-A^.) 

Grete strokes were smyten on bothe sydes, many 
men overthrowen, hurte, and slayn, and grete va- 
lyaunces, prowesses and appertyces of werre were 
that day shewed, whiche were over long to recounte 
the noble feates of every man. Morte d' Arthur, i. 145. 
APPERYNG. To deck out ; to apparel. 
And next her come the emperesse Fortune, 
To apperyng him with many a noble signe. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 7> 

APPETENCE. Desire. {Lat.) 

But know you not that creatures wanting sense. 
By nature have a mutual appetence. 

Marlowe's Works, iii. 343. 

APPETITE. To desire ; to covet. (A.-N.) 
As matire appetitith forme alwaie, 
And from forme into forme it passin maie. 

Hypsipyle and Medea, 215. 

APPETIZE. To provoke an appetite for food. 

North. 
APPETY. Appetite ; desire. 
To be alone is not my appetie. 
For of all thinges in the world I love mery company. 
Hawkins' Engl. Br am. i. 122. 
APPIERT. Open; puWic. 

That no maner person holde no comen eschaunge 
prrivee nor appiert in the said citee, ne take any 
thyng for profute of that eschaunge. 

Archeeologia, xv. 176. 
APPLE-CART. Down with his apple-cart, knock 

or throw him down. North. 
APPLE-DRONE. A wasp ; a terrible devourer 
of apples, and more especially when they are 
beaten or ground to make cider. West. 
APPLE-GRAY. Dapple grey. 

His head was troubled in such a bad plight. 

As though his eyes were apple- gray ; 
And if good learning he hid not tooke. 
He wod a cast himselfe aw^ay. 

The King and a Poore Northerne Man, 1640. 
APPLE-HOGLIN. An apple turnover. Suffolk. 
It is also called an apple-jack, and is made by 
folding sliced apples with sugar in a coarse 
crust, and baking them without a pan. 
APPLE-JOHN. A kind of apple, not ripe till 
late in the season, and considered in perfec- 
tion when shrivelled and withered. See 
Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. ii. 4, where it is 
stated that Falstaff could not " endure an 
apple-John." The term is still in use in the 
eastern counties, although Forby thinks it pos- 
sible the same variety of fruit may not have 
been retained. 



APPLE-MOISE. Cider. Huloet, in his Abce- 
darium, 1552, translates it hy pomacmm. See 
also the Catalogue of Donee's Printed Books, 
p. 309, where the word is wrongly printed. In 
the Prompt, Parv. p. 13, we have appulmoce, 
which appears to have been served up at table 
as a dish, consisting of the apples themselves 
after they had been pressed, and seasoned vrith 
spices. See Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 16 ; 
Forme of Cury, pp. 42, 96, 103. 

APPLEN. Apples. 

Upe the hexte bowe tueye applen he sey. 

Rob. Ghuc. p. 283. 

APPLE-PEAR. A kind of pear, mentioned in 
Higins' adaptation of Junius' 'Nomenclator, 
p. 99. It seems to be the tankard pear. 
APPLE-PIE-ORDER. Anything in very great 
order. An apple-pie-led furnishes an article 
for Grose. It is made somewhat in the fashion of 
an apple-turnover, the sheets being so doubled 
as to prevent any one from getting at his length 
between them ; a common trick in schools. 
APPLE S-OF-LOVE. The fruit of some foreign 
herb, said to be a stimulus for the tender 
passion. Skinner says they dxefructus solani 
cujusdam peregrini ; that is, the fruit of some 
foreign species of nightshade. 
APPLE-SQUIRE. This word appears to have 
been used in several senses. An apple-squii-e 
was a kept gallant, and also a person who waited 
on a woman of bad character. In the Belman 
of London, 1608, we are told the apple-squire 
was the person *' to fetch in the wine." The 
term was often applied to a pimp. Miege 
translates it, un grossier ecuyer de dame. 
See Middleton's Works, iii. 232 ; Cotgrave, 
in V. Cueilleur; Florio, in v. Guatdro; Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, ii. 332 ; Hall's Satires, i. 2 ; 
Dodsley's Old Plays, xi. 284. 

His little lackey, a proper ^^ox^g apple-squire, called 
Pandarusj whiche carrieth the keye of his chamber 
with hym. Bullien's Dialogue, 1573, p. 8. 

Apple-squyers , entycers, and ravysshers. 
These to our place have dayly herbegers. 

Utterson's Pop. Poet. ii. 39. 

Such stuffe the divell did not last, only one little 

hellhound, acronie of myne, and one of St. George's 

apple-squires. MS. Bodl. 30. 

APPLE-STUCKLIN. An apple-turnover. Hants. 
In Norfolk it is called an apple-twelin. 

APPLE-TERRE. An apple orchard. This word 
was formerly used in Sussex, but seems to be 
now obsolete. Huloet, in his Abcedarium, 
1552, gives apple-yard in the same sense. In 
Devonshire, they have a curious custom at 
Christmas of firing powder at apple trees and 
singing lays round them to make them more 
fruitful. Brand mentions other customs or 
the same kind. 

APPLIABLE. Capable of being applied. 

And therto many of the contrye of Kent wer,^ as- 

sentynge, and cam with theyr good wills, as people 

redy to be appUable to suche seditious commocions. 

Arrival of Edward IV. p. 33. 

APPLIANCE. An application ; a remedy applied 
to cure a disease. See how it is used in 2 
Henry IV. iii. 1 



APP 



74 



APP 



APPLIMENT. Application. Ane. Dr. 

APPLOT. To plot ; to contrive. Taylor. 

APPLY. To take a certain coui'se ; to ply. A 
nautical term. (Lat.) Shakespeare uses it in 
the sense to oppli/ to, in Tam. Shrew, i. 1. 

With the nexte fludd, which woold be aboute foure 
of the clock in the ir.ornyng, we entend, God willing, 
tnpplye towardes Dover. State Papers, i. 816, 

APPO. An apple. Chesh. 

APPOAST. To suborn. Minsheu. See Cotgrave, 
in V. Appostt, Assassin. 

APPOINT. To impute. Shakespeare, 2 Hen. IV. 
iv. 1, has it in the sense of to arm, to furnish 
with implements of war; and appointment, 
Troilus and.Cressida, iv. 5, preparation. 

If anye of theise wants be in me, I beseeche your 
lordshipp appoint them to my extreme state, more 
grei'vous then disease; more unquiet then pryson ; 
more troblesome to me then a painful deathe. 

Harwgton's Nug(B AntiqticB, i. 48. 

APPON. Upon. SeeApon. The Thornton MS. 
constantly uses this orthography, and it occurs 
in Torrent of Portugal, p. 2. 
APPONE, To dispute with. So seems to be 
the meaning of the word as used by Florio, in 
V. Apposto, though the Latin apponere means 
to pawn, to pledge. 
APPOSAYLE. Question; enquiry. 

Whan he went out his enmies to assnyle. 
Made unto her this uncouth apposayle. 

Bochas, b. v. c. 22 
Madame, your apposelle is wele inferrid. 

Skelton's Works, i. 307. 
APPOSE. To raise questions ; to object ; to dis- 
pute with. (A.-N.) It was also used in the 
sense of to oppose, as in MS. Bib. Reg. 12 B. i. 
f. G6, " I w^d not be apposyd, nolo mild opponi" 
and Prompt. Parv. p. 13. See also Prompt. 
Parv. p. 144 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 7179, 15831 ; 
Skelton's Works, i. 321 ; Middleton's Works, 
i. 304. 

Tho the poeple hym apposede 
With a peny in the temple. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 18. 
APPOSICION. Annexation of substantives. 

But this yonge childryne that gone to the scole 
have in here Donetethisquestione, how many thinges 
fallen to apposicion ? Ande it isansweride, that case 
alle only that is afalle. Gesta Romanorum, p, 472. 

APPOSITEES. Antipodes. 

For alle the parties of see and of lond han here 
appositeen, habitables or trepassables, and the! of this 
half and beyond half. Maundevile'a Travels, p. 182. 

APPREHENSION. According to its literal im- 
port, means laying hold of, or catching, as we 
still use it applied to offenders against the law. 
Thus in Harrison's description of the pearl- 
muscle, which is said to have been frequently 
found in the rivers Dee and Don, the manner 
of apprehension is likewise mentioned. In 
Beaumont and Fletcher, iii. 171, it seems to 
be used in the sense of imagination. 
Ai'PltEHENSIVE. Of quick conception ; per- 
ceptive. 

I fly unseen, as charmers in a mist. 

Grateful revenge, whose sharp-sweet relist fats 

My (ijiprclicnsive soul. The True Trojans, iii. 8. 



My father oft would speak 
Your worth and virtue; and, as I did grow 
More and more apprehensive, I did thirst 
To see the man so prais'd. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, i. 308. 

APPREIFFE. Contrivance. {Fr.) 

This good king, by witte of such appreiffe. 
Kept his marchants and the sea from mischiefe. 

Hakluyt'a Navigations, 1599, i. 191. 

APPRENTICE-AT-LAW. A counsellor, the next 
in rank under a Serjeant. 

He speaks like master Practice, one that is 
The child of a profession he is vow'd to. 
And servant to the study he hath taken, 
A pure apprentice-at-law ! 

Ben Jonson's Magnetic L,ady, iii. 3. 

APPRENTICE-HOOD. Apprenticeship. 

Must I not serve a long apprentice-hood. 

Richard II. i. 3. 

APPRESSED. Oppressed. 

Trowth and pore men ben oppressed. 
And myschefFis nothyng redressed. 

Excerpt. Hist- p. 360. 

APPREST. Preparation. (Fr.) 

Seen the said man's declaration, and my saide 
Lorde Admyralles declaration, that there is no 
appiest of any ships in Spayne to any purpose to be 
regarded. State Papers, i. 594. 

All the winter following Vespasian laie at Yorke, 
making his apprests against the next spring to go 
against the Scots and Picts. 

Holinshed, Hiet. Scot. p. 48. 

APPRINZE. Capture. 

I mean not now th' apprinze of Pucell Jone. 

Mirrour for Magistrates, ed. 1610, p. 341. 

APPRISE. Learning. {A.-N.) 

For slouthe is ever to despise, 
Whiche in desdeyne hath alle apprise. 

Gower, 3JS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 118. 

APPRO ACHER. One who approaches or draws 

near. See Timon of Athens, iv. 3. 
APPROBATE. Approved ; celebrated. In MS. 
Ashmole 59, f. 35, mention is made of a ballad 
" by that approbate poete Lidegate, the Munk 
of Biu-ye." Cf. MS. Addit. 5467, fF. 71, 85. 

Havyng perfect confidence and sure hope in the 
approbate fidelitie and constaunt integritie whiche I 
have ever experimented. Hall, Edward IV. f. 60. 

Nowe yf she refuse in the deliveraunce of hym to 
folowe the wisdome of Uieim, whose wisdome she 
knoweth, whose approbate fideMtee she trustcth, it 
is easye to perceave that frowardnesse letteth her, and 
not feare. Supp. to Hardy ng, f. 46. 

APPROBATION. (1) Proof; approval.' 
— How many, now in health, 
Shall drop their blood in approbation 
Of what your reverence shall incite us to. 

Henry V. i. 2 
(2) Noviciate. 

This day my sister should the cloister enter. 
And there recewe hex approbation. 

Meaa. for Meas. i. 3. 

APPROCHEMENT. Approach. . 

The Frenchmen whiche were scace up, and thought 

of nothyng lesse then of thys soAayn approchetnoit, 

some rose out of their beddes in their shertes, and 

lepte over the walles. Hall, Henry VI. f. 21, 

APPR()MI':NT. Ai)provement } 

If it please you to assigne me, send me word wliat 
increseand nppromoit ye wyll gyve, and I wyll ajipiie 
my mynd and service to your pleasure ami wele 

PlumptvH Correspondence, p. 88. 



APR 



75 



APY 



APPROMPT. To prompt. Bacon. 
APPROOF. Approbation. 

So his approof lives not in's epitaph. 

As in your royal speech. 

AlUs Well that Ends Well, i. 2. 

APPROPER. To appropriate. See SirT. More's 
Workes, p. 428 ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 35. 
Withouten his awen joyes les and mare, 
That till himself sail be upproprt/ed thare. 

MS. Harl. 4196, f. 257. 
Mighte es appropirde to Godd the Fadire ; wysdome 
to God the Sone ; gudnes to God the Haly Gaste. 

MS. Lincoln A. 1. 17, f. 199. 

APPROPINQUE. To approach. (Lat.) 
The knotted blood within my hose. 
That from my wounded body flows. 
With mortal crisis doth portend 
My days to appropinque an end. 

Hudibras, I.iii. 590. 
APPROVE. To justify ; to make good ; to es- 
tablish ; to prove. See Beaumont and Fletcher, 
ii. 384 ; M. of Ven. iii. 2 ; Two Gent, of V. v. 4. 
APPROVER. An informer. (A.-N.) A per- 
son w^ho had the letting of the Idng's de- 
mesnes in small manors to the best advantage 
was likewise called an approver. 

This false theef, this sompnour, quod the frere, 

Had alway baudes redy to his bond. 

As any hauke to lure in Englelond, 

That told him all the secree that they knewe. 

For hir acquaintance was not come of newe ; 

They weren his approvers prively. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 6925. 

APPUGNANT. Quarrelsome. {Lat.') 

APPULLE. An apple. This is the form of the 
word in Maundevile's Travels, p. 9 ; Chron. 
Vilodun, p. 25. It is also retained in the an- 
cient dish called appulmoy. 

APPUYED. Supported. Skinner. 

A-PRAYSUT. Praised. The Douce MS. reads 
praysed, and the Lincoln MS. omits the line. 

Hur kcrchefes were curiouse, with mony a proud prene ; 

Hur enparel was a-praysut with princes of myjte. 

Robson's Romances, p. 14. 

APRES. In the inventory of Sir John Fastolfe's 
goods, printed in the Archaeologia, xxi. 263, 
occurs the entry, " j. cover of apres lynyd with 
lynen clothe." Mr. Amyot conjectures boar's 
skin, and Douce supposes it to be cloth of 
Ypres in Flanders, famous for its woollen 
manufacture. 
APRICATE. Tobaskinthesun. (Lat.) 

His lordship was wont to recreate himself in this 
place to apricate and contemplate, and his little dog 
with him. Aubrey's Wiltt, MS. Royal Soc. p. 259. 
APRICOCK. An apricot. West. 

Hop in his walks, and gambol in his eyes ; 
Feed him with apricncks and dewberries. 

A Mids. Night's Dream, iii. 1. 

APRIL. Ray has the proverb, " April — bor- 
rows three days of March, and they are ill." 
April is pronounced vritli an emphasis on the 
last syllable, so as to make a kind of jingling 
rhyme with ill. See Brand's Pop. Antiq. ii. 25. 
The wedding-day is sometimes satirically called 
April-day, in allusion to the common custom 
of making fools on the 1st of April. In the 
Merry Wives of Windsor, iii. 2, the Host of the 
Garter, speaking of Fenton, says, " he smells 



April and May;" that is, of youth and 
courtship. 
APRIL-GOWK. An April fool. North. 
APRILLED. Applied to beer or milk which has 
turned, or is beginning to turn, sour : also 
metaphorically to a person whose temper has 
been discomposed. Devon. 
APRINE. According to Horman, " swyne wode 
for love groyneth, and let passe from them a 
poyson called aprine.'' See Prompt. Parv. 
p. 218. 
APRISE. (1) Learning. {A.-N.) 
Crafte or outher queyntyse. 
But fordeddyst hys apryse. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 26. 
And that he wote of good apris. 
To teche it forth for suche emprise. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 38. 
But of hir court in sondry wise. 
After the scole of hir aprise. 

Goiver, MS. Bodl. 2&4. 

(2) An enterprise ; an adventure. (A.-N.) 
Sithin alle the loce in the lise. 
Thou schalle tyne thine nprise. 

Robson's Ro-nances, p. 86. 
Ac yif thou levest hire lesing, 
Th;in the falle a werse aprise, 
As dede to that elde wise. Sevyn Sages, 1941. 
APRON. The caul of a hog. East. The term 
is more usually applied to the fat skinny cover- 
ing of the belly of a duck or goose. 
APRON-MAN. A waiter. Cf. Coriolanus, iv. 6. 
We had the salute of welcome, gentlemen, pre- 
sently : Wilt please ye see a chamber ? It was our 
pleasure, as we answered the apron-man, to see, or 
be very neare the roome where all that noise was. 
Rowley's Search for Money, 1609. 
APROVE. To prove. 

Y seighe it meself for sothe. 
And wil aprove biforn hem bothe. 
That thai can nought say nay. 

Amis and Amilown, 803. 
APS. The asp, or aspen tree. South and West. 
The adjective apsen is also used. There is a 
farm in the Isle of Wight called Apse. 
APT. To adapt ; to fit. See Mr. Cunningham's 
Revels Accounts, p. 101, ^^ apting, preparing, 
furnishing, and setting fourth of divers plaies 
or showes of histories." 
APTES. Skinner proposes to read aptitudes in 
the following passage : 

Thei ban as well divers apte», and divers maner 
usynges, and thilk aptes mo wen in will ben cleped 
atfeccions. Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 517- 

APTLY. Openly. See Weber's glossary to the 
Battle of Floddon Field, p. 235. Perhaps we 
should read apertly. 
APTYDE. Appetite. 

And to make her fresh wyth gay attyris. 
She sparith no cost to yef men aptyde, 

MS. Laud 416, f. 54. 
APURT. Impertinent. Somerset. In the Exmoor 
glossary it is explained, " sullen, disdainfully 
silent, with a glouting look." 
APYES. Apes. 

Also fast ase he myght fare. 
Fore berrys and apyes that ther were. 
Lest they wold hym byght. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 26. 



aUU 



/o 



AQU 



^PYGHTE. Readily. 

And with ther swyrdys apj/ghte. 
Made hur a logge with bowes. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii 38, f. 120. 

APYUM. Parsley. See an old receipt in an 
ancient medical MS. at Lincoln, f. 285. 

AQUA-ACUTA. A composition made of tartaric 
and other acids, formerly used for cleaning ar- 
mour. A receipt for it is given in an early 
medical MS. at Middlehill. 

A.QUABOB. An icicle. Kent. Grose gives this 
word, M^hich seems to be a strange compound 
of the Latin language and the provincial dialect. 

A-QUAKE. To tremble. 

3yf he hadde slept, hym neded awake; 
3yf he were wakyng, he shulde a-quake. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 52. 

AQUAL. Equal. North. 

AQUAPATYS. An ancient dish, the receipt for 
which is given in the Forme of Cury, p. 41. 

AQU AT. Sitting on the houghs. Somerset. 

AQUATIL. Inhabiting the water. Howell, in 
his Lexicon, explains a crocodile to be " a kind 
of amphibolous creture, partly aquatil, partly 
terrestrial." {Lat.) 

AQUATORIES. Watery places. 

Thastrologier of heos aquatories. 
With thastrelabur to take thascendent. 

MS. Ashmole 59, f. 18. 
AQUA-VITtE. Several old receipts for making 
aqua-vitae are given in Donee's Illustrations, 
i. 68-70, where the exact nature of it may be 
seen. Irish aqua-vitae was usquebaugh, but 
brandy was a later introduction, nor has the 
latter term been found earlier than 1671. 
According to Nares, it was formerly in use as 
a general term for ardent spirits, and Ben 
Jonson terms a seller of drams an " aqua-vitae 
man." See the Alchemist, i. 1 ; Cunningham's 
Revels Accoimts, p. 146 ; Witts, Fittes, and 
Fancies, 1595, p. 128. 
AQUEIGHT. Shook ; trembled. {A.-S.) 
His fet in the stiropes he streight. 
The stirop to-bent, the hors aqueight. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 121. 
The gleumen useden her tunge ; 
The wode aqueightte so hy sunge. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 5257. 

AQUEINTABLE. Easy to be acquainted with. 
{A.-M.) 

Wherefore be wise and aqveintable, 
God e lie of worde and resonable, 
Bothe to lesse and eke to mare. 

Rom. 0/ the Rose, 2213. 

AQUELLEN. To kill; to destroy; to subdue. 
(A.-S.) See Kyng Horn, 881 ; Richard Goer 
de Lion, 2569 ; Sevyn Sages, 2758 ; Ritson's 
Ancient Songs, p. 21. 

And her gref anon hem teld, 
Hou Fortiger her king aqueld. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 16. 
And seyd him, so ich to-fore teld, 
Hou the Paiens his folk aqueld. Ibid. p. 271. 
And gif y schal be thus aqueld, 
Thurch strong hcte in the fold. 
It were ogain the skille. 

Gi/ of Warwikc, p. 323. 



AQUENCH. To quench, applied to either thirst 
or hunger ; to destroy. See Aqueynt. 
Nothing he ne founde in al the ni^te, 
Wer-mide his honger aquenche mijtte. 

Reliq. Antiq. ii. 274. 
Er thou valle of thi bench, 
Thi ^enne aquench. MS. Arundel 57, f. 51 

And thus fordoth hem lyf and lyme. 
And so aquencheth al here venyme. 

MS. Addit 10036, f. 50. 
AQUETONS. An acquittance. 
Of the resayvar speke wylle I, 
That fermys resay vys wyfcturly ; 
Of graynys and honi aquetons makes, 
Sexpons therfore to feys he takes. 

Boke of Curtast/e, p. 25. 
AQUEYNT. (1) Quenched with water ; de- 
stroyed. See Sevyn Sages, 1991 ; Rehq. Antiq. 
ii. 229. (A.-S.) 

As hi stode mid here lijt. 

As me doth 5ut nou. 

Here li3t aqueynte overal. 

Here non nuste hou. MS. (quoted in Boucher.^ 

Ac that fur aqueynte sone. 

And ne myjte here brenne no^t. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxnn. 57 

(2) Acquainted. 

Therfore toke he bapteme feynte. 
To be with Phelip so aqueynt. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 119 
Heo desirith nothyng more. 
Than to beo to you aqweynt. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 7596. 
It is so marveilous and queint, 
With suche love be no more aqueint. 

Rom. of the Rose, 5200, 

AQUILITY. Agility. Florio translates allestirc, 
" to make nimble, she, or quicke, or dight with 
aquilitie." 
AQUITE. (1) To acquit. 

God wite in o dai wan it aquited be. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 565 
I wol the of thy trouthe aqjiite. 

Cower, MS. Soc. Antiq, 134, f. 48 
Of prisoun shal thou be take away. 
And ben aqtiit blfore justise. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 28. 

(2) Rlquited. 

But how it was to hire aquite. 
The remembraunce dwelleth 3it. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 153. 
He wole aqwyte us ryth wele oure mede. 
And I have lysens for to do. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 335. 

(3) To pay for. {A.-N.) 

Or if his winning be so lite. 
That his labour will not aquite 
SufBciauntly al his living. 
Yet may he go his brede begging. 

Romaunt of the Rose, 6742 

AQUOINTE. Acquainted. 

And he w^is aquointe muche to thequene of Fraunce, 

And somdel to muehe, as me wendc, so that in som 

thing [king. 

The queue lovede, as me wende, more him than the 

Rob. Glouc. p. 465. 
I trust we shalbo better aqnoynt. 
And I shalle stande better yn your grace. 

MS. Rau'l. C. 258 

AQUOT. Cloyed ; weary with eating. Devon. 
" Chave cat so much cham quit aquot," i. e, 



AUA 



11 



ARA 



I can eat no more, I have eaten so much that 
I am cloyed. Ray gives this example in his 
EngUsh words, 1674, p. 80. 
AQUOY. Coy; shy. 

With that she knit her brows. 

And looking all aquoy. 
Quoth she. What shouM I have to do 

With any prentice boy ? George Barnwell, 2d Ft. 
AQUYTED. Quitted ; made to quit. 
Y am of Perce deschargid, 
Of Mede, and of Assyre aquj/ted. 

Ki/ng Alisaunder, 386f(. 

AR. (1) A scar ; a pockmark. This word is ex- 
tremely common in the North of England. In 
MS. Bib. Rig. 17 C. xvii. f. 40, written in the 
North about the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, we have " cicatrix, ar or wond." 

(2) An oar. 

And sTop an ar that was ful god, 

Lep to the dore so he wore wod. Havelok, 1776. 

(3) Or. See Prompt. Parv. p. 83. Hearne gives 
ar the meanings, " as, after, before, ere, till." 
See Gloss, to Rob. Glouc. p. 617. 

For them had no man dere, 
Reche ar pore wethyr they were. 

They ded ever ryght. Sir Cleges, 35. 

(4) Before. 

Al this world, ar this book blynne. 
With Cristishelpe I shal overrynne. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Tiin. Cantah.i. 1. 
Aboute mydnyght, ar the day. 
Whiles he madeconjuryng, 
Scheo saw fleo, in hire metyng, 
Hire thought a dragon adoun lyght ; 
To hire chaumbre he made his flyght. 

Kyng Alisaunder , 344. 

ARACE. To draw away by force. (^.-A^.) Skin- 
ner also gives it the sense of erase. See Har- 
rington's Nugae Antiquge, i. 47; Rom. of the 
Rose, 1752. 
And in hire swough so sadly holdeth she 
Hire children two, whan she gan hem embrace, 
That with gret sleight and gret difficultee 
The children from hire arm they gan arraee. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 8979. 

ARACH. The herb orach. Minsheu. Palsgrave, 
f. 18, has arage, q. v. ; and a much earher form 
occurs in a Ust of plants in MS. Harl. 978, 
arasches. 
ARADDE. Explained. Compare the printed 
edition of 1532, f. 4. 

This was the sweven whiche he hadde. 
That Danielle anone aradde. 

Gower, MS. Sac. Antiq. 134, f. 34. 

ARAFE. A kind of precious stone. 
Hir paytrelle was of a rialle fyne, 
Hir cropurwas of arafe. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 43, f. 116. 

ARAFTE. Struck; smote. 
That peple seyde than, 
Thys ys fend Satan, 

That mankende wyll forfare. 
For wham Lybeauus arafte. 
After hys ferste drawghte 

He slep forevermare. Lybeaus Disconus, 1129- 
ARAGE. The herb orach. Prompt. Parv. 
ARAGED. Enraged. {A.-N.) 

And whanne he had eten hit, he swalle soo tyl he 
brast, and there sire Patryce felle doun sodenly deedc 



amonge hem. Thenne every knyghte lepte from 
the bord asliamed and araged, for wrathe nyghe ouie 
of her wyttes. Morte d' Arthur , ii. 321. 

ARAIN. A spider. According to Ray this is 
the name given in Northamptonshire to the 
larger kind of spiders, but he also gives its more 
general meaning in his North country words. 
Aran-web is a cobweb in Northumberland. 
Aranye is the form of the word in the Prompt. 
Parv. p. 14. Derham, as quoted by Richard- 
son, uses the word araneous. 
Sweep iWarrans down, till all be clean, neer lin. 
Els he'l leauk all agye when becomes in. 

Yorkshire Dialogue, 1697, V- 59. 

ARAISE. To raise. See the example from the 

arrival of King Edward IV. p. 23, quoted under 

Arredij ; Morte d' Arthur, ii. 54, 85, 432, 436. 

Swych men areyaen baner 

Ajens holy cherches power. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. .01. 
Anon the busshop bad she shuldnot tary. 
But to areyie the bagge and make hym cary. 

MS. Laud. 416, f. 1. 

ARANEE. A spider. 

And jif je fynde that the aranee have y-maad 
hure web by the myddel of hem, it is a tokene that 
it is of no long while, or at the leest it is of the myd- 
del overnone of the day byfore. MS. Bodl. 546. 

A-RANKE. In a rank ; in a row. 

The day is come; the pretty dames. 

Which be so free and franke. 
Do go so sagely on the way. 
By two and two a-ratike. 

Galfrido and Bernatdo, 1570. 

ARAPE. Quickly. {Lat.) 

Over theo table he leop arape. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 4239. 

ARAS. (1) Arose. 

Or 1 fro the bord aras, 

Of my frend betrayd y was, 

MS. Addit. 11307, f. 91. 
(2) Arrows. 

Bomen bickarte uppone the bent 
With ther browd aras cleare. Chevy Chase. 

ARATE. To rate ; to scold ; to correct. \a.-S.) 
And foule y-rebuked, 
And a-rated of riche men 
That ruthe is to here. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 283. 
ARAUGHT. Seized ; taken away by force. From 
Areche,C[.y. See the Sevyn Sages, 895; Kyng of 
Tars, 1096. It is used also in the sense of 
struck, or seized by the weapon ; and reached, 
as in the third example. (A.-S.) 
Right bifor the doukes fet, 
Gij araught him with a staf gret. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 225. 
Al that ever his ax araught, 
Smertlich his deth he laught. 

MS. Arund. Coll. Arm. 58, f. 261. 
Criste wrou3te first and after taujte. 
So that the dede his worde arau-^te. 

Gower, MS. Soc Antiq. 134, f. 133. 
Florice the ring here araup. 
And he him a3en hit breau5t. 

Florice and Blanchefiuur, IVJ, 
So stume strokes thay a-ra^te, 
Eyther til other the whyle. MS. Ashmole 3i 

A^RAWE. In a row. 



ARB 



78 



ARC 



Tharnas man tliat ther neye come. 
That l.ene was to-corwen anon 
So griseliche be the engins, 
For to sle tlie Sarrazines 
In ich half y-sctt a-rawe. 

Gi/ of Warwike, p. 125. 
And dede him tuissknely a-rmve. 
And almost hadde him y-slawe. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 334. 

All AW IS. Arrows. 

Theyr hoked arawis dothe ever bakward flee. 

Lt/dgate's Miiwr Puems, p. 171- 

ARAYE. (1) Order. (J.-N.) 

The time of underneof the same day 
Approcheth, that this wedding shulde be. 
And all the paleis put was in array. 
Both halle and chambres eche in his degree. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 8138. 

(2) Equipage. " Man of aray," a king. 

Y have wetyn, syth y was man of aray. 
He hath slayne syxty on a day. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 65. 
And to the peples eres all and some 
Was couth eke, that a newe markisesse 
He with him brought, in swiche pomp and richesse. 
That never was ther seen with mannes eye 
So noble array in al West Lumbardie. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 8821. 

(3) Clothing. 

Som saiden, women loven best richesse, 
Som saiden honour, som saiden jolinesse, 
Som riche array, som saiden lust a-bedde, 
And oft time to be widewe and to be wedde. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 6509. 

(4) Situation. 

Thou standest yet, quod she, in swiche array. 
That of thy lif yet hast thou no seuretee. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 6484. 

(5) To dress. 

Whan that the firste cock hath crowe anon. 
Up rist this joly lover Absolon, 
And him arayeth gay at point devise. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 3689. 

(6) To dispose ; to afflict. See Chaucer, Cant. T. 
8837 ; Towneley Mysteries, p. 40 ; Skelton's 
Works, ii. 197. Horman applies the word to 
illness, — " he was sore arayedvnih. sycknesse." 
In the Morte d' Arthur, ii. 374-5, it seems to 
be a substantive, in the sense of disorder, tu- 
mult ; and Mr. Dyce gives quotations from 
Reynard the Fox, in which it occurs as a verb 
in a similar signification. In Maundevile's 
Travels, p. 214, it means to prepare, to arrange. 

ARAYNED. Tied up. 

And thenne he alyghte doune, and arayned his 
hors on the brydel. and l)onde alle the thre knyghtes 
fast wilh the raynes of their owne brydels. 

Morte d' Arthur, i. 156. 

ARAYNYE. Sand, So it is explained in Prompt. 
Parv. MS. llarl. 221, f. 5, by the Latin arena. 
The other copies read aranye, aranca, for which 
this may be an error, but not " evidently," as 
stated by Mr. Way. 

ARAY SING. Advancing. 

Also, m araysiriff tile auncyaunt nobles of England, 
the king hath appnynted a good nonmbre of noble 
pcrsonts of this his rcalme to take the ordre of 
kiiyghthode, and be made knights of the Bath 

Rutland Papers, p. 3. 

ARBAGE. Herbage. 



Sir, afor the arbage, dout yt not ; for Sir Henry 
Wtntforth, nor yet none other, can have it, nor 
nothinge that belongeth to David. 

Plumpton Correspondence, p. 94. 

ARBER. (1) An arboiu". Skinner has arberer 
in the same sense. 

And in the garden, as I wene. 
Was an arber fayre and grene. 
And in the arber was a tre, 
A fayrer in the world might none be. 

Squyr of Lowe Degri, 28. 

(2) To maKC the arber, a phrase in hunting, is 
to disembowel the animal, which must be done 
in a neat and cleanly manner. The dogs are 
then rewarded wdth such parts of the entrails 
as their two-legged associates do not think 
proper to reserve for their own use. See Scott's 
notes toTristrem, p. 387 ; Ben Jonson, vi. 270. 

ARBERYE. Wood. 

In that contree is but \yt\\\e arberye, ne trees that 
beren frute, ne othere. Thei lyjn in tentes, and thei 
brennen the dong of bestes for defaute of wode. 

Maundevile's Travels, p. 256 
Enhorilde with arborye, and alkyns trees. 

Morte Arthur e, MS, Lincoln, i.^J. 

ARBESET. a strawberry tree. {A.-N.) 
Thou schalt fynde trowes two; 
Seyntesand holy they buth bo. 
Hygher than in othir contray all ; 
Arbeset men heom callith. 

Kyng Aliaaunder , 6765. 
ARBITRATE. To determine. 

Thoughts speculative their unsure hopes relate; 
But certain issue strokes must arbitrate. 

Macbeth, v. 4. 
ARBITRIE. Judgment. Chaucer. 
ARBLAST. An alblast, q. v. {A.-N.) 
But rise up your mangonel. 
And cast to their tree-castel. 
And shoot to them with arblast. 
The tailed dogs for to aghast ! 

Richard Coer de Lion, 1867. 
With bouwe and areblast ihaxe scholen to him. 
Four hondret knyjtesand mo. MS.Laud\OQ,i. 123. 
ARBLASTIR. An alblastere, q. v. {A.-N.) 
Men seinin ovir the wall stonde 
Gret engins, which y-were uere-honde. 
And in the kernils here and there 
Of arblastirs grete plentie were ; 
None armour mighte ther stroke withstonde. 
It were foly to prese to honde. 

Rom. of the Rose, 4196. 

ARBOUSES. The dark hard cheriy. Hoicell. 
ARBROT. A chemical salt. 

Sal arbrot, and sal alkelim, 
Salgeme i-myngut with hym. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48. f. 94. 
ARBUSTED. Filled with strawberry trees. 
What pleasures poets fame of after death. 
In the Elizean arbustcd groves. 

The Cyprian Academy, 1647, p. •'54. 

ARC. A mare's tail cloud, or cirrhus, in the 
form of a streak crossing the sky. Herefordsh.. 
See Ark. 

ARCANE. Secret. 

Have I been disobedient to thy words? 
Have I bcwray'd thy «>«*/<«! secrecy ? Locrine, v. 6. 
ARCANETRYKK. Arithmetic. I do not recol- 
lect having met with this form of the word 
elsewhere. 



ARC 



79 



ARE 



Gemetrye and arcnnetrt/kk, 
Retorykk and musykk. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 127. 
ARCEL. The liverwort. Skinner. 
ARCETER. A person skilled in the arts and 
sciences. ''Arceter, or he that lernethe or 
techethe arte, ar tist a :'—?xom\}t. Parv. The 
other editions read arcetyr. 
ARCETIK. In an early collection of medical 
recipes in MS. in the library of Lincoln Ca- 
thedral, f. 307, is one " for the gout arcetik:' 
See Artetykes. 
ARCH. (1) A chief; a master. 

The noble duke, my master. 
My worthy arch and patron, comes to-night. 

King Lear, ii. 1. 

(2) A piece of ground left unworked. A mining 

term. 
ARC HAL. Liverwort. Phillij)s. 
ARCHANGEL. The dead nettle. See the No- 

menclator, p. 138 ; Cooperi Thesaurus, in v. 

Anonium. The word occurs in the Rom. of 

the Rose, 915, apparently meaning some kind 

of bird, the original French being mesange, a 

titmouse. 
ARCHARDE. An acorn. It is translated by ^r^aws 

in Prompt. Parv. p. 6. 
ARCHDEAN. Apparently put for archdeacon, 

in a passage ffom Gascoigne quoted by Nares. 
ARCHDIACRE. An archdeacon. {A.-N.) 

Where archbishop and arehdiacre 

Y-songin full out the servise, 

Aftir the custome and the guise 

And holie churchis ordma,unce.Chaucer'sDreame,2\36. 

ARCHER. The bishop at chess was formerly 

so called. 
ARCHET. An orchard. Wilts. 
ARCHEWIVES. Wives of a superior order. 

Ye archewives, stondeth ay at defence. 

Sin ye be strong as is a gret camaille, 

Ne suiireth not that men do you offence. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 9071. 

ARCHICAL. Chief; principal. 

So that Parmenides did also agree in this acknow- 
ledgement of a Trinity of divine or archical hypos- 
tases. Cudworth's Intell. System, p. 387. 

ARCHIDECLYNE. The master of the feast at 
the marriage in Cana. See the Towneley Mys- 
teries, p. 207. 

Lyke to the watyi ofnirchideclt/ne, 
Wiche be meracle were turned into wyne. 

Li/dgate's Minor Poems, p. 13. 

ARCHIMASTRYE. Chemistry. 

Maistryefull merveylous and archimastrye 
Is the tincture of holi Alkimy. 

Ashmole's Theut, Chem. Brit. p. 13. 

ARCHITECT. Architecture. 

To finde an house y-built for holy deed, 
With goodly architect and cloisters wide. 

Browne's Brit. Pastorals, 1625, p. 96. 

ARCHITEMPLES. Cliief temples. 

And the erchbischopriches as the thre architemples were. 

As y t were of alle chef Cristendom to lere. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 74. 

ARCHMASTRIE. Arithmetic. 

For what strangers may be compared with M. 
Thomas Digges esquire, our countryman, the great 
master of archmastrie? 

Davis's Seamans Secrets, 1594. 



ARCUBALISTER. An alblastere, q. v. 

In everie of them he set first archers and arcuha- 
listers; and next unto them pikes and speares, then 
bilmen and other with such short weapons ; last of 
all, another multitude with all kind of weapons, as 
was thought most expedient. 

Hohnshi'd, Hist. Scot. p. 130. 

ARD. (1) High. Used chiefly in composition 
in the names of places. In Cumberland, ac- 
cording to Boucher, this term is used abstract- 
edly to denote the quality of a place, a counti-y, 
or a field. Thus ard land means a dry, parched 
soil. In the canting dictionaries, the word is 
explained hot. 
(2) Hard. 

Lucye the senatour in thojt was he sone, 
In such ard cas as hym vel, wat were best to done. 

Rub. Glouc. p. 213. 

ARDANUD. Hardened. 

And fouly defy lid than for synne. 
That thei were than ardanud inne. MS. Dighy 87. 
ARDEERE. Harder. 

Ever the ardeere that it is, 

Ever the beter it is i-wys. Archaologia, xxx. 388. 
ARDEN. Fallow quarter. Cumb. See Arders, 

for which this form may be an error. 
ARDENE. A command ; an ordinance. 
An aungyl fro hefne was sent ful snel. 
His name is clepyd Gabriel, 
His ardene he dede ful snel. 

Christmas Carols, p. 16. 

ARDENTNESSE. Earnestness. A chapter in 
MS Bodl. 283, is entitled, *' Of foly fervent- 
nesse or ardentnesse to do welle." 

ARDER. A kind offish, mentioned by Verstegan, 
without explanation, in a letter printed in 
Ellis's Literary Letters, p. 108. 

ARDERS. Fallowings or ploughings of ground. 
This is the explanation in the Diet. Rust. 1726, 
in v. See also Markham's Countrey Farme, 
1616, p. 558. Polwhele gives ardar as 
Cornish for a plough, and ardur, a ploughman. 

ARDI. Hardy. 

Orped thou art and of grete might, 
Gode knight and ardi in fight. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 37. 

ARDILICHE. Hardily. 

He smot unto a Sarrazin, 
No halp him nought his Apolin ; 
jNow thai smitte togider comonliehe. 
And fight thai agin ardiliche. Gv of Warwike, p. 100. 
ARDURE. Burning. {A.-N.) 

Now Cometh the remedy ayenst lecherie, and that 
is generally chastitee and continence, that restrein- 
eth all disordinate mevings that comen of fleshly 
talents , and ever the greter merite shal he have that 
most restreineth the wicked enchaufing or ardu?-e of 
this sinne. Persones Tale, p. 108. 

ARE. (1) An oar. 

His maister than thai fand 

A bot and an are. Sir Tristrem, p. 153. 

Where many a barge doth rowe and sayle with are. 
Where many a ship resteth with top royall. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 206. 

(2) A hare. 

Whyl I had syht, ther myht nevyr man fynde. 

My pere of archerye in alle this werd aboute; 
For zitt schet I nevyr at hert, are, nerehynde. 
But yf that he deyd, of this no man have doute, 
Cdi'ciitrii Mrjste it.s, p. 44. 



ARE 



80 



ARE 



(3) Before. Cf. Minot's Poems, p. 103. 

The knightis gadrid togedir thare. 

And gan with crafte there counselle take, 
Suehe a knight was nevyr are, 
But it were Lauucelot du Lake. 

MS. Harl. 2252, f. 90. 
Erly, are the daye gane sprynge, 
He did a pryste his messe to synge. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f- 99. 

(4) To plough. Kersey gives this as a pro- 
vincial form of the word. Cooper, in his edi- 
tion of Elyot, 1559, has, '' aro, to eare or 
plowe lande." 

(5) An heir. See Maundevile's Travels, p. 151. 

(6) Honour; dignity. See Hartshorne's Met. 
Tales, p. 38 ; Maitland's Early Printed Books 
at Lambeth, p. 305 ; Brit. Bibl. iv. 86. 

Dame, he seyde, be Goddys are. 
Haste any money thou woldyst ware ? 

Ritson'a Pop. Poet. p. 70. 

(7) A note in music, sometimes called a-la-mire, 
the lowest note but one in Guido's scale. See 
Rehq. Antiq. i. 83 ; Tam. of the Slirew, iii. 1. 

(8) An ear. 

She began somewhat to relent and to geve to them 
no deffe are, insomuche that she faythfully promysed 
to submyt and yelde herselfe fully and frankely to 
the kynges wyll and pleasure. Hall,Richard III. f.24. 

(9) Mercy. 

Lord, seide Abraham, thin are! 
Shal thou thine owne so forfare ? 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab. f.l8. 
Swete Ysoude, thin are. 

Thou preye the king for me, 
Yif it thi wille ware. 

Of sake he make me fre. SirTristrem, p.241. 

(10) An hour. Lane. 

(11) Former ; previous. 

Goddes werkkes for to wyrke, 
To serve Gode and haly kyrke. 
And to mende hir are mysdede. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 112. 

AREADINESS. Readiness. Aready occurs in 
the Exmoor Scolding, p. 4. 

Getting therefore hi^ bag and baggage in areadi- 

nesse, he was going out of Tunise; and as he passed 

out at the gates, he cast his eye up to the house 

where Katherine was. Cobler of Canterburie, 1608. 

It is ordered that the Lord Chamburlayn and Vice- 

Chamberlayn shall put themselfes in semblable 

aredinesse, and they to appoynte all maner officers 

for the chambre, makyng a boke of the names of 

theym and every of theym. ArchOiologia, xxi. 178. 

AREAR. Upright. Kent. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 

1033, gives the example, "to stand arear, to 

stand upright." 

AREAUT. Out of doors. North. 

It will bring as good blendings, I dare say. 
As ever grew areaut in onny clay. 

Yorkshire Dialogue, p. 41. 

ARECIIE. (1) To explain. {A.-S.) 
Crist and seint Stevone, 

Quoth Horn, arcche thy swevene. Kyng Horn, 668. 
(2) To attain ; to reach. 

For oftc schallc a womman have 
Thynge whichca man may no\iT,t areche. 

Goiver, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 59. 
jef me nul him forthcr tcchc, 
'J'hnnne is herte wol urcchc 

For te Icrnemore. Reliq. Antiq. i. 110. 



Al that hys ax areche mygnt, 

Hors and man he slowgh doun-ryght. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 7037. 

(3) To utter ; to declare. 

Butassoneas Beryn had pleyn knowleche 
That his eyen were y-los*" unneth he myglit areiTje 
O word for pure anguysii. History of Beryn, 2999. 
AREDE. (1) To explain ; to interpret. {A.-S.\ 
Of whiche no man ne couthe areden 
The nombre, bot thehevene Kyng 
That woot the sothe of al thing. 

Kyng Alisatinder, 5115. 
I trowe arede my dreames even, 
Lo thus it was, this was my sweven. 

The Sevyn Sages, 1154, {quoted in Boucher.) 

(2) To give counsel to. 

Therefore to me, my trusty friend, arede 
Thy counsel : two is better than one head. 

Mother Hubberd's Tale, p. 5. 

AREDILI. Easily ; readily. 

Alle the clerkes under God couthe nou3t dcscrive 
Aredili to the rijtes the realty of that day. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 180. 

A-REDY. Ready. 

That in eche lond a-redy is 

Whyder so eny man wende. MS.Coll. Trin.Oxon. 57. 

ARE ED. Counsel ; advice. 

Now must your honor leave these mourning tunes, 
And thus, by my areed, you shall provide. 

Downfall of Robert, E. of Huntingdon, i. 1. 

AREGES. A herb. It is an ingredient in a re- 
cipe in an old medical MS. at Lincoln, f. 28G. 
AREIGHT. Struck. 

Otuel, for wrath, anon 
Areight h\m on the check-bone. 

Ellis's Met. Rom. ii. 338. 

AREIT. Judged? 

Whether for to willen here prosperity, 
Schulde ben areit as synne and felonie. 

Boetius, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 288. 

ARE-LUMES. Heir-looms. North. See the 

Glossarium Northanhymbricum, in v. 
ARELY. Early ; soon. 

The erlo, als arely als it was daye, 
Toke hys leve and wente his waye. 

MS. Lincoln. A. i. 17, f. 117. 

AREN. Are. This plural is often met with in old 
writers, and is still used in the North country 
dialects. It is the regular grammatical form. 
See Qu. Rev. Iv. 374. Sometimes arene, as in 
Appendix to W. Mapes, p. 347. 

ARENDE. An errand ; a message. (A.-S.) See 
Troilus and Creseide, ii. 72 ; Manners and 
Household Expences of England, p. 154. 
For jystyrday deyde my nobyl stede. 
On joure arende as I 3ede. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 101. 

ARENGE. In a series. It is translated by 
seriatim in Prompt. Parv. p. 14. 
And ladde him and his monekes 

Into a wel fair halle. 
And sette hem adoun arenk. 

And wosche here fet alle. St. Brandan, p. 12. 

ARENYNG. See Athenyng. 

We thankyng God of the good and gracios arenyng 
of yowre croune of Fraunce. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 4. 

ARERAGE. Arrcar. (A.-N.) Cowell says, " it 
significth the remain of an account, or a sura 
of money remaining in the hands of an account- 
ant." Sec also Barct's Alvcarie, in y. 



ARE 



81 



ARE 



I trowe mony In areraget wol falle. 
And to perpetuel prisoun gonge. 

MS. Ashmole 41, f. 77. 

ARERE. (1) To raise. See Wright's Political 
Songs, p. 342 ; Coventry Mysteries, pp. 132, 
215, 240 ; Octovian Imperator, 21 ; Maunde- 
vile's Travels, p. 38 ; Holinshed, Hist. Eng. 
pp. 112, 129. (J.-S.) 

Ther schule the sautlen beo to-drawe. 
That her arereden unryhte lawe. 

MS. Coll. Jea. Oxon. 29. 
A prince of the londis wide, 
Shalle barret arere for her pride. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 75. 

{2) To rear, as a horse. 

Wan any of hem that hors cam nej, 
A caste behynde and arered an hej. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 49. 

3) A term in hare-hunting, used when the 
* hounds were letloose. {A.-N.) Cf. MS. Bodl. 546. 
That all maye hym here, he shall saye arere. 

Book of St. Albans, ed. 1810, slg. D.iii. 

(4) Backwards ; behind. See Spenser's Faerie 
Queene, III. vii. 24 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 181 ; 
Scott, glossary to Sir Tristrem, explains it or 
ere, before. {A.-N.) 

My blaspheming now have T bought ful dere. 
All yerthly joie and mirthe 1 set arere. 

Testament of Creseide, 355. 
Now plucke up your hertes, and make good chere ; 

These tydynges lyketh me wonder wele. 
Now vertu shall drawe arere, arere; 

Herke, felous, a good sporte I can you tell. 

Hycke Scorner, ap. Hawkins, i. 90. 

(5) To retreat. 

He 8chunt for the scharp, and schulde haf arered. 

St/r Gawayne, p. 7®. 

ARESEDE. Tottered. {A.-S.') 

Thourgh the mouht the fom was wight, 
The tusches in the tre he smit ; 
The tre aresede as hit wold falle. 
The herd was sori adrad withalle, 
And gan sone on knes to falle. 

Sevyn Sages, 915. 
ARE SON. To question, interrogate, examine. 
{A.-N.) See Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 189 ; 
Rom. of the Rose, 6220 ; Langtoft's Chronicle, 
p. 314; Seynt Katerine, p. 181; Ywaine and 
Gawin, 1094 ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 131 ; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 241. 

Of that morther and that tresoun. 
He dud that traitour to aresourt. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab. {. 7- 
Themperour cleped Herhaud him to. 
And aresound him tuene hem tuo. 

Gy of Waru'ike, p. 158. 

AREST. (1) Arrest ; constraint. (A.-N.) 
They live but as a bird or as a beste. 
In libertee and under non areste. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 9158. 

(2) Delay. {A.-N.) 

Alas, than comith a wilde lionesse 
Out of the wode, withoutin more arest. 

Thisbe of Babylon, 101. 

(3) To stop. (^.-iV:) 

And ther our hoste began his hors arest, 
Antl saide, lordes, herkeneth if you lest. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 829. 

(4) Relatest. 



Palmer, ryghtly thou arett 

All the maner. 
Darst thou ryde upon thys best 

To the ryvere. 
And water hym that thou ne falle » 

Octovian Imperator, 1425. 

(5) Rancid. Prompt. Parv. 

ARESTENESSE. Rancidity, apphed to meat. 

See Prompt. Parv. p. 14. Rancid bacon is 

called reesty in the provinces. 

ARESTOGIE. A kind of herb? See the Archae- 

ologia, XXX. 404. 
ARETHEDE. Honour. {A.-S.) 
Whare folkes sittis in fere, 
Thare solde mene herkene and here 
Of beryns that byfore were. 
That lyffed in arethede. 

Sir Degrevant, Lincoln MS. 
ARETTE. (1) Toimpute,adjudge,reckon.(y/.-iV.) 
See Apology for the Lollards, pp. 26, 85, 104; 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 728 ; Persones Tale, p. 63 ; 
Morte d' Arthur, p. ii ; Philpot's Works, p. 350 ; 
Wickliffe's New Test. Phil? 

The victorye es nojte aretted to thame that fliez, 
bot to thame that habydez or folowes on the chace. 
MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 15. 

(2) Hence, to value, to esteem. " We arretiden 
not him," old MS. translation of Isaiah, liii. 
quoted in MS. Rawl. C. 155, from a copy at 
Cambridge. According to Cowell, a person is 
arretted, " that is covenanted before a judge, 
and charged with a crime." See his Inter- 
preter, 1658. Rider translates it by ad rectum 
vocatus. The verb arret is used by Spenser 
in the sense to decree, to appoint. 
AREVANT. Back again. 

The meyn shalle ye nebylle. 
And I shalle syng the trebille, 
Arevant the deville, 

Tille alle this hole rowte, 

Townetey Mysteries, p. 319. 
AREVYD. Arrived. 

They arevyd at the see etronde. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 98. 

A-REW. In a row. See Spenser's Faerie Queene, 
V. xii. 29 ; Reliq. Antiq. i. 295 ; Rob.Glouc. p. 
338 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 14. 

Firste that myn ordre longeth too. 
The vicis for to telle a-retve. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 3t, 

AREWE. (1) To pity. 

Jhesu Christ a)-ew hem sore. 

Ant seidehe wolde vacche hem thore. 

Harrowing of Hell, p 15. 

(2) To make to repent ; to grieve. 

The Crystyn party become so than. 
That the fylde they myjt not wynne ; 
Alle arewyd hyt, kynge and knyght. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 91 
The furste artycul of thys gemetry :— 
The mayster mason moste be ful securly 
Bothe stedefast, trusty, and trwe, 
Hyt shal hym never thenne arewe. 

Const, of Masonry, p. 15 

AREWEN. Arrows. {A.-S.) 

Tweye bugle-homes, and a bowe also. 
And fyve arewen ek therto. 

Kvng Alitaunder, 5983^ 

AREWES. Arrows. 



ARG 



82 



ARO 



Me b.ir a bowe in his hand, 
An i manye brode arewes. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 432. 

IREYNED. An-ested. (A.-N.) 

A man they mette and hym areyned. 
To here the Crosthey hymconstreyned. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 88. 

AREYTHE. Aright. 

Anon to hem sche made complaynt. 
And tolde hem all areythe. 

Frere and the Boy, St. xxix. 
ARFE. Afraid; backward; reluctant. North. 
Sometimes arfish, in the same sense. 
Wliaugh, mother, how she rowts ! Ise varra arfe, 
Shee'l put and rive my good prunella scarfe. 

Yorkshire Dialogue, p. 35. 
ARG. (1) To argue. West. 
(2) To grumble. Sussea;. 
ARGABUSHE. A harquebuss, an old fashioned 
kind of musket. 

Then pushed souldiers with their pikes. 

And halberdes with handy strokes ; 
The argabushe in fleshe it lightes, 

And duns the ayre with misty smokes. 

Percy's Reliques,ip. 101. 

ARGAL. (1) According to Kersey, " hard lees 
sticking to the sides of wine vessels, and other- 
wise called tartar." See Argoil. 

(2) Ergo. See Hamlet, V. 1. This is merely the 
grave-digger's vulgar corruption of the Latin 
word. Argo is found in a similar manner in 
Middleton's Works, i. 392 ; Sir Thomas More, 
p. 24. 

ARGEMONE. The wild tansy. Minsheu. 

ARGENTILL. The herb percepiere. Gerard. 

ARGENTINA. The wild tansy. 

Argentina, wild tansy, growest the most in the 
fallowes in Cotes wold and North- W^ilts adjoyning, 
that I ever saw. Aubrey's Wilts, MS. Soc. Reg. p. 118. 

ARGENTINE. Silver. Minsheu gives argent, 
a substantive in the same sense. 
Celestial Dian, goddess argentine, 
I will obey thee !— Helicanus ! Pericles, v. 2. 
ARGENT-VIVE. Quicksilver. 

The manner of our work ; the bulls, our furnace. 
Still breathing fire; ouvargent-vive, the dragon. 

The Alchemist, ii. 1. 

ARGHEDE. Astonished. (A.-S.) 

That arghede alle that ther ware, 
Bothe the lesse and the mare. Sir Perceval, 69. 
ARGHNES. Sluggishness; indolence. 

The proverb is, the doumb man no land getith ; 
Who so nat spekith, and with neede is bete. 
And thurgh arghnesse his owne self forgetith. 
No wondir thogh anothir him forgete. 

Hoccleve's Poems, p. 56. 
Argneaae also me thynkth ys hard. 
Fore hit maketh a man a coward. 

MS. Bodl. 48, f. 137. 

ARGIER. Algiers. 

Pro. Thou hast: Where was she born ? speak ; tell me. 

Ari. Sir, in Argier. The Tempest, i. 2. 

ARGIN. An embankment ; a rampart. {Ital.) 
It must have high argins and cover'd ways, 
To keep the bulwark fronts from battery. 

Marlowe" a Works, i. 128. 

ARGOIL. Chaucer, Cant. T. 16281, says the 
alchemist used, among other things, 

Cley made with hors and mannes here, and oile 
Of tartre, alum, gbw, berme, wort, and argoilc. 



Tyrwhitt explains argoile, potter's clay, as th« 
French argille; Palsgrave, f. 18, has, '*argile, 
a kynde of erthe, argille," but Skinner explains 
it, " alcali seu sal kali." Ben Jonson, Al- 
chemist, i. 1, mentions, ** arsenic, vitriol, sal- 
tartar, argaile, alkali, cinoper," as the stock of 
an alchemist; and in a MS. of the fifteenth 
ctninry penes me is a receipt *' to make water 
argoile, that ys, aqua tartary," in which in- 
stances it seems to mean the tartar, or lees of 
wine, as before in argal, q. v. This also is 
clearly the meaning of argul in a very early re- 
ceipt in MS. Harl. 2253, printed in the Archaeo- 
logical Journal, i. 65, " tac argul, a thing that 
deyares deyet with, ant grint hit smal, ant 
seththe tac a wollene clout, ant couche thi 
poudre theron as brod as hit wol." Argul, or 
argal, is the name of the impure salt deposited 
from wine ; and when purified, is called bitar- 
trate of potash, or cream of tartar, a material 
still used in dyeing. Argol is mentioned in a 
list of chemical metals in Gallathea, 1632. 
ARGOLET. A light horseman. A body of them 
were called argoletiers. See Florio, in v. 
Guidone. 
Pisano, take a cornet of our horse. 
As many argolets and armed pikes, 
And with our carriage march away before 
By Scyras, and those plots of ground 
That to Moroccus leads the lower way. 

Peele's Works, ii. 95 
The which argaletier shall stand you in as great 
stead as horses of better account. 

Archceologia, xiii. 184. 

ARGOLOGY. Idle speaking. Cockeram. 

ARGOS. The small false toes at the back of the 
foot, applied to the boar, buck, and doe. 

There is no deer so jong jif he be a broket upward 
that his talon is more large and beter and more gret 
argos then hath an hynde, and comunelichelongere 
traces. Maystre of the Game, MS, 

ARGOSIES. Ships of great bm-then, either for 
merchandize or war. See Merchant of Venice, 
i. 1 ; Douce's Illustrations, i. 248. Grose says 
the word is used in the North. 
ARGOT. A corruption of argent, silver. 
Good sweet-fac'd serving man. 
Let me out, I beseech de, and, by my trot, 
I will give dy worship two shillings in good argot 
To buy dy worship pippins. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, iii. 169. 

ARGUFY. To argue. Var. dial. I beheve I 

have heard the word used in the sense of to 

signify. 
ARGUMENT. (1) Conversation. So Shakespeare 

seems to apply the word in Much Ado about 

Nothing, iii. 1. 

(2) To argue. 

Thus argumentid he in his ginning, 
Ful unavisid of his wo comming. 

TroUus and Creseid$, i. 378. 
But jit they argumenten faste 
Upon the pope and his astate. 
Whereof they falle in gret debate. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 33. 

(3) A given arch, whereby another is determined 
proportional to the first. 



I 



ARl 



ARM 



As ben his centres, and his argumentes, 
And his proportionel convenientes. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 11589. 

ARGY. An argument. Salop. Rather, perhaps, 
assertion in dispute, according to Brockett, 
who says, " the term is generally applied to a 
person who is not only contentious, but perti- 
nacious in managing an argument." 

ARICHES. The ends of joists, Howell. 

ARID. Upright ? 

Swa he met the arid and te ferd. 
That bathe thay fel ded to the herd. 

Guy of Warwick, Middlehill MS. 

ARIEREBAN. A general summons from the 
king to all his vassals to appear in arms. Skinner. 
ARIET. Harriet. North. 
ARIETE. Aries, one of the signs in the zodiac. 
See Troilus and Creseide, iv. 1592, v. 1189 ; 
Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 243. It occurs 
also as a Latin word. 

Or that Phebus entre in the signe 
With his carecte of the ariete. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 8. 
But modirworth moste gaderyd be 
Whyll the sonne is in ariete. 

Archeeologia, xxx. 372. 
ARIGHT. (1) Performed ; made ? 

Such gestenyng he aright. 
That there he dwellid alle nyjt 
With that lady gent. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 58. 
And found a purs fulle riche arighte 
With gold and perils that was i-bente. 

MS. Harl. 2252, f. 101. 

(2) Pulled? 

On a day she bad him here pappe, 

And he arighte here soo, 

He tare the oon side of here brest. 

Syr Gowghter, 129. 

ARINDRAGA. A messenger. Verstegan. 
ARIPE. A kind of bird. 

He chasid aripes, briddes of Archadie. 

MS. Digby, 230. 

ARIST. Arises. See Hartshorne's Met. Tales, 
p. 105 ; Kyng Alisaunder, 5458 ; Gower, ed. 
1532, f. 70. 

The world ariat, and falleth wlthalle. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 34. 
Foules in wode hem make blithe, 
In everich lond arist song. 

Ai'thour and Merlin, p. 

ARISTIPPUS. A kind of wine. 
O for a bowl of fat canary. 
Rich Aristippus, sparkling sherry ! 
Some nectar else from Juno's dairy ; 
O these draughts would make us merry ! 
Middleton's Works, ii 

ARISTOLOCH. The plant called round hartwort. 

See Topsell's Historic of Four-footed Beasts, 

1607, p. 345. 
ARITE. An arrest. Skinner. The word occurs 

in Troilus and Creseide, iv. 1592, for Aries. 

See Ariete. 
ARITHMANCIE. A kind of divination, the 

foretelling of future events by numbers. See 

Harrison's Description of Britaine, p. 28. 
ARIVAGE. Shore ; landing place. (J.-N.) 
There sawe I how the tempest stente. 
And how with alle pine he went, 



274. 



422. 



And privilie toke arivage 
Into the countrie of Carthage. 

House of 1fam»^ 1. iSI. 
ARIVAILE. Arrival. (^.-iV.) 

The sawe I all the arivaile 
That .^neas made in Itaile. 

House of Fame, i. 4frl* 
ARIVED. Riven ; spht asunder. 
Well evill mote thei thrive. 
And evill arived mote thei be. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1068. 
ARIZINGE. Resurrection. 

Ich y-leve ine the Holy Gost, holy cherche gene- 
ralliche, mennesse of haljen, lesnesse of zennes, of 
ulesse arizinge, and lyf evrelestinde. 

MS. Arundel 67, f. 94. 

ARK. (1) A chest. In the North of England, 
the large chests in farm houses used for keep- 
ing meat or flour are so called. They are 
usually made of oak, and are sometimes elabo- 
rately carved. From the name Arkwright, it 
would seem that the construction of them 
formerly constituted a separate trade. 
And trusse al that he mithen fynde 
Of hise, in arke or in kiste. Havelok, 2018. 

(2) Clouds running into two points, thus (). 
Essex. 

(3) A part of the circumference of a circle. {Lat.) 
The ark of his artificial day had ronne 
The fourthe part, and half an houre and more. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 4422. 

(4) An arch. 
It were the part of an idle orator to describe the 

pageants, the arkes, and other well devised honourea 
done unto her. Hayward's Annals of Qu. Eliz. p. 16 

ARLES. Money paid to bind a bargain. Dr. 
Jamieson says, " an earnest, of whatever kind; 
a pledge of full possession." Kersey gives arles- 
penny, a North country word for " earnest- 
money given to servants." It is sometimes the 
custom to give a trifle to servants when they 
were hired, as a kind of retainer. See an in- 
stance in Dr. Dee's Diary, p. 11. According 
to Pegge, to arle a bargain is to close it. See 
also Hunter's Hallamshire Glossary, p. 104 ; 
Skinner, part 3, in v. 
ARLICHE. Early. See the Sevyn Sages, 204; 
Legend of Pope Gregory, p. 13. {A.-S.) 
Gode tidinges y telle the, 
That themperour sikerliche 
Wille huntte to-morwe arliche. 
In his forest priveliche. Gy ofWarwike, p. 87. 
ARLING. ** An arling, a byrde that appeareth 
not in winter, a clotbyrde, a smatch, cceruleo." 
Baret's Alvearie, 1580. See also Muffett's 
Health's Improvement, 1655, p. 100; Florio, 
in V. Frusme. 
ARLOUP. The middle deck of a ship ; the orlop. 

So Cotgrave has the word, in v. Tillac. 
ARLY. Early. East. (A.-S.) 

And noght over arly to mete at gang, 
Ne for to sit tharat over lang. 

MS. Cott. Galba E. ix, f. 
Ich wil that ow to-morwen arly 
Mi doubter at the chirche spousy. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 

ARM. (1) To take up in the arms. So Shake- 
speare uses the word in Cymbeline, iv. 2. 



65. 



.06. 



ARM 



94 



ARM 



(2) Harm. 

So falle on the, sire emperour, 
Swich arm, and schame, and desonour, 
Yif thou do thi sone unright, 
Als to the greihound dede the knight. 

Senyn Sages, 852. 

(3) In a receipt for a dish in Warner's Antiq. 
Culin. p. 26, it is directed that " cranes and 
herons shal be armed with lardes of swyne." 
In this place the word means larded with bacon 
fat, and roasted birds when larded certainly 
may be said to be formidably armed. 

(4) Defence ; secmity ? 

Now lokith ye, for I wol have no wite 

To bring in prese, that might y-don him harme, 

Or him disesin, for my bettir arme. 

Troilun and Creseide, ii. 1650. 

ARM AN. A kind of confection, given to horses 

to create an appetite. Diet. Rust. 
ARME SIN-TAFFETA. A kind of taffata, men- 
tioned by Howell in his 25th section. 
ARMETT. A hermit. 

And this armett soyn can hym frayn 
How he had sped of hys gatt. 

MS. Seld. Arch. B. 52. 

ARMFUL. An armful of hay, according to 
Howell, is as much as can be taken in the two 
hands together. 
ARM-GAUNT. Lean; thin; very lean. So the 
first two folios read, but the correctness of it 
has been much disputed. Mason suggests 
termagaunt, a conjecture supported by Toone; 
but there is no necessity for alteration. Shake- 
speare uses arm-gaunt, as thin as an arm, in the 
same way that Chaucer writes arm-gret, q. v. 
So he nodded. 
And soberly did mount an arm-gaunt steed. 

Antony and Cleopatra, i. 5. 

ARM-GRET. As thick as a man's arm. 
A wreth of gold arm-gret, of huge weight. 
Upon his hed sate ful of stones bright. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 2147. 

ARMIGERO. An esquire. (Lat.) See the 
commencement of the Merry Wives of 
Windsor, i. 1. Teste — armigero. 
ARMINE. A beggar. {Dut.) 

Luce. O here God, so young an armine ! 
Flow. Armine, sweetheart, I know not what you 
mean by that, but I am almost a beggar. 

The London Prodigal, p. 122. 

ARMING. (1) A coat of arms. 

When the Lord Beamont, who their armings'knevf. 
Their present perill to brave Suffolke shewes. 

Drayton's Poems, p. 63. 

(2) A net hung about a ship's hull, to protect 
the men from an enemy in a fight. See Huloet's 
Abcedarium, 1552. 

ARMING-GIRDLE. A kind of sword girdle. Cf. 
Nomenclator, 1585, p. 171; Florio. in v. 
Balteo ; Cotgrave, in v. Ceincture, Balthte. 
Florio, in v. Sellme, mentions an arming-sad- 
dle, and there are also other similar com- 
pounds. See Strutt, ii. 229. 

ARMING-POINTS. Short ends of strong twine, 
•with points like laces : they were fixed princi- 
pally under the armpits and bendings of the 
arms and knees, to fasten the gussets of mail 



which defended those parts of the body other- 
wise exposed. Meyrick. 
ARMING-SWORD. A two-handed sword. See 
the Nomenclator, p. 275 ; Arch. xii. 351. 

Some had their armynge sweardes freshly bur- 
nished, and some had them conningly vernyshed. 

Hall, Hen. IV. f. 12, 
A helmett of proofe shee strait did provide, 
A strong arminge-sword shee girt by her side. 
On her hand a goodly faire gauntlett put shee ; 
Was not this a brave bonny lass, Mary Ambree ? 
Percy's Reliques, p. 144. 

ARMIPOTENT. Mighty in arms. (Lat.) 
And dounward from an hill under a bent, 
Ther stood the temple of Mars armipotent. 
Wrought all of burned stele, of which the entree 
Was longe and streite, and gastly for to see. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 1984. 

ARMITE. A helmet. {A.-N.) Palsgrave (f. 18) 

says that armet is " a heed pese of harnesse." 

On the iiij corners of the waggon were iiij. hed 

peces called armites, every pece beyng of a sundery 

device. Hall, Henry VllL f. 70. 

ARMLES. Without an arm. {A.-S.) 
And on a wall this king his eyen cast. 
And saw an hand armies, that wrote ful fast. 
For fere of whiche he quoke, and siked sore. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 14209. 

ARMLET. A bracelet ; a piece of armoiur for 
the arm. 
Not that in colour it was like thy hair. 
Armlets of that thou mayst still let me wear. 

Donne's Elegies, xii, 

ARMONY. (1) Harmony. 

And musik had, voyde of alle discord, 
Boece her clerk, withe hevenly ormowy. 
And instrumentes alle of oon accorde. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 11 
(2) Armenia. 

Shewe me the ryght path 

To the hylles of Armony. Skelton's Works, i. 58. 

ARMORIKE. Basse Bretagne in France, an- 
ciently called Britannia Armorica. 
In Armnrike, that called is Bretaigne, 
Ther was a knight, that loved and did his peine 
To serve a ladie in his beste wise. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 11041. 

ARMORWE. The morrow. 

An armorwe erliche 

Themperourarossikerliche. GyofWarwikc, p.iO. 

ARMS. The arms of a hawk are the legs from 
the thigh to the foot. See the Laws of the 
Forest and Game, 1709, p. 40. 

ARMURE. Armour. {A.-N.) See Melibeus, 
p. 114 ; Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 260. In 
the latter instance, the form of the word is 
armwrys. 

ARMYE. A naval armament. 

Whiche I thought not convcnycnt, conjecturing 
that with those streynable wyndes, the rest of 
thnrmye comyng out of Thames, and also the Mcnry, 
with the Mary Roose, sholde be in the Downes, 

State Papers, i. 701. 

ARMYLL. A bracelet ; a necklace, {Lat.) 

The king thus gird with his swerd, and standing, 
shall take urmyll of the Cardinall, saying thise words, 
accipe armillnm, anil it is to wete that armyll is matte 
in maner of a stole wovyn with gold and set with 
stones, to be putt by the Cardinall aboute the Khige* 
necke. ^ Rutland Papen p. Ii 



ARN 



85 



ARO 



A.RMYN. Ermine. " Blacke speckes lyke 
armyns*^ are mentioned in the Book of St. 
Albans, sig. A., v. See also Hall, Henry VIII. 
f. 3 ; Rutland Papers, p. 23 ; Assemble of 
Ladies, 527. 

They tokeafurre of arnii/n, 
And wrapped the chyldur theryn. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 120. 
And clad them alle in clothys of pryse, 
And furryd them with armyne. Ibid. f. 242. 

Your cote armoure of golde full fyne. 
And poudred well with good armyne. 

Squyr of Lowe Degrt, 230. 

ARMYSE. Arms. 

Torrent sayd, Be Marre dere ! 
And I were off armyse clere, 

Vowr dowghthyr me leve were. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 4. 

ARMYTE. A hermit. See Armett. Instances 
of armyte occur in Hartshorne's Met. Tales, 
p. 304 ; Le Bone Florence of Rome, 1461. 
On the morne he gane hym dy3ht 
In armytes aray. MS. AshmoleQl, f.30. 

ARMYVESTAL. Warlike. 

Thenne said Morgan, sawe ye Arthur mybroder? 
Ye, said herknyghtes, ryght wel, and that ye shold 
have foiinde and we myghte have stered from one 
stede, for by his armyvestal contenaunce he wold 
have caused us to have fled. Morte d" Arthur, i. 110. 

ARN. (1) To earn. Salop. It is also a contrac- 
tion of e'er a one in the West country dialect. 
Fore he wyll drynke more on a dey 
Than thou cane lyghtly arne in twey. 

MS. Ashmole 61, f.23. 
% To run ; to flow. {A.-S.) 
Eldol, erl of Gloucester, also in hys syde 
Arnde, and kepte her and ther, and slow a-boute wyde. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 140. 
Now rist grete tabour betyng, 
Blaweyng of pypes, and ek trumpyng, 
Stedes lepyng, and ek arnyng. 

Kyng Altsaunder, 2165. 
Anon so sein Joan this i-sei3h. 

He arnde aftur anon, 
And siwede him also stifliche 

Asehis hors mijhtegon. MS.Laud. 108, f.l73. 
(3) An eagle. {A.-S.) 

ARNALDIE. A kind of disease, mentioned by 
the early chroniclers without explanation. 
Skinner considers the word of Arabic origin, 
but see Ducange, in v. Arnaldia, who con- 
fesses its precise meaning is not known. 
ARNARY-CHEESE. Ordinary or common 

cheese made of skimmed milk. Dorset. 
ARND. An errand ; a message. See a curious 
hymn printed by Hearne, quoted in Brit. Bibl. 
ii. 81, and the Catalogue of the Douce MSS. 
p. 20, which mentions another copy, identifying 
MS. Douce 128 as the copy of Avesbury used 
by Hearne. Amt occurs in Tim Bobbin in the 
same sense. 
And sped hem into Spayne spacli in a while, 
Andtothekud king Alphouns kithed herearwd. 
Will, and the fVerwolf, p. 190. 

ARNDERN. The evening. See Aandom. 
When the sad arndern shutting in the light. 

Drayton's Owl, ed. 1748, p. 410. 

ARNE. Are. See Black's Pen., Psalms, p. 51 ; 



Hearne's Fragment, p. 298 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 

4706, 8218. 

In Brytayn this layes arne y-wrytt, 

Furst y-founde and forthey-gete. Oi'pheo, 13. 

ARNEDE. An errand. 

To his wif he went anon, 

And saide sche most on his arnede gon. 

Sevyn Sages, 1594. 
ARNEMELIT. A kind of powder. In the Book 
of St. Albans, sig. C. ii. is a direction to " fylle 
the hole wyth a powdre of arnemelit brente." 
This is probably an error for amement. See a 
similar passage in Reliq. Antiq. i. 302. 
ARNEMENT. Ink. See the Sevyn Sages, 2776 ; 
MS. Med. Lincoln, f. 285 ; MS. Sloane 258^, 
p. 29. {Lat.) 

He dud make hym a garnement, 
As black as any amement. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 139. 

ARNEMORWE. Early in the morning. {A.-S.) 
Bifor Gormoise that cite 
On arnemorwe than come we, 
With fif hundred of gode knightes. 

Gy of fVarwike, p. 184. 

ARNE ST. Earnest. See a reading in the King's 
College MS. quoted in Prompt. Parv. p. 142. 
At p. 14, it is the translation of strena, earnest 
money, hansel. 

ARNEYS. Armour. See a curious stage di- 
rection in the Coventry Mysteries, p. 283, 

ARNS. Aries, q.v. North. 

ARNT. (1) Have not ; am not. West. 

(2) An errand. North. 

ARNUT. The earth-nut, or pig-nut, frequently 
eaten by boys in the north of England, 

AROINT. A word of expulsion, or avoiding. 
Douce thinks there is no doubt that it signifies, 
away! run! and that it is of Saxon origin. 
See his Illustrations, i. 371. It occurs thrice 
in Shakespeare in this sense, Macbeth, i. 3, 
and King Lear, iii. 4, applied in each instance 
to witches. The print published by Hearne, 
referred to by the commentators, seems scarcely 
applicable. SeeArougt. The fourth folio 
reads anoint, according to Steevens, a reading 
which may perhaps be confirmed by a passage 
in Ben JonsOn's Masque of Queens : 
Sisters, stay, we want our Dame ; 
Call upon her by her name. 
And the charm we use to say. 
That she quickly anoint,, and come away. 
But as the word is spelt aroynt three times in 
the early editions, we are scarcely justified in 
proposing an alteration. Ray explains ^Wynt 
ye," by your leave, stand handsomely, and gives 
the Cheshire proverb, ^^Ryntyou, witch, quoth 
Besse Locket to her mother." This proverbial 
saying positively connects rynt with aroint^ 
and Wilbraham informs us that " rynt thee" 
is an expression used by milkmaids to a cow 
when she has been milked, to bid her to get out 
of the way, which is more likely to be correct 
than Ray's explanation. Boucher goes farther, 
and says, aroint is the word used in that county; 
but Ray's proverb is sufficient, and of good au- 
thority, because he does not appear to huve 



ARO 



86 



ARR 



had the Shakespearian word in view. The 
connexion between aroint and rynt being thus 
established, it is clear that the compound ety- 
mology proposed by Mr. Rodd, in Knight's 
Shakspere, is inadmissible. A more plausible 
one is given in Nares's Glossary, in v. from 
the Latin averrunco, the participle of which 
may have been formed into aroint, in the 
same way that punctum has become point; 
iunctum, joint, &c. See also CoUier's Shake- 
speare, vii. 103, where the same conjecture is 
revived, and attributed to a more recent writer. 
The a may have been dropped, and Mr. Wil- 
^braham's conjectural origin from arowma re- 
ceives some confirmation from a passage quoted 
in CoUier's Hist. Dram. Poet. ii. 289, where 
the form of that word is aroine ; but perhaps 
we should read arome. 
AROMAZ. A spice. " Smirles of aromaz" are 
mentioned in MS. Cott. Titus D. xviii. f. 142. 
The tother to mirre, the thridde to flour. 
The ferthe like to aromate. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 129. 

ARON. The starchwort. Minsheu. See Aaron. 
A-ROST. Roasted. 

Thenne mot ych habbe hennen a-rost, 
Feyr on fyhshe day launprey ant lax. 

Wright's Political Songs, p. 151 . 

AROUGT. This word occurs in an old print 
copied by Hearne from an ancient illumination 
representing the harrowing of hell. It means, 
probably, go out, but see Aroute. 

AROUME. Aside; at a distance. It is translated 
by remote, deprope, seorsum, in Prompt. Parv. 
p. 14. See Book of Fame, ii. 32 ; Kyng AU- 
saunder, 1637; Richard Goer de Lion, 464; 
Collier's Hist. Dram. Poet. ii. 289; Digby 
Mysteries, p. 188. {A.-S.) 

The geaunt aroume he stode. 

His hond he tint y-wis ; 
He fleighe, as he wer wode, 

Ther that the castel is. Sir Tristrem, p. 263. 
And drough hem wel fer aroume. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 214. 

And thenne shulde the lord and the mayster of the 

game, and alle the hunters, stonde aroom al aboute the 

reward, and blowe the deeth. MS. Bodl. 546. 

AROUN. Around. North. 

Ayren they leggith as a griffon, 
Ac they boon more feor aroun. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 6603. 

AROUTE. (1) To go; to move about. (Su. G.) 

Lo, seyde the emperour, 

Byhold now aboute. 
And oure Godis honure ich rede. 
Other thou shelt herto aroute, 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 
He myjte not wonne in the wones for witt that he usid. 
But a-rouutid for his ray, and rebuked ofte. 

Deposition of Richard II. p. 22. 
In all that lond no Christin durst arout, 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 53. 
(2) An assembly. Gower. 
AR0U3T. Explained. 

Here sweven bi him tolden word after word, 
Josep here sweven gone haveth arou^t. 

MS. Bodl. 652, f. 5. 

AROVE. (1) Rambling about. Craven. 



(2) Arrived. 

His navye greate with many soudyouret. 

To sayle anone into this Britayn made. 

In Thamis arove, wher he had ful sharpe shoreg. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 38. 

A-ROWE. In a row ; successively. 
Thabot present him a schip 
Ther that mani stode a-rouwe. 

Legend of Pope Gregory, p. 31. 
For thre nyjtes a-rowe he seyje that same syjt. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. 68. 

AROWZE. To bedew. {Fr.) Nares doubts the 
correctness of this explanation, and considers 
it has the usual sense of arouse. 

The blissful dew of heaven does arowze you. 

The Two Noble Kinsmen, v. 4. 

ARPEYS. A kind of resin, composed of tallow 
and tar. A mention of it occurs in an early 
English medical MS. at Stockholm. See the 
Archaeologia, xxx. 404. 
ARPIES. Harpies; furies. 

Scnde out thine arpies, send anguishe and dole. 

Chaucer, ed, Urry, p. 527. 
ARPINE. An acre. (Fr.) 

Privacy ! It shall be given him 

In open court ; I'll make him swallow it 

Before the judge's face : if he be master 

Of poor ten arpines of land forty hours longer. 

Let the world repute me an honest woman. 

JVebster's Works, ii. 82. 

ARPIT. Quick; ready. Salop. 
ARPSICORD. A harpsichord. So Cotgrave 

spells the word, in v. Harpechorde. 
ARRABLE. Horrible. 

Fendis led hir with arrable song 
Be-hynde and jeke before. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 45. 
ARRABYS. Arabian horses. 

Moyllez mylke whitte, and mervayllous bester, 
Elfaydes and arrabys, and olyfauntez noble. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, (. 77. 

ARRACIES. A term applied to the smaller animals 
of the chase, which were skinned, similarly to 
the process now used for hares and rabbits, in 
opposition to flayed. See Rehq. Antiq. i. 151-2; 
Sir H. Dryden's Twici, p. 29. 

ARRAGE. (1) Vassal service in ploughing the 
lord's land. The terms arrage and carriage 
are frequently used together, as descriptive of 
an important part of the services which, in 
feudal times, vassals owed to their lords. 

(2) To go about furiously. {A.-N.) 

I shall sende for them all that ben subgettys and 
alyed to thempyre of Rome to come to myn ayde, 
and forthwith sente old wyse knyghtes unto these 
countrayes folowynge, fyrste to ambage and arrage, 
to Alysaundrye, to Ynde, to Hermonye. 

Morte d' Arthur, \, 135. 

ARRAHIND. Around. Staff. 

ARRAIGN. To arrange. 

See them arraign'd : I will set forward straight. 

Webster's Works, ii. 261 

ARRALS. Pimples; eruptions on the skin. Cumb, 

ARRAND. An errand. Skinner. The form arrant 
is still used in the North, and is found in Mid- 
dleton's Works, v. 5. Howell, in his collection 
of EngHsh Proverbs, p. 2, gives the following: 
" One of the four and twenty qualities of a 
knave is to stay long at his arrand,** 



ARR 



87 



ARR 



A.RRANT. Malory, in his Morte d' Arthur, i. 
199, &c. apphes this word to knights, where 
we say errant. The term is generally apphed 
to any thing or person extremely objectionable 
and worthless, and was probably derived from 
the licentious character of wanderers in general. 

ARRA-ONE. Ever a one. Wilts. 

ARRAS. (1) A superior kind of tapestry, so 
named from Arras, the capital of Artois in the 
French Netherlands, which was celebrated for 
its manufacture. In the rooms of old houses 
hung with arras, there were generally large 
spaces between the hangings and the walls, and 
these were frequently made hiding places in 
the old plays. Falstaff proposes to hide him- 
self behind the arras at Windsor; and Polonius 
is killed behind the arras in Hamlet, iii. 3. 
See the Unton Inventories, ed. J. G. Nichols, 
gloss, in V. Aryste. Falstaff, no moderate size, 
sleeps behind the arras in 1 Henry IV. ii. 4, 
where Dr. Johnson thinks Shakespeare has 
outstepped probability, but Malone has dis- 
tinctly proved the contrary. See his Shake- 
speare, xvi. 299. 

(2) A kind of powder, probably made of the root 
of the orris. See Gerard, p. 48. " Halfe 
an ounce of arras" is mentioned by Harrison, 
Descr. of England, p. 170, as a material used 
in brewing, and Webster twice mentions arras- 
powder as having been sprinkled on the hair. 
See Webster's Works, i. 133; Markham's Engl. 
Houswife, 1649, p. 150. 

ARRAUGHT. Reached; seized by violence. 
We have already had araught and areche, but 
this form is quoted as used by Spenser, and 
admitted by Nares, who was not aware of any 
example of the verb in the present tense. 

ARRAWIGGLE. An earwig. Suffolk. " Arwygyll 
worme" occurs in the Prompt. Parv. trans- 
lated by aurialis. 

ARRAYERS. Those officers that had the care 
of the soldiers' armour. Rider. 

ARRE. (1) To snarl. 

They arre and bark at night against the moon. 
For fetching in fresh tides to cleanse the streets. 
Summer's Last Will and Testament, p. 3?. 

(2) The letter R. 

There was an V. and thre arres to-gydre in a sute. 
With letters other, of whiche I shal reherse. 

Archceolngia, xxix. 331. 

ARRECT. (1) To impute. (Lat.) 

Therfore he arrecteth no blame of theyr dedes 

unto them. Sir Thomas Morels Workes, p. 271. 

That this passe you not undirected, as we truste 

you, and as we have no cause t'an-ecte or ascribe 

any default unto you hereafter. 

Davies's York Records, p. 252. 

(2) To offer ; to refer. 

Arrectinge unto your wyse examinacion 
How all that I do is under refformation. 

Skelton's Works, i. 378. 

(3) To direct. 

Jrectyng my syght towarde the zodyake. 
The sygnes xii. for to beholde a-farre. 

Skelton's Works, i. 361. 
ARREDY. To make ready. 

And so foithewith they sent al about in Somar- 



setshere, Dorsetsliire, and parte of Wiltshere for to 
arredy and arays the people by a certayne day. 

Arrival of King Edward IV. t^. 23. 
Desiryng and pray you to dispose and arredie you 
to accompayneye us thedir, with as many per- 
sones defensabyly arrayede as ye can make. 

MS. Ashmole, 1160. 

ARREED. This word is explained award, and 
Milton referred to as the authority, in Glosso- 
graphia Anglicana Nova, ed. 1719, in v. 
ARREISE. To raise. See Araise. 

They beyng advertised, arreised a greate power of 
xiii. m. and came to the passage, and slewe of the 
Frenchemen vj. c. Hall, Henry VIII. f. 112. 

Soone over al this tithing ras. 
That Lazar thus areysed was. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 89. 

ARRERE-SUPPER. A rere-supper ; a collation 
served up in the bedroom, after the first supper. 
See Holinshed, Hist. Scot. f. 208, as quoted by 
Boucher, in v. Arrear. 
ARRIDE. To please. {Lat.) 

If her condition answer but her feature, 

I am fitted. Her form answers my affection ; 

It arrides me exceedingly. I'll speak to her. 

T/ie Antiquary, ii. 1. 

ARRIDGE. The edge of anything that is liable 
to hurt or cause an ar, q. v. North. See A 
Guide to the Lakes, ed. 1784, p. 300. With 
this may be connected arris, ** the line of con- 
course, edge, or meeting of two surfaces." See 
Britton's Arch. Diet, in v. 

ARRIERE. The hinder part. (Fr.) This foreign 
word was formerly in use as a miUtary term, 
instead of rear. See Johnson in v. 

ARRISHES. According to Marshall's Rural 
(Economy, i. 171, this is the Devonshire term 
for stubbles or eddish ; arrish mows, which he 
mentions as little stacks set up in a field, seem 
to be so called merely from their being in the 
arrish, or stubble-field. 

ARRIVALL. A rival ? 

On a day he saw a goodly young elephant ia copu- 
lation with another, and instantly a third aproched 
with a direfull braying, as if he would have eaten up 
al the company, and, as it afterward appeared, he 
was an arrivall to the female which we saw in copu- 
lation with the other male. 

Topsell'a Four-footed BeastSt 1607, p. 197. 

ARRIVANCE. The arrival of company. 
For every minute is expectancy 
Of more an-ivance. Othello, ih h 

ARRIVE. (1) To arrive at. 

But ere we could a7~>ive the point propos'd, 
Caesar cried. Help me, Cassius, or I sink. 

Julius Caesar, i. 2. 

(2) An arrival. 

Whose forests, hills, and floods, then long for her arrive 

From Lancashire. Drayton's Polyolbion, p. 1192. 

ARRODE. Herod. In the account of the Co- 
ventry Pageants, 1489, is a payment for " a 
gowen to Arrode." See Sharp's Diss, on the 
Coventry Myst. p. 28. 
ARROGATION. Arrogance. More, 
ARRONLY. Exceedingly. Lane. 
ARROS. Arrows. 

The first of arros that the shote off. 
Seven skore spear-men the sloughe. 

Percy's Rsliqttes, p. & 



ARS 



88 



ARROSE. This is the reading in one edition of 
Hardyng's Chronicle, where the others read 
arove, q, v. 
ARROW. Fearful. Rider. 
ARROW-HEAD. A kind of aquatic plant. 

SAinner. 
ARROW-HEADERS. The making of arrow- 
heads formerly constituted a separate trade. 
Lanterners, stryngers,grynders, 
Arowe-heders, maltemen, and corne-mongers. 

Cocke Lorelles Bote, p. 10. 

ARROWRE. An error. 

This arrowre had he in hys thoght. 
And in hys thoght a slepe hym toke. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 240. 
ARROWY. Abounding in arrows. Milton, Para- 
dise Regained, b. iii. has " sharp sleet of arrowy 
shower," which is apparently plagiarised by 
Gray in the following passage. 

Now the storm begins to lower. 

Haste, the loom of hell prepare ! 
Iron sleet of arrowy shower 
Hurtles in the darken'd air. 

Gray's Fatal Sinters. 
ARRWUS. Arrows. This form of the word 
occurs in a strange burlesque printed in ReUq. 
Antiq. i. 82. 
ARRY. Any. Somerset. 
ARRYN. To seize. 

And the Jewys xul crye for joy with a gret voys, 
and arry7i hym, and pullyn of his clothis, and byndyn 
hym to a pelere, and skorgyn hym. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 316. 

ARS. Art ; science. This word was usually em- 
ployed to signify the occult sciences. {Lot.) 
Barounes weore whilem wys and gode. 
That this ars wel undurstode : 
Ac on ther was, Neptanamous, 
Wis in this ars, and malicious. 

Kyng Alisaundevy 72. 

ARSARD. Unwilling ; perverse. Var. dial. It 
is sometimes pronounced arset. 

ARSBAWST. A fall on the back. Staff. 

ARSBOORD. The hinder board of a cart. Staff. 

ARSEDINE. A kind of ornamental tinsel some- 
times called assady, or orsady, which last is 
probably the correct word. Ben Jonson men- 
tions it in his Bartholomew Fair, ii. 1. See 
also Sharp's Diss, on Gov. Myst. p, 29 ; Cun- 
ningham's Revels' Accounts, pp. 33, 57. See 
Assidue. Giflfbrd considers it to be a vulgar 
corruption of arsenic, iv. 405. 

ARSELING-POLE. The pole with which bakers 
spread the hot embers to all parts of the oven. 
East. 

ARSELINS. Backwards. Norfolk. 

ARSENICK. The water-pepper. The herb is 
mentioned under this name in the Nomencla- 
tor, 1585, p. 126. It is to be distinguished 
from the mineral poison of the same name. 

ARSEPUSH. A faU on the back. Howell. 

ARSE SMART. The periscaria. It is called the 
water-pepper by Kersey, and is the translation 
of curage in Hollyband's Dictionarie, 1593. 
Coles, in his Art of Simpling, says, ** It is said 
that '■*^ a handf ull of arsmart be put under the 



saddle upon a tired horse's back, it will make 
him travaile fresh and lustily." See Brand's 
Pop. Antiq. iii. 165 ; Aubrey's Nat. Hist. W^ilts. 
MS. Soc. Reg. p. 139. 

ARSEVERSE. According to Blount's Glosso- 
graphia, ed. 1681, p. 51, this word is " a pre- 
tended spell, written upon the door of an house 
to keep it from burning." 

ARSEWISPE. Rider gives this word, which 
scarcely requires explanation, as the transla- 
tion of the Latin anitergium. 

ARSLE. To move backwards ; to fidget. East, 
Cotton, in his Virgil Travestie, ed. 1734, p. 5, 
has arsing about, turning round. 

ARSMETRIK. Arithmetic. {Lat.) 

Arsmetrik is lore 

That al of figures is. MS. Ashmole 43, f. 180. 
And arsmetryk, be castyng of nombrary, 
Chees Pyktegoras for her parte. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 11> 

ARSOUN. The bow of a saddle. (^.-iV:) It is 
sometimes used for the saddle itself. Each sad- 
dle had two arsouns, one in front, the other 
behind ; the former called the fore-arsoun, as 
in Richard Coer de Lion, 5053. In the same 
romance, 5539, speaking of King Richard, we 
are told that "both hys arsouns weren off 
yren." In Kyng AHsaunder, 4251, it appar- 
ently means the saddle. 

And the arson behynde, as y yow say, ' 
Syr Befyse smote clene away. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. 11. 38, f. 123. 
On ys stede ful the dent, 

Byside the /or-arsoun. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 44. 
ARST. First; erst. 

Tho was made frenshepe ther arst was debate. ' 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 87. 
As thou haste seyde, so schalle hyt bee, 
Arste y schalle not blynne. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 72. 

ARS-TABLE. A table used in magic, probably 
the same as the astrolabe. 

His ars-<a6/e he tok out sone. 
Theo cours he tok of sonne and mon», 
Theo cours of the planetis seven. 
He tolde also undur heven. 

Kyng AHsaunder, 28/. 

ARSTON. A hearth-stone. Yorksh. 

ARSY-VERSY. Upside down; preposterously. 

It is translated propositus by Rider, and the 

second meaning is given by Kersey. See Hu- 

dibras, I. iii. 828 ; Drayton's Poems, p. 272. 

ART. (1) A quarter; a point of the compass. 

North. 
(2) Eight. Exmoor. 

ARTE. To constrain ; to compel. {Lat.) See 
Prompt. Parv. p. 14 ; Troilus and Creseide, 
i. 389 ; Court of Love, 46 ; Hoccleve's Poems, 
p.7L 

In no wise I may mebettur excuse. 

Than sey my witt, so dul and unperfite, 

Artith me thus rudely for tendite. MS. Rawl. C. 4& 

A tlraunt wolde have artid him by paynes, 

A certeyne counsel to bewrey and telle. 

Boetius, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 296. 

We spekke nojte mekille, bot whene we ere 

artede for to speke, we say nojte bot the sothe, and 

onane we halde us stille. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17> f'Sl 



ART 



89 



ARV 



ARTEEN. Eighteen. Exmoor. 
A.RTELRIES. Artillery. {A.-N.) 

I shal warnestore min hous with toures, swiche 
as han castelles and other manere edifices, and 
armure, and artelriet, by which thinges I may my 
persone and myn hous so kepen and defenden, that 
min enemies shuln ben in drede min hous for to ap- 
proche. Tale of MeHbeus,Tp.l\Z. 

ARTEMAGE. The art of magic. {A.-N.) 
And through the crafte of artemage, 
Of wexe he forged an ymage. 

Gower, ed. 1532, f. 138. 
ARTER. After. Var. dial. 
ARTETYKES. A kind of gout or disease affect- 
ing the joints. Maundevile mentions, "gowtes, 
artetykes," that afflicted him in his old age. 
See his Travels, p. 315. A prescription for it 
in hawks is given in the Book of St. Albans, 
sig. C. i. It is probably connected with 
arthritis. See Arcetik. 
ARTHOFILAXE. The arctic circle. 

The whiche sercle and constsllacioun 
I-called is the cercle arthofilaxe ; 
Who knowith it nedith no more to axe. 

MS. Digby 230. 

ARTH-STAFF. A poker used by blacksmiths. 
Salop. 

ARTHUR. A game at sea, which vdll be found 
described in Grose's Class. Diet. Vulg. T. in v. 
It is alluded to in the novel of Peregrine 
Pickle, ch. 16. 

ARTHUR'S-CHACE. A kennel of black dogs, 
followed by unknown huntsmen, which were 
formerly beheved to perform their nocturnal 
gambols in France. See Grey's Notes on 
Shakespeare, i. 34. 

ARTHUR'S-SHOW. An exhibition of archery 
alluded to in 2 Henry IV. iii. 2. It was con- 
ducted by a society who had assumed the arms 
and names of the Knights of the Round Table. 
See Donee's Illustrations, i. 461. 

ARTICLE. Comprehension. Shakespeare men- 
tions " a soul of great article" in Hamlet, v. 2. 
The vulgar sense is apphed to a poor creature, 
or a wretched animal. This latter appears 
rather slang than provincial, yet it is admitted 
into the East Anglian Vocabulary. 

ARTICULATE. To exhibit in articles. See this 
use of the word in Coriolanus, i. 9, where it 
means to enter into articles of agreement. 
To end those things articulated here 
By our great lord, the mighty king of Spain, 
We with our council will deliberate. 

Hawkins' Engl. Dram. ii. 48. 

ARTICULES. Any multiples of ten, a division 
which was formerly considered necessary in 
arithmetic, and was probably the result of the 
abacal system, a gradual improvement of the 
Boetian notation. SeeRara Mathematica,p. 30. 
ARTIER. Artery. {Fr.) See the Shakespeare 
Society's Papers, i 19. 

May never spirit, vein, or artier, feed 
The cursed substance of that cruel heart ! 

Mai-lowe's Works, i. 150. 

ARTIFICIAL. Ingenious ; artful. 
We, Hermia, like two artificial gods, 
riave with our needles created both one flower. 

J Midi. Night't Dream, iii. 2. 



ARTILLERY. This word is often applied to all 
kinds of missile weapons. See 1 Samuel. 
XX. 40. 

ARTILLERY-GARDEN. A place near Bishops- 
gate, where people practised shooting, &c. 
See Middleton's "Works, iv. 424, v. 283. 

ARTNOON. Afternoon. Essea;. 

ART-OF-MEMORY. An old game at cards, de- 
scribed in the Compleat Gamester, ed. 1709, 
p. 101. 

ARTOW. Art thou. North. This is a correct 
early form, the second personal pronoun being 
frequently combined with the verb in interro- 
gative sentences. See Will, and the Werwolf, 
pp. 46, 185 ; Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 51. 

ARTRY. At p. 284 of the following work, men- 
tion is made of " al myn armery and attry 
hoole." 

Also y wol that my son Sir Harry have all the 
residew of my warderobe and of myn arras nat be- 
quethen, and all myn armery and all my artry. 

Nichols' Royal Wills, p. 288. 

ARTS-MAN. A man of art. This seems to be 
the meaning in Love's Labours Lost, v. 1. The 
old editions read arts-man preamiulat, which 
had better remain without alteration. 
ARTYLLED. Declared ; set out in articles. See 
Hartshorne's Met. Tales, p. 250, where it may 
perhaps be an error for artykilled. 
ARUDAND. Riding. See Gy of Warwike, 
p. 77, amend? 

Abothe half his hors he hing. 

That ernne forth arudand in that thring. 

Artliour and Merlin, p. 222. 

A knight com aruand [arnand ?] with gret reve, 

Y-armed in armes alle. Ibid. p. 310. 

ARUEMORWE. Early in the morning. {A.-S.) 

See Arthour and MerUn, p. 178, but the proper 

form, I beheve, is arnemorwe, q. v. 

ARUM. An arm. 

And he haves on thoru his arum, 
Therof is ful mikel harum. Havelok, 1982. 

ARUNDE. An errand. 

And thy moder, Mary, hevyn qwene, 
Bere our arunde so bytwene. 

That semely ys of syght. Emare, 8* 

ARUWE. An arrow. 

Ac an aruwe oway he bare 
In his eld wounde. Sir Tristrem, p. 304. 

ARVAL. A^funeral. North. Arval-supper is 
a funeral feast given to the friends of the de- 
ceased, at which a particular kind of loaf, 
called arval-bread^ is sometimes distributed 
among the poor. Arvel-bread is a coarse 
cake, composed of flour, water, yeast, eurrants, 
and some kind of spice ; in form round, about 
eight inches in diameter, and the upper sur- 
face always scored, perhaps exhibiting origi- 
nally the sign of the cross. Not many years 
since one of these arvals was celebrated in a 
village in Yorkshire at a pubhc-house, the sign 
of which was the family arms of a nobleman 
whose motto is. Virtus post funera vivit. The 
undertaker, who, though a clerk, was no scho- 
lar, requested a gentleman present to explain 
to him the meaning of these Latin words. 



ARY 



90 



ASC 



which he readily and facetiously did in the 
following manner: Virtus, a parish clerk, 
vivit, lives well, post funera, at an arval ! See 
Douce's Illustrations, ii. 203. 
ARVYST-GOS. A stubble goose. 

A yong wyf and an urvyst-gos^ 

Moche gagil with bothe : 
A man that [hath] ham yn his clos, 

Reste schal he wrothe. Keliq. Antiq. ii. 113. 
ARWE. (1) An arrow. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 48. 
That wel kepen that castel 
— , From arwe, shet, and quarel. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Cull. Trin. Cantab, f. 63. 
Wepens of arwes tegh of men sones, 
\ And thar tung sharpe swerde in wones. 

MS. Bodl. 425, f. 27- 
For some that jede yn the strete, 
: Sawe arwys fro hevene shete. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 10. 

(2) Timid; fearful. See Rob. Glouc. p. 457, 
" his hert arwe as an hare," erroneously ex- 
plained swift. Mr. Way refers to an instance 
in Richard Goer de Lion, 3821, but Weber 
has arranged the line diflFerently in his 
glossary. 

Thou saist soth, hardy and hard. 

And thou art as arwe coward ! 

He is the furste in eche bataile ; 

Thou art byhynde ay at the taile. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 3340. 

ARWEBLAST. A crossbow. We have already had 
this word, in v. Alblast, and Arblast. For this 
form of it, see Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 217 ; 
EUis's Metrical Rom. ii. 255 ; Richard Goer de 
Lion, 2637, 3851, 3970, 4453,4481, 5867; 
spelt arrowblaste, &c. 

The galeye wente alsoo faste 
As quarrel dos off the arweblast. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 2524. 

ARWEL This word is translated by destoraunt, 
in an early Anglo-Norman gloss, printed in 
Reliq. Antiq. ii. 81. 
ARWE-MEN. Bowmen. 

He calde bothe arwe-men and kene 
Knithes, and serganz swithe sleie. 

Havelok, 2115. 

ARYNE. Are. _ 

For alle the sorowe that we aryne inne. 
It es ilke dele for oure syne. 

Sir Isumbras, MS. Lincoln, 114. 

ARYOLES. Soothsayers ; diviners. (Lat.) 

Aryoles, nygromancers, brought theym to the 
auctors of ther God Phoebus, and offred theym ther, 
and than they hadde answeres. Barthol, Angl.Trevisa. 
ARYSE. Arisen. 

Ryght as he was aryse. 

Of his woundyn he was agrise. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 3748. 

ARYSTE. Arras. See the Unton Inventories, 

p. 5, " iij. peeces of aryste." 
ARYSY. ^teAvarysy. 
ARYVEN. Arrived. 

W^yndes and weders hathe hir dryven. 
That in a forest she is aryven. 
Where wylde bestyt were. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 114. 



AR3ES. Is fearful. (A.-S.) 

A ! Avec, quod the qwene, me av^es of myselfe. 

3/a. Ashmole 44, f. 9. 
AS. (1) That ; which. Var. dial. In the Eastern 
counties it is sometimes used for who, and it is 
frequently redundant, as " He will come as to- 
morrow." 
(2) Has. 

That hol^ cherche a* bound me to> 
Grawnt me grace that fore to do. 

Audelay^s "Poems, p. 57* 
A-SAD. Sad ; sorrowful. 

SeJde wes he glad, 
That never nes a-sad 
Of nythe ant of onde. 

Wrighfs Pol. Songs, p. 212, 
Y dude as hue me bad. 
Of me hue is a-sad, Reliq. Antiq. i. 122. 
ASAILED. Sailed. 

Jhon Veere, Erie of Oxenforde, that withdrewe hym 
frome Barnet felde, and rode into Scottlondo, and 
frome thens into Fraunce asailed, and ther he was 
worschipfully received. 

Warkworth*s Chronicle, p. 26. 

ASALY. To assault ; to besiege. 

Hii bygonne an holy Thores eve then toun u$aly 

there 
Stalwardlyche and vaste y-nou, noblemen as yt 

were. Rob. Glouc. p. 394. 

AS-ARMES. To arms! (A.-N.) 
As armes ! thanne cride Rolond, 
As armes ! everechon ! MS. Ashmole 33, f. 38. 
As armes! feren, nede it is. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 261. 

ASAUGHT. An assault. Wickliffe. 

Kyng Wyllam wende ajen, tho al thys was y-do. 
And bygan sone to grony and to febly al so, 
Vor travayl of the foul asa^t, and vor he was feble er. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 380. 

ASBATE. A purchase. Skinner asserts that he 
had only once met with this word ; he does not 
give a reference, and believes it to be a mis- 
take for ashate, q. v. It is perhaps to be found 
in some editions of Chaucer. 

AS-BUIRD. Ashes board ; a box in which ashes 
are carried. North. 

ASCANCE. Obliquely. 

At this question Rosader, turning his head ascance, 
and bending his browes as if anger there had ploughed 
the furrowes of her wrath, with his eyes full of fire, 
hee made this replie. 

Eupltues Golden Legacie, ap. Collier, p. 15. 

ASCAPART. The name of a giant whom Bevis 
of Hampton conquered, according to the old 
romance. His effigy may be seen on the city 
gates of Southampton. He is said to have been 
thirty feet long, and to have carried Sir Be^^s, 
his wife, and horse, under his arm. Allusions 
to him occur in Shakespeare, Drayton, and 
other Elizabethan writers. 
AS CAPE. To escape. Sometimes aschape. See 
Kyng Ahsaunder, 1120; Gy of Warwike, p. 
230 ; Piers Ploughman, pp. 40, 121. 
I hope thorw Codes helpe and thyne. 
We schulle ascape al oure pyne. 

3IS. Addit. 10036, f. 10. 
Whenne the emperoure sawe him, he yaf to him 
his dowter to wyfe, be-caiise that he hade so wyseJy 
ascapide the peril of the gardine. 

Gesta Romanorum, p. lOS 



ASC 



91 



ASE 



Ich trouue he woUe me for-sape ; 
Hou troustu, Nelde, ich moue ascape ? 

MS. Digby 86, f. 167. 
I kan bi no coyntyse knowe nouj the best 
How je mowe unhent or harmles aschape. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 61. 
Than shulde they do ryjt penaunce 
For to askape thys myschaunce. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 45. 

ASCAR. An asker ; a person who asks. 

After the wickydnes of the ascar schal be the 
wickidnes of the prophet ; and I schal streke out 
my hand on him, and do him a-wey fro the middis 
of mi peple. Apology for the Lollards, p. 69. 

AS CAT. Broken like an egg. Somerset, 
ASCAUNCE. This is interpreted aslant, side- 
ways, in the glossaries, but Tyrwhitt justly 
doubts its application in all the following pas- 
sages. Ascaunt, however, occurs in the early 
quarto editions of Hamlet, iv. 7, where the 
folio of 1623, reads aslant. See also Troilus 
and Creseide, i. 292. It apparently means 
scarcely, as if to say, as if; and is perhaps 
sometimes an expletive. It seems, however, 
to mean aslant in Troilus and Creseide, i. 205 ; 
La Belle Dame sans Mercy, 604. 

And wrote alway the names, as he stood. 
Of alle folk that yave hem any good, 
Askaunce that he wolde for hem preye. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 7327- 
And every man that hath ought in his cofre. 
Let him appere, and wex a philosophre, 
Aacaunce that craft is so light to lere. Ihid. 16306. 
Askauns she may nat to the lettres sey nay. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 35. 
And soo the kynges aataunce came to sir Tristram 
to comforte hym as he laye seke in his bedde. 

Morte d' Arthur, i. 268. 

ASCENDANT. A term in judicial astrology, 
denoting that degree of the echptic which is 
rising in the eastern part of the horizon at the 
time of any person's birth, and supposed to 
exercise great influence over his fortune. It 
is now used metaphorically. 
ASCENT. Agreement. 

The number was, be ryght ascent, 
OS hors-men an hundryd thousent. 

Richard Coer de lAon, 3921. 

ASCH-CAKE. Bread baked under ashes. See 
MS. Bibl. Reg. 12 B. i, f. 32 ; andtheNomen- 
clator, 1585, p. 84. 

ASCHE. To ask. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 16. 

The kyng of Ysraelle that lady can asche, 
Yf sche myght the see ovyr-passe. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 69. 
We do na synnes, ne we wllle hafe na mare thane 
resoneof kynde asches. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 32. 
ASCHES. Ashes. 

Who so coverethe the coles of that wode undir the 
asachea there-oife, the coles wil duellen and abyden 
alle quyk a 3ere or more. 

Maundevile's Travels, p. 289. 
ASCHONNE. To shun ; to avoid. 
They my5te not aschonne the sorowe they had served. 
Deposition of Richard II. p. 14. 

ASCIETH. Enquireth after ; seeketh. 

For he knoweth wel and wot wel that he doith yvel, 
•nd therfore man ascieth and hunteth and sleeth hym, 
and jit for al that, he may not leve his yvel nature. 

MS. Bodl. 54«. 



ASCILL. Vinegar. 

Ascill and gall to his dynere 
I made them for to dighte. Cheater Ptaya, ii. 75. 
AS CITE. To call ; to summon. See Wright's 
Monastic Lett. p. 78 ; Halle's Expost. p. 14. 

Hun answered that the infant had no propertie in 
the ihet, wherupon the priest ascited him in the 
spiritual courte. Hall, Henry VIIL f. 60. 

ASCLANDERD. Slandered. 

But for his moder no schuld asclanderd be. 
That hye with childe unwedded were. 

Joachim and Anne, p. 149 

ASCON. To ask. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 89. 
Tundale he went upon a day 
To a mon, to ascon his pay 

For thre horsis that he had sold. Tundale, p. 3. 
ASCRIDE. Across; astride. Somerset. Some- 
times written askred and asJcrod. 
ASCRY. To cry ; to report ; to proclaim. Hence, 
to betray, as in Ywaine and Gawin, 584. 
Hearne, gloss, to Peter Langtoft, p. 217, ex- 
plains it ** to cry to," an interpretation adopted 
in the Towneley Mysteries, p. 193. It means 
there to assail with a shout, as Mr. Dyce ob- 
serves, notes to Skelton, p. 152. Palsgrave 
has it in the sense to descry, to discover. 
Bot sone when he herd a&cry 
That king Edward was nere tharby. 
Than durst he noght cum nere. 

Minot's Poems, p. 14. 
Writ how muche was his myschief. 
Whan they ascryedon hym as a thef. 

MS. Addit. U307, f. 59. 

ASCRYVE. To ascribe ; to impute. Palsgrave. 

ASE. (1) Ashes. North, 

(2) As. 

The kyng hathe a dowghttyr feyer ase flowyr, 
Dyscenyr wase her name. Torrent of Portugal, p. 2. 

ASELE. To seal. See Piers Ploughman, p. 511; 
Rob. Glouc. p. 510. The proclamation of the 
Mayor of Norwich in 1424 directed "that all 
brewsters and gannokers selle a gallon ale of 
the best, be measure a-selyd." See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 186. It seems there to have the mean- 
ing of established, confirmed. 

Thatothir the abbot off Seynt Albon, 
That brought hym lettres speciele, 
Aselyd with the barouns sele. 
That tolden hym, hys brothir Jhon 
Wolde do corowne hym anon. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 6472. 

ASELY. To assoil, give absolution, which was 
usually done before a fight. Mr. Stevenson 
explains it, to receive the sacrament, in which 
case it may be only another form of hosely, q. v. 
The Normans ne dude no3t so, ac hii cryde on God 
vaste, y-laste. 

And ssryve hem ech after other, the wule the nyjt 
And amorwe hem lete aaely wyth mylde herte y-nou. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 360. 

ASEMBLEDEN. Assembled. 

And either ost as swithe fast ascried other. 

And aaembleden swithe sternli either ost to-gader. 

Will, and the Werwolf p. 137. 

ASEMYS. In the Prompt. Parv. p. 289, this 
is the synonyme of laatyne huly, indignor. 

ASENE. Seen. See Chronicle of England, 44 ; 
Tundale's Visions, p. 51 ; Kyng Alisaunder, 
847 ; Reliq. Antiq. i. 109. 



ASH 



92 



ASI 



ASERE. To become dry. See the Sevyn Sages, 
606. Mr. Stevenson derives it from the verb 
to sear. 
ASERRE. Azure. 

He bare aserre a grype of golde, 
Rychely beton on the molde. 

MS. Cantab, Ff. ii. 38, f. 69. 

ASERVED. Deserved. 

Lord, he seide, Jhesu Crist, 
Ich thonky the wel faste 
That ich it have aserved 
In atte the 3atis to wende. 

MS. Coll. Trin, Oxon. 57. 
And thou sorewe that thou aserved hast. 
And elles it were wouj. MS. Laud. 108, f. 2. 
ASERVI. To serve. 

His heorte him jaf for to wende 
In-to a prive stude and stille, 
Thare he mi5te beo alone 
To aaervi Codes wille. 

3IS. Laud. 108, f. 104. 

ASESSE. To cause to cease ; to stop. 

Into Yngelond thenne wolde be. 
And asesae the werre anon 
Betwyxe hym and hys brother Jhnn. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 6311. 

ASETH. Satisfaction or amends for an injury. 

See Prompt. Parv. p. 182 ; Gesta Romanorum, 

pp. 275, 460 ; WickUfFe's New Test. p. 53. 

We may not be assayled of tho trespas, 

Bot if we make aseth in that at we may. 

MS. Hart. 1022, f. 68. 
Here byfore he myghte ethe 
Sone hafe mad me asethe. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 132. 
It was likyng to jow, Fadire, for tosende me into 
this werlde that I sulde make asethe for mans tres- 
pas that he did to us. Ibid. f. 179. 
ASEWRE. Azure. 

At the brygge ends stondyth a towre, 
Peyntyd wyth golde and asewre. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 105. 

ASEWRYD. Assured ; promised. 

But y take more then y was asewryd, 
Y may not have where nojte ys levyd, 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 28. 

ASEYNT. Lost. {A.-S.) 

Al here atyl and tresour was al-so aseynt. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 51. 

AS-FAST. Anon; immediately. Cf. Prompt. 

Parv. p. 15 ; Troilus and Creseide, v. 1640. 
ASGAL. A newt. Salop. 
ASH. (1) Stubble. South. Walter de Bibbles- 
worth, MS. Arund. 220, f. 301, has " le tressel, 
aschc of corn." 
(2) To ask. Lane. See Asche. 
ASHATE. See Asbafe. It is so written in Urry's 
Chaucer, p. 5, where Tyrwhitt's edition reads 
achate. 
ASH-BIN. A receptacle for ashes and other dirt. 

Line. 
ASH-CANDLES. The seed vessels of the ash 

tree. Dorset. 
ASHELT. Likely ; probably ; perhaps. North. 
ASHEN. Ashes. North. 

Therwith the fire of jalousie up sterte 
Within his brest, and hent him by the herte 
So woodly, that he like was to behold 
The box-tree, or the ashen ded and cold. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 1304. 



ASHERLAND. According to Kennett, MS. 

Lansd. 1033, " assarts, or woodland grub'd 

and ploughed up." North. 
ASH-HEAPS. A method of divination. 

Of ash-heapes, in the which ye use 
Husbands and wives by streakes to chuse ; 
Of crackling laurell, which fore-sounds 
A plentious harvest to your grounds. 

Herrick't Works, i. 176. 

ASHIED. Made white, as with wood ashes. 
Old Winter, clad in high furres, showers of raine. 
Appearing in his eyes, who still doth goe 
In a rug gowne, ashied with flakes of snow. 

Hcywood's Marriage Triumphe, 1613. 
ASHISH. Sideways. Somerset. 
ASH-KEYS. The fruit of the ash. The failure 
of a crop of ash-keys is said in some counties 
to portend a death in the royal family. See 
Forby, ii. 406. 
ASHLAR. Hewnorsquared stone, ready for build- 
ing. See Britton's Arch. Diet, in v. " Slophus, 
aseheler;' MS. Bodl. 837, f. 134. Cf. Cotgrave, 
in V. Attendans, Bouttiee. Grose gives the 
word as peculiar to Cumberland, and signifying 
" a large free stone," and according to some, 
it is or was common among builders to denote 
free-stones as they come from the quarry. The 
term is still in common use. In the inden- 
ture for the construction of the dormitory at 
Durham, 1398, the mason engages that a cer- 
tain wall shall be " exterius de puro lapide 
vocato aehiler plane inscisso, interius vero de 
fracto lapide vocato roghwall." See Willis's 
Architectural Nomenclature, p. 25. 
ASHORE. Aside. West. It is used in the same i 
sense as ajar, applied to a door. Weber is in i 
doubt about its meaning in the following pas- 
sage, but the word is common in the West of 
England, although it does not appear to have 
found a place in the glossaries. 
Ever after the dogges wer so starke, 
Thei stode aschore when thei schuld barke. 

Hunttrrng of the Hare, 257. 

ASH-PAN. A metal pan fitted to the under part 
of the grate, into which the ashes fall from the 
fire. Line. 
ASH-TRUG. A coal-scuttle. North. 
ASHUNCHE. To repent ? 

Mid shupping ne mey hit me ashnnche, 

Nes y never wycehe ne wyle ; 
Ych am a maide, that me of-thunche, 
Luef me were gome boute gyle. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 38. 

ASH-WEDNESDAY. The first day of Lent, so 
called from the ancient ceremony of the placing 
of ashes on the heads of persons on that day 
by the priest, who said, " Remember, man, 
that thou art ashes, and unto ashes thou shalt 
return." This ceremony was abolished early 
in the reign of Edward VI. See Becon's 
Works, p. 110. 

ASIDEN. On one side ; oblique ; aslant. We^f. 
Rider has asidenam in his Dictionarie, 1640, 
in the same sense. 

ASILE. An asylum. 

Fly unto prayer as unto an holy anchor, or sur* 
asile, and strong bulwark. Becon's Works, p. 1^ 



ASK 



93 



ASL 



ASIN. Made of ashen wood. 

I wll do that I may, and wil rather drinke in an 
asin cup than you or yours shude not be soccerd both 
by sea and land. Archeeologia, xiii. 203. 

ASINGS. Easings. Salop. 
A-SIT. To sit against; i. e., to receive the blow 
without being unhorsed. 
A-left he smot and a-right, 

Non his dent a-sit might. Arthour and Merlin, p. 301. 
No man ne myghte with strengthe asytte 

Hys swordes draught. Octovian, 1665. 

ASIW. To follow. 

Alisaundre wente ageyn, 
Quyk aaiweth him al his men. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 2494. 

ASK. (1). A water newt. North. Floriohas 
the word, in v. Magrdsio. It is sometimes 
written askard, and askel. See Asker, 
(2) To require. 

Ho so hit tempreth by power, 
So hit askith in suche maner. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 6219. 

ASKEFISE. This word is translated by ciniflo 
in the Prompt. Parv. p. 15. Ihre, in v. Aska, 
says, " qui cineribus oppedit." See further 
instances collected by Mr. Way, in loc. cit. 

ASKEN. Ashes. 

Hwan the dom was demd and seyd, 

Sket was the swike on tlie asse leyd, 

And [led] him til that ilke grene. 

And brend til asken al bidene. Havelok, 2841. 

ASKER. (1) A scab. 

Rub it till it bleede ; then take and bind it thereto 
for three dales, in which space you shall see a white 
asker on the sore ; then take that off, and annoint it 
with oyle of roses or fresh butter untill it be 
throughly cured. Topsell's Four-footed Beasts, p . 402. 

(2) A land or water newt. Var. dial. Kennett, 
MS. Lansd. 1033, gives this form as a 
Staflfbrdshire word. 
ASKES. Ashes. (A.-S.) See ReUq. Antiq. i. 53 ; 
MS. Bilj. Reg. 17 C. xvii. f. 48; Ashmole's 
Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 129; Prompt. Parv. 
pp. 21, 252, 266 ; Gesta Romanorum, p. 456; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 49. 

Thynk, man, he says, askes ertow now, 
And into askes agayn turn saltow. 

MS. Cott. Galba E. ix. f. 75. 
Thenk, mon, he seith, askusari thou now. 
And into askus turne schalt thou. 

MS. Ashmole 41, f. 5. 
Askes y ete instede of breed. 
My drynke ys water that y wepe. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 2. 

ASKEW. Awiy. Var. dial. See Baret's Alvearie, 

1580, in V. 
ASKILE. Aside. 

What the' the scornful waiter looks aakile. 
And pouts and frowns, and curseth thee the while. 

Hall's Satires, v. 2. 
Campanus prayd hym stand stille, 
While he askyd hym askyle. Ipomydon, 2064. 

ASKINGS. The publication of marriage by 

banns. Yorksh. 
A-SKOF. In scoff; deridingly. 
Alisaundre lokid a-skof, 
As he no gef nought therof. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 874. 

ASKOWSE. To excuse. Cf. Gov. Myst. p. 2. 



Bot thow can askowse the, 
Thow schalt abey, y till the. 

Frere and the Boy, St. xxxv 
ASKRYE. A shriek ; a shout. 
And wretchydly 

Hath made askrye. Skelton's Poems, ii. 53. 
ASKY. (1) Dry; parched. Generally applied 
to land, but sometimes used for husky. North. 
(2) To ask. 

Roland of hure gan asky than 

Of wat kynde was comen that ilke man. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 45. 
To aski that never no wes. 

It is a fole askeing. Sir T)-istrem, p. 209. 

ASLAKE. To slacken ; to abate. (A.-S.) See 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 1762, 3553; Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 231 ; Ancient Poetical Tracts, 
p. 18 ; Seven Penitential Psalms, p. 11 ; Brit. 
Bibl. iv. 105. 

Fourti days respite thou gif me. 
Til that mi sorwe aslaked be. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 213. 

ASLASH. Aslant; crosswise. Line. 
ASLAT. Cracked like an earthen vessel. Devon. 
A-SLAWE. Slain. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 170. 
Nay, quath on, the devel him drawe. 
For he hath my lord a-slawe. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f . 60. 
ASLEN. Aslope. Somerset. 
ASLEPED. Asleep. 

That other woodnesse is cleped woodnesseslepyuge 
for thei lye alwey, and maketh semblaunt as jif thei 
were asleped, and so thei dyeth withoute mete. 

MS. Bodl. 546. 
ASLET. Oblique. Prompt. Parv. 
ASLEW. Oblique. Hast Sussex. 
ASLIDE. To slide away ; to escape. 

Let soche folie out of your herte aslide. 

Chaucer, ed. IJrry, p. 110. 
A-SLON. Slain. 

Thar men my5t see anon 
Many a dowjty man a-slon. 

MS. Douce 236, f. 12. 
ASLOPE. Sloping. In the Chester Plays, i. 125, 
is the phrase, " the devill of the sope.'* The 
Bodl. MS. 175, reads aslope. 

For trust that thei have set in hope, 
Whiche fell hem aftirward aslope. 

Rom. of the Rose, 4464. 
This place is supposed to lie in the confines of 
Shropshire aloft upon the top of an high hill there, 
environed with a triple rampire and ditch of great 
depth, having three entries into it, notdirectlie one 
against another, but aslope. 

Holinshed, Hist, of England, p. 38. 

ASLOPEN. Asleep. This is probably for the 
sake of the rhyme. 
Call to our maids ; good night ; we are all aslopen. 

Middle ton, i. 257. 

A-SLOUGH. Slew; killed. 

Gif ich thi sone owhar a-slough. 
It was me defendant anough. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 250. 
That hadde y-chaced Richardone, 
Wan he a-slow kyng Claryone. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 50. 

ASLOUTE. Aslant; obliquely. Prompt. Parv, 

Mr. Way, p. 6, wrongly prints aslonte, but our 

reading is confirmed by another entry at p. 15, 

aslowte. 



ASP 



94 



ASP 



ASLOWEN. Slew. 

And nolden bi-taken him no fruyt, 
Ake aslowen him at the laste. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 3. 
ASLUPPE. To slip away. {A.-S.) 
Betere is taken a comeliche y-clothe. 

In armes to cusse ant to cluppe. 
Then a wrecche y-wedded so wrothe, 

Thah he me slowe, ne myhti him asluppe. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 38. 

ASLY. Willingly. North. Ray has it in his 
english Words, 1674, p. 3. See also Kennett's 
Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033, f. 23. It is 
sometimes spelt astley. 

ASMAN. An ass-driver. 

And ye most yeve yowre asman curtesy a grot, 
other a grosset of Venyse. MS. Bodl. 565. 

ASMATRYK. Arithmetic. 

Of calculacion and negremauncye. 
Also of augrym and of asmatryk. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 189. 

ASMELLE. To smell. 

The bor hem gan ful sone asmelle ; 

Ech he het therof his felle. Sevyn Sages, 891. 

ASOCIED. Associated. See Account of the 
Grocers' Company, p. 321. 

Ofte suche have ben asocied and felawschipped to 
armus, the whiche hlr owne lordes ne luste nojt to 
have in servise. Vegecius, MS. Douce 291, f. 11. 

ASOFTE. To soften. 

That with here beemes, when she is alofte, 
May all the troubill asuaye and asofte. 
Of worldely wawes within thismortall see. 

Lydgate, MS. Ashmole 39, f. 3. 

ASONDRI. Asunder; separated. (A.-S.) 
Ther was ferly sorwe and sijt. 
When thai schuld asondri fare. 

Legend of Pope Gregory, p. 2. 
Asondry were thei nevere, 
Na moore than myn hand may 
Meve withoute my fyngres. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 358. 

ASONKEN. Sunk. 

Heom self asonken in ther-mit. 

W. Mapes, App. p. 345. 

ASOON. At even. North. 
ASOSHE. Awry ; aslant. East. Palsgrave says, 
" as one weareth his bonnet." Sometimes spelt 
ashoshe. See Aswash. 
A-SOUND. In a swoon. 

They hang'd their heads, they drooped down, 

A word they could not speak : 
Robin said, Because I fell a-sound, 

I think ye'll do the like. Robin Hood, i. 112. 

ASOURE. *' Gumme of asoure" is mentioned in 
a medical receipt printed in Reliq. Antiq. 
i. 53. 

ASOYLINGE. Absolution. 

And to sywi this mansinge, and the asoylingesH so. 
We assigneth the bissop of Winchestre ther-to. 

Rob. Glow. p. 602. 

ASOYNEDE. Excused. So Hearne explains it. 
See the passage in Rob. Glouc. p. 539, and 
Assoine. It is translated by refutatus in 
Prompt. Parv. and made synonymous vrith 
refused. 

ASP. A kind of poplar. The word is still in use 
in Herefordshire. " The popler or aspe tree, 
populus," — Vocabula Stanbrigii, 1615. See 



Prompt. Parv. p. 15 ; Florio, m y. Briof and 

the curious enumeration of trees in Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 2923. 
ASPARE. To spare. (A.-N.) 

And seyen he was a nygard 
That no good myghte aspare 
To frend ne to fremmed, 
The fend have his soule ! 

Piers Ploughman, p, 303. 

ASPAUD. Astride. North. 
ASPECCIOUN. Sight. 

Thebryjte sonne in herte he gan to colde. 

Inly astonied in his aspeccioun. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 2. 

ASPECHE. A serpent. See Cooperi Thesaurus, 
in V. lynx. 

ASPECT. This word was almost invariably ac- 
cented on the last syllable in the time of 
Shakespeare. See Farmer's Essay, ed. 1821, 
p. 34. 

ASPECTE. Expectation. 

The 10. of Jun I was discharged from bands at the 
assizes, contrary to the aspecte of all men. 

MS. Ashmole 206. 

ASPECYALL. Especial. 

YfF ye love a damsell yn aspecyall. 

And thynke on here to do costage ; 

When scheseyth galantys revell yn hall, 

Yn here hert she thynkys owtrage. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 29. 
Soo that they may too thy mercy ateyne, 
At thys perlament most in assepecialle . 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 42. 

ASPEN-LEAF. Metaphorically, the tongue. 

For if they myghte be suffred to begin ones in the 
congregacion to fal in disputing, those aspen-leaves 
of theirs would never leave waggyng. 

Sir T. More's Workes, p. 769. 

ASPER. A kind of Turkish coin. Skinner. 
ASPERAUNCE. Hope. {A.-N.) 

Fortliirir Asperaunce, and many one. 

Courte of Love, 1033. 

ASPERAUNT. Bold. (A.-N.) 

Hy ben natheles faire and wighth. 
And gode, and engyneful to fighth. 
And have horses avenaunt. 
To hem stalworthe and asperaunt. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 4871. 

ASPERE. A kind of hawk. 

There is a questyon axed whether a man shall call 
a spare hawk or a spere hawke, or an aspere hawke. 
The Book of St. Albans, ed. 1810, sig. C. iii. 

ASPERLICHE. Roughly. 

Strong knight he was hardi and snel, 
Ther he defended him asperlichc. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 84. 

ASPERLY. Roughly. See Skelton's Works, 
i. 205 ; Boucher, in v. Asprely. 

And Alexander with his ost him aaperly folowed. 
MS. Ashmole 44, f. 4(;. 

ASPERNE. To spurn. 

It was prudente poUecie not to aspeme and dis- 
dcyne the lytic small powre and weakcnes of the 
ennemye. Hall, Richard lU. f. 28. 

ASPERSION. A sprinkling. This original sense 
of the word is not now in use. See the Tempest, 
iv. 1 ; Topsell's Four-Footed Beasts, p. 8. 
Florio writes it asperging, in v. Abberfatione. 



ASP 



95 



ASS 



f,PET. Sight ; aspect. 
if In thyn aspet ben alle liehe, 

/ The povere men and eek the riche ! 

/ Gower, MS. Sot: Antiq. 134, f. 58. 

ASPHODIL. A daffodil. Florio gives it as the 
translation oiheroino. 
ASPIDIS. A serpent; an aspis. The correct 
Latin word is given in the argument. 
A serpent, whiche that aspidis 
Is clepid, of his kynde hath this. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 41. 

ASPIE. (1) To espie. {A.-N.) See Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 13521 ; Gesta Romanorum, p. 201 ; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 350. 

The pepyl so fast to hym doth fall9. 

Be prevy menys, as we aspye ; 
jyf he procede, son sen je xalle 
That oure lawys he wyl dystrye. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 249. 

(2) A spy. See the House of Fame, ii. 196. 

Pilate sent oute his aspies, 
Sikirliche bi fele sties. MS. Addit. 10036, f. 22. 
I schal sette enemytees bitwixe thee and the 
womman, and bitwixe thi seed and hir seed ; she 
shal breke thin hed, and thou sehalt sette aspies to 
hir heele. Wickliffe, MS. Bodl. 277. 

ASPILL. A rude or silly clown. Yorksh. 
ASPIOUR. A spy ; a scout. 

Also that thai mowe the blether loke, and the betir 
wil goo and come when they ben send in office of 
aspioura by boldnesse of hir swiftnesse. 

Vegecius, MS. Douce 291, f. 12. 

ASPIRATION. An aspirate. See this form of 
the word in the French Alphabet, 1615, p. 22. 
ASPIREMENT. Breathing. 

Ayre is the thridde of elementis. 
Of whos kynde his aspirementis 
Taketh every livis creature. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 194. 

ASPORTATION. A carrying away. Rider. 
Blackstone uses the word. See Richardson, 
in V. 
ASPOSSCHALL. AspostoHcal. 
Ys not thys a wondurs case, 
Thatt this yonge chylde soche knolege base ? 
Now surely he hath asposschall grace. 

Presentation in the Temple, p. 84. 

ASPRE. Rough ; sharp. {A.-N.) Rider gives 

asperate in the same sense. See the Halle of 

John Halle, i. 530 ; Chaucer's Boethius, p. 366. 

And in her aspre plainte thus she seide. 

Troilusand Creseide, iv. 827- 

ASPREAD. Spread out. West. See Jennings' 

Dialects, p. 156. 
ASPRENESSE. Roughness. 

Of whyche soules, quod she, I trowe that some ben 
tpurmented by asprenesse of paine, and some soules 
I trowe ben exercysed by a purgynge mekenesse, but 
my counsaile nys nat to determine of this paine. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 390. 

AS PRONOUN. Sprung. 

This kenred is asprongun late. 

Digby Mysteries, p. 118. 

ASPYEE. Espial. 

But alle the sleyjte of his tresone, 
Horestis wiste it by aspyee. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 98. 

A5PYRE. To inspire. See a passage from Sir 
T. More's"Workes,p. 927, quoted by Stevenson, 
in his additions to Boucher. 



A-SQUARE. At a distance. 

Yf he hym myght f ynd, he nothyng wold hym spare ; 
That herd the Pardoner weie, and held hym bettir 
a-square. I/fry's Chaucer, p. 699. 

The Pardoner myght nat ne hym nether touch, 
But held hym a-square by that othir side. Ibid. 

ASQUINT. Awiy. It is translated by o^/ijmm* 
in Baret's Alvearie, 1580, in v. Carr says 
asquin is still used in the same sense in Craven. 
See Armin's Nest of Ninnies, p. 11; Brit. 
Bibl. ii. 334 ; Florio, in v. Cipiglidre ; Cotgrave, 
in V. Oeil. 

The world still looks asquint, and I deride 
His purblind judgment : Grissil is my bride. 

Patient Grissel, p. 15. 

ASS. (1) To ask ; to command. North. 
He said he had more sorow than sho. 
And assed wat was best to do. 

MS. Cott. Galba E. ix. f. 38. 
Thou speke to hym wy the wordes heynde. 
So that he let my people pas 
To wyldernes, that thay may weynde 
To worshyp me as I wylle asse. 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 58. 

(2) Cooper, in his Dictionaire, in v. Asirms, says, 
" The asse waggeth his eares, a proverbe ap- 
pHed to theim, whiche, although they lacke 
learnynge, yet will they babble and make a 
countenaunce, as if they knewe somewhat." 

(3) Ashes. North. 

3e honowre jour sepultours curyousely with golde 
andsylver, and in vesselle made of precyouse stanes 
je putt the asse of jour bodys whenne thay ere 
brynned. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f. 34. 

ASSACH. An old custom among the Welsh, ac- 
cording to Cowell, whereby a person accused 
of a crime was enabled to clear himself upon 
the oaths of three hundred men. See his 
Interpreter, 1658. 
ASSAIES. " At all assaies," i. e. at all pomts, 
in every way, at all hours. Florio has, 
" Apidstra aryndto, armed at all assaies" i. e. 
at all points, or ** a tons poynts," as Palsgrave 
has it, f. 438. See Skelton's Works, i. 
239,300. 

And was avauncyd ther, so that he 
Worshipfully levyd there all his daies, 
And kept a good howsehold at all assaies. 

MS. Laud. 416, f. 42. 
Shorten thou these wicked daies; 
Thinke on thine oath at all assaies. 

Drayton's Harmonie of the Church, 1591. 

ASSAILE. An attack. Malory uses this word 
as a substantive in his Morte d' Arthur, ii. 334. 

ASSALVE. To salve ; to allay. 
Thus I procure my wo, alas ! 

In framing him his joy, 
I seeke for to assalve my sore, 
I breede my cheefe annoy. 

Galfrido and Bernardo, 1570. 

ASSART. According to Cowell, assart lands are 
parts of forests cleared of wood, and put into 
a state of cultivation, for which rents were paid 
under the name of assart rents. It is also a 
verb. " Assart," says Blount, " is taken for 
an offence committed in the forest by plucking 
up those woods by the roots that are thickets 
or coverts of the forest, and by making them 



ASS 



96 



ASS 



plain as arable land." See also Scatcherd's 
History of Morley, p. 166. 
ASSASSINATE. Assassination. 
What hast thou done. 
To make this barbarous base assassinate 
Upon the person of a prince ? 

Daniel's Civil VTars, iii. 78. 

ASSATION. Roasting. (Lai.) 
ASSAULT. The expression "to go assault" is 
translated by the Latin word catulio in Rider's 
Dictionarie, 1640. The phrase occurs in 
Cooper and'Higins, and is still in use. 

And whanne the fixene be asmut and goJth yn hure 
love, and sche secheth the dogge fox, she cryeth with 
an hoos voys, as a wood hound doith. 

MS. Budl. 546. 
ASSAUT. An assault. {A.-N.) It is still used 
in Shropshire both as a noun and a verb. Cf. 
Richard Coer de Lion, 1900. 
And by assaut he wan the citee after, 
And rent adoun bothe wall and sparre, and rafter. 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 991. 

ASSAUT ABLE. Capable of being taken. 

The Englishe gunners shot so well, that the walles 
of the toune were beaten doune and rased with the 
ordinaunce, insomuche that by ix. of the clocke the 
toune was made assautable. Hall, Henry VIII. f. 118. 

ASS AVE. To save. 

Ho so wole is soule sauvi. 

He as mot allinge for-leose. 
And ho so leost is soule, he assavez, 

Nou may ech man cheose. MS. Laud. 108, f. 1. 
ASSAY. (1) Essay; trial. 

After asay, then may 56 wette ; 
Why blame je me withoute offence ? 

Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 103. 

(2) To try ; to prove ; to taste. It seems to be, 
essayed^ tried, proved, in the following passage: 

Thow Bemyst a stalward and a stronge, 

Asay schall thow be. Robin Hood, i. 90. 

(3) A tasting of dishes at the tables of high per- 
sonages previously to the repast. See Assay er, 
and Florio, in v. Credenza. 

Kyng Rychard sate downe to dyner, and was served 
without curtesie or assaye ; he muche mervaylyng at 
the sodayne mutacion of the thyng, demaunded of 
the esquier why he dyd not his duety. 

Hall, Henry IV. {. 14. 

(4) In hunting, to take the assay, is to draw the 
knife along the belly of the deer, beginning at 
the brisket, to discover how fat he is. Accord- 
ing to GifFord, this was a mere ceremony : the 
knife was put into the hands of the " best 
person" in the field, and drawn lightly down 
the belly, that the chief huntsman might be 
entitled to his fee. See Ben Jonson's Works, 
vi. 270. 

At th' assay kytte hym, that lordes maye se 
Anone fatte or Jene whether that he be. 

Book of St. Albans, ed. 1810, sig. E. i. 

(5) In the following passage it appears to be used 
in a pecuhar sense, the attempt, the moment 
of doing it. 

And ryght as he was at assaye 
Hys lykyng vanyseht all awaye. 

Le Bone Florence of Rome, 1500. 

(6) Philpot translates contentus ea doctrina in 
Curio, by " assayed with thilk doctrine." See 
his Works, p. 376. 



nd 



(7) Trial ; hence, experience. 

Shorte wytted men and lyttell of aasaye, «ay« th 
Paradyse is longe sayllynge out of the erthe that mef* 
dwelle inne, and also departeth frome the erthe, ano 
is as hyghe as the mone. 

Notes to Morte d^ Arthur, p. 472. 

ASSAYER. A taster in palaces, and the houses 
of barons, to guard against poisoning. 
Thyn assayar schalle be an hownde. 
To assaye thy mete before the. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 241. 
ASSAYING. A musical term. Grassineau ex- 
plains it, ** a flourishing before one begins to 
play, to try if the instruments be in tune ; or, 
to run divisions to lead one into the piece be- 
fore us." See his Musical Dictionary, p. 6. 
ASSAYNE. A term in hare hunting. See the 

Book of St. Albans, sig. D. iv. 
ASSBUURD. A box for ashes. North. 
ASSCHELER. Some kind of weapon ? 

That kyllede of the Cristen, and kepten the walles 
With arowes, and arblaste, and asschelers manye. 
MS. Cott. Calig. A. ii. f. 117 

ASSCHEN. Ashes. 

As blan as asschen hy lay op-rijt. 
The Crois to-fore hire stod. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 5'i , 

ASSCHREINT. Deceived. (^.--S-.) 

A ! dame, he saide, ich was asschreint : 
Ich wende thou haddest ben adreint. 

Sevyn Sages, 1485 

ASSCHYS. Ashes. See Askes. 

Asschys I eete in-stede of brede. 
My drynk is watyr that I wepe. 

Black's Penitential Psalms, p. 3X 

ASSE. (1) At asse, i. e. prepared ? 

And fond our men alle at asse. 

That the Paieus no might passe. 

^rthour and Merlin, p. 27ft. 
(2) Hath. MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6. 
ASSEASE. To cease. Rider. 
ASSECURE. To make certain of; to make safeo 

And so hath Henrie assecur'd that side. 
And therewithal! his state of Gasconie. 

Daniefs Civil Wars, iv. 9, 

ASSE-EARE. The herb comfrey. See a list of 

plants in the Nomenclator, 1585, p. 137. 
ASSEER. To assure. Yorksh. 
ASSEGE. A siege. {A.-N.) See Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 10620; Troilus and Creseide, i. 465. 
It is used as a verb in Holinshed, Hist. Engl. 
p. 44, as a subst. in Hist. Irel. p. 51. 
The sunne by that was nej adoun. 
The assege thanne thay y-lafte. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 44. 
That host he lefte ate Pavyllouns, 
The assege to kepe thare. Ibid. f.*47. 

ASSELE. To seal. (^.-A^.) See Gesta Romano- 
rum, pp. 64, 65, 134 ; Boke of Curtasye, p. 23. 
Withinne and withoute loken so. 
The lokes asseled with seles two. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 103 

ASSEMBLAUNCE. Resemblance. Skinner. 
ASSEMBLEABLE. Likeness. 

Every thinge that berithe lyfe desyreth to be con- 
joynyd to his assembleable ; and every man shall b« 
assocyate to his owne symylitude. 

Dial, of Creatures Moralised, p. 9G 

ASSEMBLEMENT. A gathering. 



ASS 



97 



ASS 



Whome Oswold mette with greate assemblement 
V In battaile strong at Hevenfeld, as God would. 

' Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 90. 

ASSEMYLET. Assembled. 

Prayng and desyring ther the comownes of Ing- 
lond, be vertu of thys present parlement assemylet, 
to comyne the seyd mater, and to gyfF therto her 
assent. MS. Rot, Harl. C. 7. 

ASSENE. Asses. 

3if on of ouwer assene in a put fulle to day, 
Nold je nou3t drawe hire op for the feste ? 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 2. 

ASSENEL. Arsenic. Prompt. Parv. 
ASSENT. (1) Consenting; agreeing. 

But assent with hert and hool credence. 
Having therof noon ambiguyte. 

Lydgate, MS. Ashmole 59, f. 172. 
Medea, whan sche was assente, 
Come sone to that parlement. 

Gower, MS. Sac. Antiq. 134, f. 150. 

(2) Consent; agreement. 

When my fadur and y be at assente, 
Y wylle not fayle the be the rode. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. 11. 38, f. 64. 
The wyfes of ful highe prudence 
Have of assent made ther avow. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 134. 

(3) Sent. (^.--S".) See Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 
134, f. 52, assente, where some copies have 
asente. Perhaps we should read as sente, i. e. 
has sent. 

ASSENTATION. Flattery. (Lat.) 

Yet hee, making relation to other his frendes 
what I had done, left mee not quiet till they likewyse 
had scene them, whose perswasion, as it seemed with- 
out any suspition of os*enfa<ton or flattery, so hath it 
made mee bolder at this present then before. 

Mirour for Magistrates, p. 9. 

ASSENTATOR. A flatterer. Elyot. 
ASSENTIATH. Assent; consent. 

Therfor yf je assentiath to. 

At al perils wil y go. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 46. 

ASSENTION. Consent. 

Shew me thy waste ; then let me there withall. 
By the assention of thy lawn, see all. 

Herrick's Works, i. 216. 

ASSENYCKE. Arsenic. Palsgrave is the au- 
thority for this form of the word. 

ASSEORE. An usher. " Sir William Martelle, 
the Kynges asseore," is mentioned in the He- 
ralds' College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, 
quoted in Hearne's edition, p. 462. 

ASSEPERSELIE. The chervil. It is the trans- 
lation of cicutaria in the Nomenclator, 1585, 
p. 131. Cf. Cotgrave, in v. Cicutaire. 

ASSES-BRIDGE. A familiar name for prop. 5, 
b. 1. of Euclid, on account of its diflSculty. 

ASSES-FOOT. The herb coltsfoot. Florio gives 
it as the translation of Cameleuca. 

ASSETH. Sufficiently; enough. {A.-N.) See 
Piers Ploughman, p. 362, " if it suffise noght 
for assetz," where some editions read asseth. 
It is connected with the term assets, still in 
use. Skinner translates it assensus. 
Nevir shall make his richesse 
Asaeth unto his gredinesse. 

Uom. of the Rose, 5600. 



ASSETTETH. Assailed. (J.-N.) 

And yf that they be erroure thus contrevid, 
Arayse an oost with strengthe and us assetteth, 

Boetius, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 288. 
ASSHE. To ask. 

Ryse up, he sayde, and the way asshe 
To Wyltone and to that Abbas Wultrud. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. fl* 

ASSHEARD. A keeper of asses. Rider. 
ASSHOLE. A receptacle for ashes. North, 
ASSIDUALLY. Constantly. 

Gentle sir, though I am assidually used to com- 
plaints, yet were my heart contracted into tongue. 
The Cyprian Academic, 1647, ii. 46. 

ASSIDUATE. Constant ; continual. See Fa- 
byan, as quoted by Boucher and Richardson. 

ASSIDUE. This word, according to Mr. Hunter, 
is in common use in Yorkshire to describe a 
species of yellow tinsel much used by the 
mummers at Christmas, and by the rustics who 
accompany the plough or ploughman in its 
rounds through the parish, as part of their fan- 
tastical decoration. It is used in the cutlery 
manufacture of Hallamshire. 

ASSIL-TOOTH. A grinder, situated near the 
axis of the jaw. North. 

ASSIL-TREE. An axle-tree. North. 

ASSIMULED. Assimilated. 

No prince in our tyme maie to your hyghnes be 
either compared or assimuled. Hall, Henry I V. f. 27. 

ASSINDE. Assigned. See Collier's Hist. Dram. 
Poet. i. 32. 

O heavenly gyft, that rules the mynd. 

Even as the sterne dothe rule the shippe ! 
O musicke, whom the Gods assinde 

To comforte manne, whom cares would nippe ! 
Percy's Reliques, p. 50. 

AS SINE GO. A Portuguese word, meaning a 
young ass. Hence applied to a silly fellow, a 
fool. Shakespeare has the word in Troilus and 
Cressida, ii. 1, and it is not unfrequently 
found in the Elizabethan writers as a term of 
reproach. Ben Jonson, in his Expostulation 
with Inigo Jones, makes a severe pun on his 
name, telling him he was an ass-inigo to judge 
by his ears. 
ASSISE. (1) Place; situation. {A.-N.) 
There ne was not a point truely. 
That it has in his right assise. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1237. 
Fare now forth to thibath that faire is kevered. 
For it is geinli greithed in a god asise. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 160. 

(2) The " long asise" in the first of the follow- 
ing passages is conjectured by Sir W. Scott, 
to be a term of chess now disused. Tristrem 
is playing at chess, and he played so long a 
time " the long asise," that he won six hawks, 
and 100/. TMs, I apprehend, is the correct 
meaning. In the second instance the same 
phrase is apphed to a measure of length, in- 
stead of a measure of time. See also Rom. of 
the Rose, 1392. Skinner makes it synonymoui 
with size. 

Now bothe her wedde lys. 
And play thai bi-ginne ; 

Y-sett he hath the long asise, 
And endred beth ther inne. Sir Tristrem, f, lot. 



ASS 



98 



ASS 



He felle depe or he myght ryse, 
Thretty fote of longe a.ssyse. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 221. 

We have another instance of the word in the 
same sense in the romance of Sir Tryamour 
in the MS. in the Cambridge Public Library. 
After this hero has cut off the legs of the giant 
Burlond, he tells him that they are both " at 
con assyse," i. e. of the same length. 

A lytulle lower, syr, seyde hee. 

And let us smalle go wyth thee ; 

Now are we bothe at oon nsxyi^e ! 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 81. 

(3) Assizes. Hence, judgment. 

The kyng he sende word ajeyn, that he hadde ys 

franchise 
In ys owne court, for to loke domes and asise. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 53. 
50W to teche God hath me sent, 

His lawys of lyfF that am ful wyse ; 
Them to lern bedyligent, 

joure soulys may thei save at the last asi/se. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 60. 

(4) Commodities. 

Whan ther comes marchaundise. 

With corn, wyn, and steil, othir otlier assise. 

To heore lond any schip, 

To house they woUith anon skyppe. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 7074. 

(5) Regulation ; established custom. See Octo- 
vian, 81, where, however, Weber interprets it, 
" situation, rank." {A.-N.) 

Sire, he said, hi God in heven, 
Thise boilouns that boilen seven, 
Bitoknen thine seven wise. 
That han i-wrowt ayen the assise. 

Sevyn Sages, 2490. 
(6' To settle; to confirm; to choose. See 
Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 541. In our second ex- 
ample it means^^'e^. 

Two cardinalis he hath assised, 
With other lordis many moo, 
That with his dou5ter schulden goo. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. G5. 
The whiche upon his hede assysed 
He bereth, and eke there ben devised 
Upon his wombe sterres thre. 

Gower, ed. 1532, f. 147- 

ASSISE. Foolish. Var. dial. 'Florio has, " Jsi- 
nctffffine, assishnesse, blockishnesse." 

Passe not, therfore, though Midas prate, 
And assishe judgement give. 

Galfrido and Bernardo, 1570. 

ASSKES. Ashes. 

Y wolde suche damsellys yn fyre were brent, 
That the asskes with the wynde awey myght fly. 

Rdiq. Antiq. i 29. 

ASS-MANURE. Manure of ashes. North. 
ASSMAYHED. Dismayed. 

Bot he stode alle .assmayhed as stylle as ston. 

Chron. Vilodun, p. 43. 

ASS-MIDDEN. A heap of ashes. North. 
ASSNOOK. Under the fire-grate. Yorksh. 
ASSOBRE. To grow sober or calm. 

Of suche a drynke as I coveyte, 

I schulde aasobre and fare wel. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 178. 

ASSOIL. To soil. So explained by Richardson, 
in a passage in Beaumont and Fletcher. Per- 



haps we may read assail. I mention it as a 



mere conjecture. 



Qd 



ASSOILE. (1) To absolve. See Lye's additions '^^ 
to Junius, in v. Puttenham has it as a substan- 
tive, meaning confession. See Nares, in v. 
Assoile ; Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 209. 
And so to ben axsoilled. 
And siththen ben houseled. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 419 
God bring thaire saules untill his blis. 
And God assoyl tham of thaire sin, 
For the gude will that thai war in. 

Minot's Poems, p. 12. 
(2) To solve ; to answer. {A.-N.) 

Caym, come fiforthe and answere me, 
Asoyle my qwestyon anon-ryght. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 38. 

ASSOINE. Excuse; delay. {A.-N.) See Rit- 
son's Ancient Songs, p. 21 ; Kyng AHsaunder, 
1021. Also a verb, as in our first example. 
The scholde no weder me assoine. 

Flor. and Blanch. 67 
Therfore hit hijte Babiloyne, 
That shend thing is withouten aasoyne. 

Cursor Mundi, MS, Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 15 

ASSOMON. To summon. See Morte d'Arthur 
i. 228, 275, 278 ; ii. 406 ; Brit. Bibl. i. 67. 
That is wel said, quod Philobone, indede. 
But were ye not assotnoned to appere 
By Mercurius, for that is al my drede ? 

Cowt of Love, 170. 
ASSORTS. An assembly. (A.-N.) " By one 
assorte,'* in one company. 

I wole you tech a newe play ; 
Sitte down here by one assorte. 
And better myrthe never ye saye. 

MS. Douce 175, p. 49. 

ASSOTE. To dote on. {A.-N.) This word is a 
favourite with Gower. See Morte d'Arthur, 
i. 90, ii. 65, 161 ; Cotgrave, in v. Bon; Florio, 
in V. Impazzdre ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 428. 
This wyfe, whiche in her lustes grene, 
Was fayre and fresshe and tender of age. 
She may not let the courage 
Of hym, that wol on her assote. 

Gower, eA. 1532, f. 12. 
So besiliche upon the note 
They herken, and in suche wise assote. 
That they here ry^t cource and wey 
Forjete, and to here ere obeye. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 41 
ASSOWE. In a swoon. 

Hurre modur adoun assowe duddefall. 
For sorwe he myjt wepe no more. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. 56. 

ASS -PLUM. Florio has " Asinine, a kinde of 
asse-plum or horse-plum." 

ASS-RIDDLIN. In Yorkshire, on the eve of 
St. Mark, the ashes are riddled or sifted on the 
hearth. It is said that if any of the family die 
within the year, the shoe of the fated person 
will be impressed on the ashes. 

ASSUBJUGATE. To subjugate. 

Nor by my will assubjugate his merit. 

Troilusand Cressida, ii. 3, 

ASSUE. A term applied to a cow when drained 
of her milk at the season of calving. Somerset. 
Generally pronounced azew, as in the Dorset 
dialect. 



AST 



99 



AST 



ASSUEDLY. Consecutively ? 

As ille men dus day and nyght that es assuedly in 
wele and wa. MS. Coll. Eton. iO, f. 2. 

ASSUMP. Raised. 

The saied bishoppe, now beyng Cardinal, was 
assoyled of his bishopricke of Wynchester, where- 
upon he sued unto our holy father to have a bulle 
declaratory, notwithstanding he was assump to the 
state of cardinal!, that the sea was not voyde. 

Hall, Henry FJ.f. 61. 

ASSURANCE. Affiance ; betrothing for mar- 
riage. See Pembroke's Arcadia, p. 17, quoted 
by Nares. 
ASSURDED. Broke forth. From Sourd. 
Then he assurded into this exclamacyon 
Unto Diana, the goddes inmortall. 

Skelton's Works, 1. 374. 

ASSURE. (1) To confide. {A.-N.) 

Therefore, as frendfulliche in me assure. 
And tell me platte what is thine encheson. 

Troilus and Creseide, i. 681. 

(2) To affiance ; to betroth. 

There lovely Amoret, that was assur'd 
To lusty Perigot, bleeds out her life, 
Forc'd by some iron hand and fatal knife. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, ii. 107. 

(3) Assurance. 

Redy efte to profre a newe assure 

For to ben trewe, and mercy me to prey. 

Chaucer, ed. IJrry, p. 432. 

ASSUREDLYEST. Safest. 

A great number of commons, all chosen men, with 
speres on foote, whiche were the most assuredlyest 
harnesed that hath bene sene. 

Hall, Henry VIII. f. 42. 

AS-SWYTHE. Quickly. This word generally 
ought to be divided ; yet Robert de Brunne, 
in MS. Harl 1701, seems occasionally to use 
it as one word. 

ASSYGGE. A hunting term. 

Ye shull say, illeosque, illeosque, alwey whan they 
fynde wele of hym, and then ye shul keste out 
assygge al abowte the feld for to se where he be go 
out of the pasture, or ellis to his foorme. 

Reliq. ^ntiq. i. 153. 

ASSYNED. Joined. 

Now, by my trouth, to speke my mynde, 
Syns they be so loth to be assyned. 

Playe called the Foure PP. 
• ASSYNG. To assign. 

Go thy way and make thi curse. 

As I shall assyng the by myn advysse. 

Digby Mysteries, p. 41. 

AST. Asked. North. Cf. Towneley Myst. p. 200. 
The sect scho aste for hir sonnes myght hir thynk 
wele sett. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 231. 

The bisschop ast in quat stid 
He sh'ild this kirke gere make. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 79. 

ASTA. Hast thou. This form of the word is 

given in the Clavis to the Yorkshire Dialogue, 

p. 90. Astow is common in interrogative 

clauses in old English. 

ASTABILISHE. To estabhsh. 

I shall at all tymes and in all places, whansooever 
I shalbe called uppon, be redye and glad to con- 
ferme, ratefie, and astabilishe this my deyd,purpos, 
mynd, and intent, as shalbe devised by the lemed 
oounscll of the kynges said highnes. 

Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 154. 



ASTABLE. To confirm. 

Lutheries, the Pope of Rome, 
He astabled swithe sone 
Codes werkes for to worche. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 9S 
ASTANT. Standing. 

The might him se astant the by. Rembrun, p. 479. 

ASTAROTH. This name, as given to one of the 
devils, occurs in a curious Hst of actors in 
Jubinal's Myst. Ined. ii. 9. See Towneley 
Mysteries, p. 246; Piers Ploughman, p. 393. 
ASTAT. State ; estate ; dignity. 
Whan he is set in his astut, 
Thre thevys bebroutof synful gyse. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 12. 

ASTAUNCHE. To satisfy. 

And castethe one to chese to hir delite. 
That may better astaunche hir appetite. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 30. 

ASTE. As if; although. It is the translation 
of acsi in an early gloss, in Reliq. Antiq. i. 8. 
Undir ilcpost thay layden, 
^ste the clercus hemselven sayden. 
Four yven leves togydir knyt. 
For to proven of his wit. MS. Cantab. Dd. i. 17. 

ASTEDE. Stood. (A.-S.) So explained by 
Hearne, in Gloss, te Rob. Glouc. p. 305, where 
we should probably read an a stede, i. e. in a 
place. 

ASTEEPING. Steeping ; soaking. 
There we lay'd asteeping, 
Our eyes in endless weeping. Fletcher. 

ASTEER. Active ; bustling ; stirring abroad. 
North. See the Craven Dialect, ii. 359. 

ASTELLABRE. An astrolabe. 

With him his astellabre he nom, 
Whiche was of fyn golde precious. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f, 184 

ASTELY. Hastily. 

Or els, Jesu, y aske the reyd 
Astely that y wer deyd. SirAmadas, 396. 

ASTEMYNGE. Esteeming. 

But the duke, \\i\cnstemyngesuch a defect, quick- 
lye after persuaded the Kynge to take syr Rycharde 
agayne to his favour. ArchtBologia, xxii. 226. 

ASTENTE. Stopped. (A.-S.) See Wright's 
Pol. Songs, p. 342 ; WiU. and the Werwolf, 
p. 56. 

And or thay come to Mantrible 

Nevere thay ne astente. MS. Ashmole 33, f.l5. 

And thou that madest hit so touj, 

Al thi host is sone a-stint. 

Append, to W. Mapes, p. 341. 

ASTER. Easter. North. Mr. Hartshorne gives 
tMs form of the word as current in Shropshire. 
Cf. Audelay's Poems, p. 41. 

And thus this aater lomb apered. 

Chron, Vilodun. p. 88. 

ASTERDE. To escape. (^.--S'.) 

Tho wiste he wel the kyngis herte. 
That he the deth ne schulde asterde. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 59. 

ASTE RED. Disturbed. (A.-S.) In the fol- 
lowing passage, the Lincoln MS. reads 
stirred. Verstegan has astired. 
Por all here michel pryde. 
The stout man was astered. 

. Sir Degrevante, Camh. M$^ 



AST 100 



AST 



ASTERISM. A constellation. Miege, 
ASTERLAGOUR. An astrolabe. 

His almagiste, and bokis grete and smale. 

His asterlagour, longing for his art. 

His augrim-stonis lying feire apart. 

Chaucer, ed. Urrt/, p. 25. 

ASTERT. (1) To escape. (A.-S.) See Hawkins' 
Engl. Dram. i. 9 ; Lydgate's Minor Poems, 
p. 183 ; Gower, ed. 1532, f. 70 ; Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 1597, 6550 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 225 ; 
Digby Mysteries, p. 8. 

Of wiche tlie course myjte not asterte 
Pliilototes, that was the more experte. 

MS. Digby 2m. 

Ther schalle no worldis good asterte 
His honde, and 3it he 5eveth almessa. 

Gow^-, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 42. 
The to love make me so expert. 
That helle peynes I mot astert. 

MS. Harl. 2406, f. 85. 

(2) Hence, to release. (A.-S.) 

And smale titheres weren foule y-shent. 
If any persone wold upon hem plaine, 
Ther might astert hem no pecunial peine. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 6896. 

(3) To alarm ; to take unawares. 

No danger there the shepherd can astert. 

Spetiser's Eel. Nov. 187. 
ASTEYNTE. Attainted. 

What dostow here, unwrast gome ? 
For thyn harm thou art hider y-come ! 
He ! fyle asteynte horesone ! 

To misio was ay thy wone. Kyng Aliaaunder, 880. 
ASTIEGNUNG. Ascension. Verstegan. 
iVSTIGE. To ascend; to mount upwards. 

Verstegan. 
ASTINT. Stunned. {A.-S.) 

With so noble swerdes dent, 
That hem astint verrament. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 309. 

ASTIPULATE. To bargain ; to stipulate. ^Hall. 
ASTIRE. (1) The hearth. See Astre. 

Bad her take the pot that sod over the fire. 
And set it aboove upon the astire. 

Utter son's Pop. Poet. ii. 78. 
(2) To stir ; to move. Verstegan. 
ASTIRTE. Started ; leapt. 

Astirte til him with his rippe. 
And bigan the fish to kippe. Havelok, 893. 

ASTITE. Anon ; quickly. This word is found 
in the North Country Vocabularies of Ray and 
Thoresby. Cf. Torrent of Portugal, p. 28. 
Ful richeliche he gan him schrede. 
And lepe astite opon a stede ; 
For nothing he nold abide. 

Amis and Amiloun, 1046. 

ASTIUNE. A precious stone. 

Ther is saphir, and uniune, 
Carbuncle and attiune, 
Smaragde, lugre, and prassiune, 

Cocaygne, ap. Warton, i. 9. 

ASTOD. Stood. See Chron. of England, 62 ; 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 101. 

Sum he smot opon the hode, 
At the girdel the swerd aatode. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 47. 

A-STOGG'D. Having one's feet stuck fast into 

clay or dirt. Dorset. 
ASTOND. To withstand. See Wright's Poli- 



tical Songs, p. 338 ; Gy of Warwike, pp. 1, 47; nd 
Rob. Glouc. p. 20 r. 

Thou ssalt have tl i wil of al Egiptelonde, 
Ssal nevere no man thine heste astonde. 

MS. Bodl. 652, f. 4. 
So korven and hewen with mani bond. 
That non armour might hem astond. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 328 

ASTONE. Confounded. 

He dradde him of his owen sone. 
That maketh him wel the more astone. 

Gower, 3IS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 187. 

ASTONED. (1) Confounded; astonished. As- 
tonied is very common in early writers, and 
is also found in the Scriptures, Dan. v 9, &c. 
Florio in v. Aggriccidre, has the verb to astony, 
to confound. See Troilus and Creseide, i. 
274. Urry has also astoined. 

This soden cas this man astoned so. 
That red he wex, abaist, and al quaking 
He stood, unnethes said he wordes mo. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 8192 

(2) Stunned. {A.-S.) 

Vor her hors were al astoned, and nolde after wylle 
Sywe nother spore ne brydel, ac stode ther al sty He. 

Rob. Giouc. p. 396. 

ASTONISH. To stun with a blow. 

Enough, captain : you have astonished him. 

Henry V. v. 1. 

ASTONNE. To confound. 

It doth in halfe an howre astonne the taker so. 
And mastreth all his sences, that he feeleth weale 
nor woe. Romeus and Juliet, p. 64. 

Suerly these be examples of more vehemencie 
than mans tong can expresse, to fear and astonne such 
evyl persones as wyl not leve one houre vacant from 
doyng and exercysing crueltie, mischiefe, or out- 
ragious lyvyng. Hall, Richard III. f. 34. 

A-STOODED. Sunk fast into the ground, as a 

waggon. Dorset. 
ASTOPARD. Some kind of animal ? 

Of Ethiope he was y-bore, 

Of the kind of astopards ,• 
He had tuskes like a boar. 

An head like a libbard. 

Ellis's Met. Rom. ii. 390. 

ASTORE. To provide with stores ; to keep up ; 
to replenish ; to restore. See Prompt, Parv. 
pp. 16, 262. ; Rob. Glouc. pp. 18, 107, 212, 229, 
268. It is used somewhat differently in Kyng 
Alisaunder, 2025, and the Sevyn Sages, 956, 
explained by Weber, " together, in a heap, nu- 
merous, plentiful;" but I am informed by Dr. 
Merriman that he has heard it used in Wilt- 
shire as a kind of expletive, thus, " She's gone 
into the street astore." This of course differs 
from the Irish word. 

At cit^, borwe, and castel, 
Thai were aatored swithe wel. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 9tX 
But as the ampte, to eschewe ydelncsse, 
In somer is so ful of besinesse. 
Or wynter come to safe here from coolde. 
She to-foren astored hath here holde. 

MS. Digby 230 
That on he gaf to astore the lijt 
Off seint Petur the apostllle brijt. 

MS. Cantab. Ff . v 48, f. 9?. 



AST 



101 



AST 



/ 



y ASTOUND. To astonish greatly. Var. dial. 
Till at the last he heard a dreadfull sownd. 
Which through the wood loud bellowing did rebownd. 
That all the earth for terror seemd to shake, 
-• And trees did tremble. Th'elfe, therewith a5^ot<;nd. 

Upstarted lightly from his looser make. 

The Faerie Queene, I. vii. 7- 

ASTOYNYN. To shake ; to bruise. Prompt. Parv. 

ASTRADDLE. To straddle. Skinner. 

ASTRAGALS. A kind of game, somewhat like 
cockall. See a curious account of it in MS. 
Ashmole 788, f. 162, Blount has astragalize, 
" to play at dice, huckle-bones, or tables." See 
his Glossographia, p. 59. 

ASTRAL. Starry. 

This latter sort of infidels have often admitted 
those matters of fact, which we Christians call mi- 
racles, and yet have endeavoured to solve them by 
astral operations, and other ways not here to be spe- 
cified. Boyle's Works, v. 161. 

ASTRAMYEN. An astronomer. Astromyen 
is the form of the word in Kyng Ahsaunder, 
136 ; and Chaucer, in his tract on the astro- 
labe, has astrologien, for an astrologer. 
Hyt was a gode astramt/en 
That on the mone kowthe seen. 

MS. Hurl. 2320, f. 31. 

ASTRANGLED. Strangled. See Will, and the 
Werwolf, p. 6. 

For neigh hy weren bothe for thurst 
Astrangled, and ek for-prest. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 5099, 
To nijht thou schalt i-wis 
In strongue dethe astrangled. 
And wiende to the pine of helle. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 166. 
ASTRAUGHT. Distracted ; terrified. 

At her syght he was so astraught, that of his own 
mynde unrequested, he made peace with the Massi- 
liens. Goldyng's Justine, f. 179. 

ASTRAUNGED. Estranged. Udal. This and 
the last word are taken from Richardson. 

ASTRAY. A stray animal. Prompt. Parv. 

ASTRAYLY. Astray. It is translated by j»fl/a- 
bunde in Prompt. Parv. p. 16. 

ASTRE. (1) A star. (Fr.) Steevens says this 
word is only to be met with in Southern's 
Diana, 1580. See Shakespeare, vii. 184. Mr. 
Boswell quotes another instance in Montgo- 
mery's Poems, ed. 1821, p. 164. See also Ja- 
mieson in v. Florio translates Stella, " a 
starre, or any of the celestiall bodies that give 
light unto the world ; also an as #er, a planet." 

(2) A hearth. ** The astre or harth of a chim- 
ney," MS. Harl. 1129, f. 7. Lambarde, in his 
Perambulation of Kent, ed. 1596, p. 562, says 
that this word was in his time nearly obsolete in 
Kent, but that it was retained in " Shropshyre 
and other parts." See Astire. 

ASTRELABRE. An astroiaoe. {A-N.) See 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 3209. I have already quoted 
the passage from Urry, in v. Asterlagour. 

ASTRENGTHY. To strengthen. , 

And bygan to astrengthy ys court, and to eche ys 
maynye, Rob. Glouc. p. 180. 

ASTRETCHYN. To reach. It is translated by 
mttmgo in the Prompt. Parv. pp. 14, 16, 99. 



His hyje vertu astreccheth 

With bokis of his ornat endltynge, 

Occleve, MS. Soc. Antiq, 154, f. MBt 
ASTREYNYD. Constrained. 

He is astreynyd to the thinge that contenys and 
to that thing that is contenyd ; and he is also a»- 
treynyd to the thinge that halowis, and to that thinge 
that is halowid. MS. Egerton 842, f. 177. 

ASTREYT. Straight. 

Forsothe he clansyt the lyvere aryt. 
And alle the membrys benethe astreyt. 

Aeliq. Antiq, i. 190» 

ASTRICTED. Restricted. 

As fier being enclosed in a stj^ite place wil by force 

utter his flamme, and as the course of -water astricted 

and letted will flowe and brust out in continuance of 

time. Hall, Hemy VI. f. 9©. 

ASTRID. Inclined. Suffolk. 

ASTRIDGE. An ostrich. 

He make thee eate yron like an aatridge, and swal« 
low my sword Mke a great pinne. 

The First Part of the Contention, 1594. 

ASTRIDLANDS. Astride. North. See Ray's 

Enghsh Words, in v. Umstrid. 
ASTRINGE. To bind ;, to compel. {Lat.) 

Albeit your Highnes, having an honorable place, 

be named as one of the principal contraheutes, yet 

nevexthelesse your grace is not astringed or bounden 

to any charge or other thing. State Papers, i. 119. 

ASTRINGER. " Enter a gentle astringer" is a 

stage direction in All's Well that ends Well, 

V. 1. Steevens says " a gentle astringer" is a 

" gentleman falconer," and gives a reference to 

Cowell that requires verification. 

ASTRIPOTENT. The ruler of the stars. (Lat.) 

The high astripotent auctor of alle. 

MS. Harl. 2251, f. 79. 
ASTROD. Stradhng. Somerset. 
ASTROIE. To destroy. 

And aspie hem bi tropie, 
And so fond hem to asiroie. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 260. 

ASTROIT. A kind of precious (?) stone. Minsheu. 
Sometimes called the star-stone. Brome, in 
his Travels over England, p. 12, mentions find- 
ing many of them atLassington, co. Gloucester, 
and gives a particular account of their nature. 

ASTROLOGY. A herb mentioned by Palsgrave, 
f. 18, and by Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, 
f. 201. It is perhaps the same with the aristo- 
logii, two species of 'which are mentioned in an 
old poem in Archaeologia, xxx. 386. 

ASTRONOMER. An astrologer. This sense of 
the term is usual with our early writers. See 
Minot's Poems, p. 85. 

A learn'd astronomer, great magician. 
Who lives hard-by retir'd. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, i. 150. 

ASTRONOMIEN. Astrologer. 

Whiche was an astronomien. 
And eek a gret magicien. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f, 146. 

ASTROPHELL. A bitter herb ; probably star- 
wort, according to Nares. 
My little flock, whom earst I lov'd so well. 

And wont to feed with finest grasse that grew, 
Feede ye henceforth on bitter astrofell. 
And stinking smallage and unsaverie rue. 

Spent. Daphn. 3«4 



AST 



102 



ASY 



ASTROUT. This word is still used in Somerset- 
sMre, explained by Mr. Norris, MS. Glossary, 
" in a stiff, projecting posture, as when the 
fingers are kept out stiff." Sir Thomas More, 
Workes, p. 98, applies it to a stomach swelled 
by gluttony, " What good can the great glo- 
ton do with his bely standing astrote like a 
taber." In Prompt. Parv. p. 16, " a-strut" 
is translated by turgide ; and Palmer says it is 
used in the north-east of Devon in the sense of 
astride. The word occurs in the first sense in 
a curious poem in the Auchinleck MS. printed 
in Wright's Pohtical Songs, p. 336 ; and the 
following example is taken from another copy 
in the Bodleian Library, unknown to Mr. 
Wright, which is valuable as completing his 
imperfect one. Cowper has astrut, as quoted 
b,y Richardson. 

Now Godis soule is al day suore. 

The kuyf schal stonde a-strout : 
And thow his botes be to-tore, 
3it he wil mak it stout. 

MS. Bodl. 48, f. 327. 
The marynere that wolde have layne hur by, 
Hys yen stode owte astrote for-thy, 
Hys lymmes were roton hym froo. 

Le Bone Florence of Rome, 2029. 
He gafe hym swylke a clowte. 
That bothe his eghne stode one strowte. 

Sir Isumbras, Lincoln MS. 

ASTRUCTIVE. This word is used by Bishop 
Hall, and opposed by him to destructive. See 
Richardson, in v. 
ASTRYVYD. Distracted. 

Beryn and his company stood all aatryvyd. 

History of Beryn, 2429. 

ASTUNED. Stunned. See Drayton's Polyolbion, 
ed. 1753, p. 1011 ; and Astonne. 
He frust doun at o dent. 
That hors and man astuned lay. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 233. 

ASTUNTE. Stood ; remained. 

The barons astunte withoute toun biside, 

And vaire sende into the toun to the king hor 

sonde. 
That he ssolde, vor Godes love, him bet under- 

stonde. 
And graunte horn the gode lawes, and habbe pit^ 

of is lond. Roh. Glouc. p. 546. 

The other astunte and unnethe abod. 

He ne mijhte no othur for schame. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 173. 

ASTUTE. Crafty. Minsheu. 
ASTWARD. Eastward. 

And in a schip we duden us sone. 

And astward evere kenden. 
In the se of occean. 
As ore Loverd is grace us sende. 

MS. Laud. 108, f.l04. 

ASTY. Rather; as soon as. North. This is 

perhaps connected with aste, q. v. 
ASTYE. To ascend. 

Alfred and Seynt Edwarde, lastehii gonne astye 
Thoru the due of Normandye, that her uncle was. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 317. 
ASTYFLED. Lamed in the leg. 

Somtyme an hound is yvcle aatyfled, so that he 
shal Bomtyme abydc half a jeer or more, or he be 
wcl ferme. MS. Bodl. 5^. 



ASTYL. A thin board or lath. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 16, explained from the Anglo-Norman 
" a piece of a wooden log cleft for burning." 
PhiUips has axicle in the same sense, so that 
the word may come originally from the Lat. 
axiculus. 
ASUNDERLY. Separately. It is translated by 
disjunctim, separatim, and divisim, in the 
Prompt. Parv. p. 16. 
ASUNDRI. Apart. See Gesta Romanorum, 
pp. 14, 67, 164 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 16. 
In this world, bi Seyn Jon, 
So wise a man is ther non, 
Asundri schuld hem knawe. 

Amis and Amiloun, 2052. 

ASWARE. On one side. 

Hym had bin beter to have goon more asware^ 
For the egg of the pann met with his shynne. 
And karff atoo a veyn, and the next syn. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 599. 

ASWASH. Cotgrave has, " Chamarre, a loose 
and light gowne, that may be worne aswash 
or skarfewise." 
ASWELT. To become extinguished. {A.-S.) 
Ac sot and snow cometh out of holes. 
And brennyng fuyr, and glowyng coles ; 
That theo snow for the fuyr no malt. 
No the fuyr for theo snow aswelt. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 6639. 

ASWEVED. Stupified, as in a dream. {A.-S.) 
For so astonied and asweved 
Was every virtue in me heved, 
What with his sours, and with my dred. 
That al my felinge gan to ded. 

The House of Fame, ii. 41. 

AS-WHO-SAIETH. A not unfreqixent ex- 
pression in our early poetry, equivalent to, — 
as one may say, as the saying is. See Dyce's 
notes to Skelton, p. 86. 

ASWIN. ObHquely. North. 

ASWOGH. In a swoon. {A.-S.) 

Aswogh he fell adoun 

An hys hynder arsoun. Lybeavs Disconus, 1171. 

ASWOUNE. In a swoon. See Chaucer, Cant. T. 

3826, 10788 ; Gy of Warwike, p. 17 ; Legend 

of Pope Gregory, p. 48; Rom. of the Rose,1804. 

He ferd as he v/er mat ; 

Adoun he fel aswoune with that. 

Gy of WarwiJce, p. 18. 

ASWOWE. In a swoon. See Aswogh ; Laun- 
fal, 755 ; MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 51. 
The king binethen, the stede aboue. 
For sothe sir Arthour was aswowe, 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 123. 
And whanne the mydwyf hurde that, 
Zhe felle a-swowe thar zhe sat. MS.Douce 236, f. 23. 

A-SYDEN-HANDE. On one side. 

But he toke nat his ground so even in the front 
afore them as he wold have don yf he might bettar 
have sene them, butt somewhate a-syden-hande, 
where he disposed all his people in good arraye all 
that nyght. Arrival of King Edward IV. p. 18. 

ASYGHE. To essay. 

Now let seo gef ony is so hardy 
That durste hit him atyghe. Kyng Alisaunder, 3879« 
ASYNED. Assigned ; appointed. 
And jemen of the crowne also. 
That were asyned wyth hym to go. 

ArchoBoLgia, xxi. 73» 



r. 



i ATA 103 

(1) That. North. See Sevyn Sages, 3824; 



ATB 



/ Perceval of Galles, 150, 524 ; Towneley Mys- 
/ teries, pp. 2, 87 ; Robson's Met. Rom. p. 7 ; 
Ywaine and Gawin, 486. 

It es fully my consaile that thou recounselle agayne 
unto the my lady my moder Olympias, and at thou 
grefe the nathynge at the dede of Lesias, ne take 
na hevynes to the therfore. 3IS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 26. 

(2) To. Constantly used as a prefix to the verb 
by early English writers. See Ywaine and 
Gawin, 812, 2344. 

Ga hethene away fra me, quod he, for thou canne 
say noghte to mee, ne I hafe noghte at do with the. 
MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 1. 
That es at say, with golde and ensence. 
And myre that they offerde in thi presence. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 190. 

(3) To. " This roal ull be daingerus jist now, if 
a dunna doa sommat at it." Var. dial. 

(4) Eat. 

No hadde thai no wines wat. 

No ale that was old. 
No no gode mete thai at, 

Thai hadden al that thai wold. 

Sir Tristrem, p. 269. 

(5) "Who ; which. North. 

(6) Of. North. 

Scryppe and burdon can he take. 
And toke leve at hys wyfe. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii, 38, f. 122. 
He tuke his leve at the daye 
At Mildor the faire maye. 

Sir Begrevante, Lincoln MS. 

That same houre herly at morne, Marie 

Maudeleyne and hir two sisters asked leve at oure 

Lady, and went, with theire oynementes to the 

sepulcre. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f- 186. 

(7) To attack ; to accost. A common elliptical 
form of the expression to be at, or to get at. 
Also, to contend with or take in a game or 
otherwise. 

(8) For. 

At this cause the knyjt comlyche hade 
In the more half of his schelde hir ymage depaynt&d. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 25. 

AT ACHE. To seize. 

And seyde, we atache yow y-wysse. 
For yeschalle telle us what he ys. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii, 38, f. 133. 

AT- AFTER. After ; afterwards. North. See 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 10616, 11531; Morte 
d'Arthur, ii. 220. It is an adverb and prep. 
I trust to see you att-after Estur, 
As conning as I that am your master. 

MS. Rawl. C. 258. 

ATAKE. To overtake. {A.-S.) See Amis and 
Amiloun, 2070; Chaucer, Cant. T. 16024. 
Sometimes it stands for the part. pa. Ataken, 
as in Chaucer, Cant. T. 6966, and our two last 
examples. 

He turned his stede and gan to fie. 

And Gij after him, bi mi leut^ ; 

Gode was the hors that Gwichard rod on. 

And so fast his stede gan gon, 

That Gij might him nought atake ; 

Therfore he gan sorwe make. Gy of Warwilce, p. 52. 

And seyde, ha ! now thou art a-take, 

That thou thy werke myjle noujt forsake. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 166. 

And no5t for that a goth so fast, 

That Iljcliard ys a-take ate last. MS Ashmole 48. 



AT-ALL. The cry of a gamester full of cash and 
spirit, meaning that he will play for any sums 
the company may choose to risk against him. 
See Massinger, iv. 78. 

AT-ALLE. Entirely ; altogether. See Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 29 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 8921, 
9098. 

The kynge knew the burgeyse at alle ; 

Anone to hym he lette hym calle. Ipompdon,l369» 

AT-ALL-POINTS. In every particular, a phrase 
applied to a person well and entirely armed. 
See instances in Beaumont and Fletcher, 
iv. 7 ; Morte d'Arthur, i. 344, ii. 19. At-all- 
rights is a similar expression, of which see in- 
stances in Chaucer, Cant. T. 2102; Sir 
Perceval, 1139. See At-ryghttez. 

ATAME. To tame. {A.-S.) See Skelton's 
"Works, i. 135, 211 ; Deposition of Richard II. 
p. 15 ; Chester Plays, i. 124 ; Gy of Warwike, 
p. 316; and Attame. 
And saide, thou cursed Sarasyne, 
Thy proude pride shall be atamed. 
By God and by Seinte Qwyntyne. MS. Douce 175, p.32. 

ATANUNE. Afternoon. Suffolk. 

AT-A-POINT. This phrase is explained resolute 
by Rider. In the second example it appa- 
rently means at^ a stoppage. 
Old Kiward, with ten thousand warlike men, 
All ready at a point, was setting forth. Macbeth, iv. 3. 
Now let us speake of the Erie of Warwiekts 
doynges, whiche muste nedes play a pagiaunt in 
this enterlude, or els the plaie were at a point. 

Hall, Edward IV. f. 16. 

ATARN. To run away ; to escape. (A.-S.) 
Manie flowe to churche, and the constable unnethe 
Atarnde alive, and manie were i-brojt to dethe. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 539. 

ATASTE. To taste. See the corresponding 
passage in MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 6, andDigby 
Mysteries, p. 190. 

Ye shuUen ataste bothe thowe and shee 
Of thilke water, to speke in wordes fewe, 
By God ordeyned trouthes for to she we. 

Lydgate, MS. Ashmole 39, f. 44. 

AT AUNT. So much. See Digby Mysteries, 
p. 192. {A.-N.) 

Whan that Bachus, the myghti lorde. 

And Juno eke, both by one accorde. 

Had sette a-brorhe of myghti wyne a tone. 

And afterwardys into the brayn ran 

Of Colyn Blobolle, whan he had dronke ataunt 

Both of Teynt and of wyne Alycaunt, 

Till he was drounke as any swyne. 

Colyne Bloivboll, MS. Rawl. C. 86 
And he is a foole that yevithe also credence 

To newe rumours and every foltisshe fable, 
A dronken foole that sparithe for no dispence 
To drynk ataunt til he slepe at table. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 1^ 

ATAVITE. Ancestral. 

But trulie this boldnes, not myne owne nature, hath 
taught mee, but your nature, generositie prognate, 
and come from your atavite progenitours. 

Ellis's Literary Letters, p. 75. 

ATAXY. Disorder ; irregularity. (Gr.) 
AT-BAR. Bore away. 

A wonder thing he gey him thar, 

A wolf his other child at-bar. 3IS. Digby 86, f. 1 ^3 

AT-BLEWE. Blew vnth bellows. 



ATE 



104 



ATH 



The tourmentours at-blewe at hyme ; 

Criste for-schope thame bo the lythe and lyme ! 

MS. Lincoln A. 1. 17, f. 128. 

AT-BREST. To burst in pieces. 

His hert aght ar at-brest in thrin, 
Ar fra his comamentes tuin. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. f. 54. 
ATCHEKED. Choaked. Skinner. 
ATCHISON. A billon coin, or ratber copper 
washed with silver, struck in the reign of 
James VI., of the value of eight pennies Scots, 
or two thirds of an English penny. See 
Jamieson, in v, 
I care nut an they war all drown'd i* th' dike, 
They're nut worth an atchison, nor twenty sike. 

Yorkshire Dialogue, p. 57. 

ATCHORN. An acorn. Var. dial. We have 

also atchorning, picking up acorns. 
ATE. (1) To eat. West. See Jennings, p. 115. 
(2) At the. 

And with a god staf, ful sket. 

His wif ate dore ne bet. Sevyn Sagea, 2296. 
ATEGAR. A kind of lance. Junius. (A.-S.) 
ATEIGN. To accomplish. 

Ne hope I noght he wll him feign. 

That he ne sal Calm dede ateign. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. f. 8. 

ATEINTE. To give a colouring to. (A.-N.) 
Nai, dowter, for God above I 
Old men ben felle and queinte. 
And wikkede wrenches conne ateinte. 
Misdo nowt, doughter, but do bi rede ! 

S^vyn Sages, 1766. 

ATEL. Reckoned ; counted. (J.-S.) 

The kyng thoru ys conseyl encented wel her to. 
And god ostage of nom, the truage vor to do ; 
And atel al her god, and let him al bar wende. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 171. 
ATELICH. Foul; corrupt. (J.^S.) 
The bodi ther hit lay on bere, 
An atelich thing as hit was on. 

Append, to W. Mapes, p. 343. 
Tho cam thare out a luther wyjt 
Ful atelich ate laste. MS. Laud. 108, f. 107. 

A scharp face he hadde, and al for-kroked. 
His berd atelich and long. Ibid. 108, f. 159. 

ATENES. At once. See Chaucer, ed. Urry, 
p. 32. This is merely another form oiAttones, 
q.v. 
ATENT. An object; an intention. SeeOctovian, 
104 ; Sir Amadas, 372 ; Joachim and Anne, 
p. 149 ; Gov. Myst. p. 4 ; Syr Gowghter, 617. 
Hymselfe ys in gode atente, 
For every man ys hys frende. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 79. 
A riche lettre scho hym sent, 
Eftyr hir lordis commandment. 
And talde hym alle hir atent. 

Sir Degi-evante, Lincoln MS. 
ATEON. To make angry. (J.-S.) 

The kyng wes ateoned stronge 
That Corineus astod so longe. 

Chronicle of England, 61. 
Gogmagog was atened strong 
That on mon him stode so long. 

Jbid. MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 93. 

He was atened of his enemy. MS.Athmole 33, f.2. 

ATER. (1) After, Var. dial. It may, however, 

be a mere error of the scribe in the following 

example : 






And atyr this his modir dide aryse. 
And lyfte him up softely into the stallc 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. It4« f. K 

(2) Attire. 

Everich man of ich mester 
Hem riden ogain with fair ater. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 132a 

ATER-NOON. Afternoon. Somerset. 
ATERST. In earnest. Phillips. Coles explains 

it indeed. 
ATEYNT. Fatigued ; worn out. {A.-N.) 
In the hete they wer almost ateynt. 
And in the smoke nygh adreynt. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 6131. 

ATEYNTE. (1) Convicted; attainted. See 
Amis and Amiloun, 849; History of Beryn, 
2673. 

Yn feyre wurdys and yn qeynte, 
Wyth pryde are swych men ateynte. 

MS.Harl. 1701, f. 21. 

(2) To reach ; to get possession of. 
She seid, Thomas, let them stand. 
Or ellis the feend wllle the ateynte. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 118, 

AT-GO. Expended; gone. 

Wor his spending wes al at-go, 
Wel evene he hit oundernom. 

MS. Digby 86, f. 124. 
Whet may I sugge bote wolawo ! 
When mi lif is me at-go. 

Wrighfs Lyric Poetry, p. 74. 

AT-GOHT. Is expended. 

Ther ich wes luef, icham ful loht. 
Ant alle myn godes me at-goht. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 48. 

ATH. (1) An oath. {A.-S.) See Ywaine and 
Gawin, 2264 ; Sir Degrevante, MS. Lincoln, 
210 ; Rehq. Antiq. i. 126. 

I hafe, quod he, made athe to Darius, that, whils 
he leffez, I schalle never bere armes agaynes hyme ; 
and therfore I ne may no3te do agaynes myne athe. 
MS. Lincoln A. i.\7,f. 5. 
O pride bicums thrones o thrett, 
Hething, threp, and athes grett. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. f. 153. 

(2) Each. 

Thai token ath tulke ; 
The roglre raggi sculke 
Rug ham in helle ! 

Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 29&. 

(3) Hath. 

Vorst ych wulle therynne do me sulf, vor ryjt yt ys. 
And vorst asayle then falsekyng, and bringe hym to joke, 
That the gret oth that he suor, so vyllyche ath to-broke. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 453. 

AT-HALST. Withholdest. Rob. Glouc. 
AT-HAND. " At hand, quoth pick-purse," an | 
old proverb introduced in 1 Henry IV. ii. 1, 
and several vrriters of Shakespeare's time. It 
is a familiar exclamation in answer to any 
summons. 
ATHANOR. A digesting furnace, calculated for J 
the retention of heat. i 

I have another work you never saw, son, 
That three days since past the philosopher's whee^ 
In the lent heat of athanor. The Alchemist^ ii. 1. 
And se thy fornace be apt therfore, 
Whych wyse men do call athenor. 

Aahmolc's Theat. Chem. Brit, f, Itf. 



ATH 



105 



ATL 



/ 



TTHEL. Noble. {A.-S.) See Wright's Lyric 
Poetry, p. 33 ; Black's Cat. of Ashmole's MSS. 
p. 68. 

Hit watz Eunias the athel, and his high kynde. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 3. 
Alexandir the athill, be allurs acorde. 

MS. Ashmnle ^\, f. 11. 

AT-HELD. To keep; to retain. Cf. Rob. Glouc. 
p. 62. 

This clerkes of whom ich teld. 
With the king weren at-held. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 24. 
He him might no lenge at-held. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 60. 
ATHELE. This word is translated by natura in 

MS. Harl. 219. 
ATHELISTE. Most noble. 

Thane Syr Arthure one erthe, atheliste of othere. 
At evene at his awene horde avantid his lordez. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 70. 

ATHENED. Stretched out. Verstegan. 

ATHENYNG. Extension. (^.--S".) See a piece 
by Lydgate, printed at the end of the Chronicle 
of London, p. 237. We have already had the 
passage from another copy, in v. Arenyng, 
which is probably a corrupt reading. 

A.THEOUS. Atheistical. 

It is an ignorant conceit that inquiry into nature 
should make men atheous : no man is so apt to see 
the star of Clirist as a diligent disciple of philosophy. 

Bishop Hall. 

ATHER. Either. Yorksh. See Hartshorne's 
Met. Tales, p. 100. 

At ather ende he castes a cope 

Layde downe on borde, the endys plyed up. 

Boke of Curtasye, p. 28. 

A-THES-HALF. On this side of. See the quo- 
tation from Robert of Gloucester, in v. Anether. 
ATHILLEYDAY. The rule of an astrolabe. 
Seeke the ground meete for your purpose, and then 
take an astrolobe, and hang that upon your thombe 
by the ring, and then turne the athilleyday or rule 
with the sights up and downe, until! that you doo see 
the marke. Bourne's Inventions or Devises, 1578. 

ATHIN. Within. Somerset. 
ATHINKEN. To repent; to grieve. (A.-S.) See 
Troilus and Creseide, i. 1051, v. 878. 
Soore it me a-thyn/ceth 
For the dede that I hare doon. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 374. 

A-THIS-SIDE. On this side; betwixt now and — . 

e. g. " a this side Christmas." Var. dial. 
ATHOG. As though. 

I schall ley on hym, athog I wode were. 
With thys same womanly geyre. 

Sharp's Diss, on Cov. Myst. p. 111. 

ATHOLDE. To withhold. See Hartshorne's 
Met. Tales, p. 96 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 62. 
For-thi Satanas the holde 
The soule wille atholde. MS Digby 86, f. 128. 

ATHOUT. Without. West 
ATHRANG. In a throng. 

Alle weore dryven athrang : 

Ten myle they yeode alang. Kyng Alisaunder, 3409. 
A-THRE. In three parts. See Chaucer, Cant. T. 
2936; LegendaeCatholicae, p,128; Rob. Glouc. 
p. 23 ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 22. 

The halvedel thsnne athreo 

Wei he bisette theo. Chron. of England, 515. 



ATHREP. With torture; cruelly. (A.-S.) Mr. 
Conybeare gives no explanation of this word. 
Bisydcs stondeth a feondes trume. 
And waiteth hwenne the saules cume ; 
Heo hire awarieth al athrep. 
Also wulves doth the seep. 

Conybeare*s Octavian, p. 57- 
ATHRINED. Touched. Verstegan. 
A-THRISTETH. Thrust; push; hurry on. 

Rennynge houndes hunteth yn dyverse maneres, 

for some foleweth the hert faste at the bygynnynge, 

and a-thristeth a hert at the firste, for thei goith light- 

lych and faste. ilfS. Bodl. 546. 

ATHROTED. Throttled; choked. 

And if thou wolt algates with superfluitie of riches 
be athroted, thou shalt hasteliche be anoied, or rls 
evlU at ese. Testament of Love, p. 4t;6. 

A-THROUGH. Entirely. 

A-through they ordeyned gode and fyne, 
Hys body and bones to berye theryn. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 216. 

ATHRUST. Athirst; thirsty. 
An huswyfe of trust. 
Whan she is athrust, 
Suehe a webbe can spyn, 
Her thryft is full thyn. Skelton's Works, 1. 103. 

ATHURT. Athwart ; across. West. It is some- 
times used in the sense of a short cut, and 
frequently also by sailors, with the channel 
understood, e. g. *' He's gone athurt." 
ATHVERTYSYD. Advertised; informed. 

Yt shall please yow to be athvertysyd that here ys 
an abbey callyd Ingham in Norfolke, not fare frome 
Seynt Benettes abbeye. 

Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 86. 

ATHYT. Perhaps this ought to be, at hyt. 
No storing of pasture, with baggedgly tyt. 
With ragged, with aged, and evel athyt. 

Tusser, ed. 1573, f. 14. 

A-TILT. At a tilt. Also, as a verb. See the 

quotations given by Richardson, in v. 
ATIRE. To prepare; to fit out. {A.-N.) 

What dos the kyng of France ? atires him gotie navie 
Tille Inglond, o chance to wynne it with maistrie. 

Peter Langtnft, p. 20/. 
Atired ther wendyng toward the Marche right sone. 

Ibid. p. 240. 

ATISFEMENT. Ornament. {A.-N.) 

A pavilion of honour, with riche atisfement. 
To serve an emperour at a parlement. 

Peter Langtoft, p. 152. 

ATITLED. Called ; entitled. 

But jit here sterris bothe two, 
Satorne and Jubiter also. 
They have, alle-thouje they be to blame, 
Atitled to here owen name. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 133. 
This Aries, on of the twelfe. 
Hath Marche attitled for himselve. Ibid. f. 199. 
The twelve monthis of the jere 
Attitled undir the power 

Of these twelve signis stonde. Ibid. f. 199. 

ATLED. Arrayed. SeeAtgl. 

Hire teht aren white ase bon of whal, 

Evene set ant atled al. Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. SK. 

AT-LOWE. Below. 

And truly, syrs, looke that ye trow 

That othere lord is none at-lowe, 

Bothe man and beest to hym shalle bowe. 

In towne and feyld. Towneley Mytteries, j», US. 



ATR 



lOG 



ATT 



ATO. In two. See Ahco. 
To the stifles he yede. 

And even ato hem schare. Sir Tristrem, p. 159. 
A.TOK. Took ; seized. 

Al that Fortiger atok, 

He let to-drawe and an-hong. 

Artliour and Merlin, p. 18. 
ATOM. At home. Atome is still common in 
the provinces. 

And the Normans ne couthe speke tho bote her 

owe speche. 
And speke French as dude atom, and here chyldren 
dude al-so teche. Rob. Glouc. p. 364. 

ATOMY. (1) An atom. See Romeo andJuliet,i.4, 
To tell thee truth, not wonders, for no eye 
Sees thee but stands amazed, and would turn 
His crystal humour into atomies 
Ever to play about thee. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, iv. 283. 
(2) A skeleton. North. Shakespeare has the 

word in 2 Henry IV. v. 4. 
AT-ON. United; agreed. See Lay le Fraine, 
279-320; Prompt. Parv. p. 6; Faerie Queene, 
II. i. 29 ; Rehq. Antiq. i. 167. 
Thou base oure gude mene slane, 
I redeje be at-ane 

Or thare dy any ma. Sir Degrevante, Lincoln MS. 
In that maner they are at-on. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 120. 

ATONE. To reconcile ; to agree. See Beaumont 
and Fletcher, i. 141 ; Webster's Works, i. 73 ; 
As You Like It, v. 4. This verb is evidently 
formed from at one. Shakespeare, Merry 
Wives of Windsor, i. I, has atonement in the 
sense of reconcihation, agreement. 
ATOP. On the top ; upon. It is generally ac- 
companied by of or on; e. g. "I saw Mr. Brown 
atop of his new horse yesterday." Var. dial. 
ATORN. (1) To run away. 

Tho Water Tyrel y-sey that he was ded, anon 
Heatornde as vaste as he myjte ; that was hys best 
won. Rob. Glouc. p. A19. 

(2) In turn ? A turn ? 

Thou hast y-dremed of venesone, 

Thou mostest drynke atom. MS. Ashmole 33, f. 4. 

(3) Broken. Hants. 
ATORNE. Attorney. (A.-N.) 

The same manere jit doth he, 
That is a fals atornc. MS. Bodl. 48, f . 16C. 

ATORRYTE. Authority. This form of the word 
occurs in some verses scribbled in MS. Bodl. 
546. 
ATOUR. About ; around. {A.-N.) 
Ded buth my prynces be atour. 

K;/ng Alisaunder, 4511. 

ATOURNED. Equipped. {A.-N.) 
And otherwhile he might him se. 
As a gret ost bi him te, 
Wele atourned ten hundred knightes, 
Ich y-armed to his rightes. 

Sir Orpheo, ed. Laing, 253. 

ATOW. That thou. 

Loke atow no more wepe, 
For thi wiif lith stille on slepe. 

Marie Maudelein, p. 236. 

AT-PLAY. Out of work. Staff. 
AT-RAIIT. Seized ; taken away. 

.Such reed me myhtc spaclyche reowe. 

When al my ro were me 'it-raht. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 37. 



AT-RAUGHT. Seized. "^ 

Who so ever he at-raught, -7 

Tombel of hors he him taught. V 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 179\ 

ATRAY. To trouble ; to vex ; to anger. From 

tray. See the Sevyn Sages, 1867 ; Gov. Myst. 

p. 350. 

He sturte him up in a breyd. 
In his herte sore atrayyed. Kyng of Tars, 60 
ATRETE. Continually ; distinctly. It is trau 
lated by tractim and distincte in the Promp 
Parv. p. 17. Baber, in his glossary to Wickliff 
refers to 2 Esdre viii. for an instance of the 
word. 

Hit was gode preyers, I sei hit atrete. 

MS. Vernon, Archceologia, xviii. 25. 

ATRICK. An usher of a hall, or master porter. 

Minsheu. 
ATRIE. To try ; to judge. 

Chefe justise he satte, the sothe to atrie. 
For lefe no loth to lette the right lawe to guye. 

Peter Langtoft, p. 80. 
The rightes he did attrie of tho that wrong had 
nomen. Ibid. p. 245. 

ATRIST UN. Trust ; confide. 

Ther are thowsand spices of veyn supersticoun, 
that is, thing veynly ordeynid and veynly usid, and 
veynly that men atristunm, and all silk thingis are 
forbidun je in this, that thu schalt not tak his name 
in veyn. Apology for the Lollards, p. .96. 

AT-ROUTE. To rout; to put to flight; to assem- 
ble. Hearne also gives the meanings, to re- 
sist, to gather together. 
So that men of purchas come to hym so gret route, 
That ther nas prince un-nethe that hym myjte atronte. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 78. 

AT-RYGHTTEZ. Completely. 

Luke je aftyre evensang be armyde at-ryghttez 
On blonkez by jone buscayle, by jone blyth 
stremez. Morte Arthur e, MS. Lincoln, f. 62. 

AT-SCAPEN. To escape. 

Jesu, thi grace that is so fre 
In siker hope do thou me, 
At-scapen peyne ant come to the. 
To the blisse that ay shal be. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 75. 

AT-SITTE. To withstand; to contradict. {A.-S.) 
See Rob. Glouc. p. 174 ; Arthour and MerUn, 
p. 68. 

For ther nas so god knyjt non nower aboute France, 
That in joustes scholde at-sitte the dynt of ys launce. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 137. 
Hise bode ne durste he non at-sitte. Havelok, 2200. 
AT-SQUARE. In quarrel. 

Oft times yong men do fall at-square. 
For a fine wench that is feat and faire. 

Withals' Dictionarie, p. 271. 

AT-STODE. Withstood. Cf Rob. Glouc. p. 15. 

With sheld and spcreout i-drawe 

That hoere dunt at-stode. MS. Digby 86, f.l24. 

AT-STONDE. To withstand. 

I ne wende nojt that eny man my dunf sgolde nt-stonde. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 300. 
ATT. To. 

We besekcne jowe that je chcse jow jong lordes 
and jong knyghtes that ere listy mene and able for 
to sufl're (lisesse for to be with jow ; for here we gille 
lip att armes, if it be jour wille, and forsakes thamo 
for ever. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f. 3. 



ATT 



107 



ATT 



/., 



V:;HEN. To attach; to mdlte. {A.-N.) 
laA. comaunded a constable, 
i.^hat com at the firste, 

To attachen tho tyrauntz. Piers Ploughman, p. 4(). 
,xTACK'D-ED. Attacked. A common parti- 
ciple here, but more extensively used, 1 am 
told, in America. 
ATTAINT. A taint; anything hurtful. The 
verb seems to be used in somewhat a pecu- 
liar sense in Morte d' Arthur, ii. 266. It was 
also a term in chivalry. 

I will not poison thee with my attaint. 
Nor fold my fault in cleanly coin'd excuses. 

Shakespeai-e's Lucrece. 
The kyng was that daye fiyghly to be praysed, for 
he brake xxiij. speres, besyde attai/ntes, and bare 
doune to ground a man of arraes and hys horse. 

Hall, Henry VIII. f. 55. 

ATTAL-SARESIN. According to Cowell and 
Kennett, the inhabitants of Cornwall call an 
old mine that is given over by this name. The 
latter says, '* probably because the Saxons em- 
ployd the Saracens in those labours." 
ATTAME. (1) To commence ; to begin. (A.-N.) 
Also, to broach a vessel of liquor, as in Prompt. 
Parv. p. 16, where it is translated by attamino. 
And thereupon he schulde anone attame 
Another of newe, and for the more honoure. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Andq. 134, f. 8 
Yes, hoste, quod he, so mote I ride or go. 
But I be mery, y-wis I wol be blamed ; 
And right anon his tale he hath attorned. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 14824. 
There was none suche sithen Adam dide atame 
The frute to ete, for eyther halte or lame. 

MS. Soc.Antiq. 134, f . 1. 

(2) To feel ; to taste. 

For sithin that payne was first named. 
Was ner more wofuU payne attamed. 

Chaucer's Dreame, 596. 

(3) To hurt ; to injure. This is, I believe, the 
meaning of the word in Chaucer's Dreame, 
1128, which Tyrwhitt conjectures to be dis- 
graced. 

Of his scholder the swerd glod doun. 
That bothe plates and hauberjoun 

He carf atuo y plight, 
Al to the naked hide y-wis ; 
And nought of flesche atamed is 

Thurch grace of God Almight. 

Cy of Warwike, p. 325. 

ATTAR. After. Salop. 
ATTASK'D. Blamed. See Alapt. 

You are much more attaak'd for want of wisdom. 
Than prais'd for harmful mildness. King Lear, i. 4. 

ATTAST. To taste. See Dial of Great. Moral. 
p. 94. 
And to oon frute in specyall he had grete hast. 
His aptyde was desirous therof to attast. 

MS. Laud 416, f. 61. 

ATTE. At the. {A.-S.) 

And thanne seten somme. 
And songen atte nale. Piers Ploughman, p. 124. 
ATTE-FROME. Immediately. {A.-S.) See 
Kyng Alisaunder, 5356. 

With that came a sergeant prickand, 
Gentil he was and well speakand ; 
To Sir Guy is he come. 
And him he gret atte frome. 

Elhs't Met. Rom. ii. 18. 



ATTELE. To aim ; to design ; to conjecture ; 
to go towards ; to approach ; to judge. See 
Sir F. Madden's glossary, in v. and Ettle. 
The emperowr entred in a wey evene to attele 
To have bruttenet that bor and the abaie seththen. 
Will, and the Werwolf, p. 8. 
For-thi an aunter in erde I attle to schawe. 

Syr Gaivayne, p. 4. 

ATTE MPE RALLY. Temperately. 

That mane es nojte mekilles at commend that 
alwayes lyffes in disesse ; bot he es gretly to com- 
mend that in reches lyffez attemperally . 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 35, 

ATTEMPERAUNCE. Temperance. See Lyd- 
gate's Minor Poems, pp. 194, 209 ; and the 
example under Fratour. 

And soveraynly she had attemper aunce. 

Lydgate, MS. Ashmole 39, f. 11. 

ATTEMPRE. (1) Temperate. {A.-N.) In 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 189, we have 
attempted in the same sense. See M aundevile's 
Travels, p. 276. 

Attempre diete was all hire physike. 
And exercise, and hertes suffisance. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 14844. 

(2) To make temperate. SeeTroilus andCreseide, 
i. 954. 

Ther may no welthe ne poverte 
Attempre hem to the decerte. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 47. 

ATTEMPRE LY. Temperately. {A.-N.) 
Governeth you also of your diete 
Attemprely, and namely in this hete, 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 13192. 

ATTEMPTATE. An attempt. 

As herunto the kynge marvaylith gretly off thys 
presumptuose attemptate usydde by the Frenchemen 
in hys streme, and takyth the same verraye dis- 
pJeasantly. State Papers, i. 36. 

ATTENDABLY. Attentively. Palsgrave has 
attendable, attentive. 

Because they scholde the more attendably study and 
werke the more spedyly aboute the thynges that 
myghte cause and haste ther delyveraunce. 

MS. Arundel 146. 

ATTENT. Attentive. Shakespeare has the word 
in Hamlet, i. 2. See also Richardson, in v. 
While other rusticks, lesse attent 
To prayers then to merryment. 

Her rick's Works, 1. 140. 

ATTER. (1) Poison. (^.-^S'.) Hence, corrupt 
matter issuing from an ulcer, as in Prompt. 
Parv. p. 16, where it is translated by sanies. 
This latter is also the provincial use of the 
w^ord ; Forby has it, and Skinner gives it as a 
Lincolnshire word, in which county it now 
seems to be obsolete. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 
1033, says it was used in Sussex in the same 
sense. See Piers Ploughman, p. 243. 
Of vych a werm that after bereth, 
Other it stingeth, other it tereth. 

Conybeare's Octavian, p. 57. 
Thai sharped thar tung als nedder so, 
Attre of snakes undir lippes of tho. 

MS. BodU 425, f. 87. 
(2) An otter. 

Take heare cattes, dogges too, 
Atter and foxe, fiUie, mare alsoe. 

Cheater Playt, i M. 



ATT 



108 



ATT 



(3) Attire; array. 

In valewe eke much more did cost his wenches pall. 
Thee all th' alter is worth that c6vereth altres tenne. 
Append, to W. Mapes, p. 278. 

ATTERCOP. A spider. {A.-S.) It is translated 
by aranea m the Prompt. Parv. p. 16, and the 
provincial glossaries give it also the sense of a 
spider's web, as Ray, Kennett, and others. See 
Prompt. Parv. p. 140, and the list of old words 
prefixed to Batman uppon Bartholome, 1582, 
where it occurs in the first sense. Stanihurst, 
in his Description of Ireland, p. 11, says a 
spider was called an attercop in some parts of 
that country, and even in Fingal. Pegge ex- 
plains it, "the venomous spider," which agrees 
with the etymology from atter, poison ; though 
cobweb, which was anciently spelt copweb, 
may have been derived from the latter part of 
the word ; Dut. Kop, a spider ; Welsh, Cop or 
Coppin. In the North of England, the term 
is applied to a peevish, ill-natured person, not 
exclusively to the female sex, as Mr. Brockett 
seems to say. 

ATTERLOTHE. Nightshade. It is the transla- 
tion of morella in an early list of plants in MS. 
Harl. 978, f. 25. 

ATTERLY. Utterly. Skinner. 

ATTERMITE. An ill-natured person. North. 

ATTERN. Fierce ; cruel ; snarling. Glouc. 

ATTERY. Purulent. East. Irascible ; choleric. 
West. Clearly connected with attry, veno- 
mous, q. V. Chaucer speaks of attry anger in 
the Persones Tale, p. 63. 

ATTERYNG, Venomous. {A.-S.) 

On face and hondis thei had gret nayles, 
And grette homes and atteryng taylys. 

Tundale, p. 6. 

ATTEST. Attestation; testimony. 
An esperance so obstinately strong, 
That doth invert the attest of eyes and ears. 

Troilus and Cressida, v. 2. 

ATTEYNANT. Attainable; appertaining. 
To joyne suche a worke, or it to rectify, 
To me it semeth so farre sette awrye. 
In tyme of yeares, to other dyscordaunte. 
That to my duUe wytte it is not attet/nant. 

Fabian's Chronicle, prol. 

ATTEYNT. Convicted. 

At London thei wer atteynt, decre was mad for thate. 
Langtdft's Chronicle, p. 122. 

ATTICE. A carpenter's tool ; an adze. Somerset. 
ATTINCTURE. Attainder. 

In what case the righte of the matter was theire, 
and whether anye attincture, statute, or alyenacion, 
were made by anye of the auiicesters of this gentle- 
man, by which his ryghte were extincte. 

ArchtBologia, xxviii. 128. 

ATTIRES. The horns of a stag. Skinner says, 

" cornua cervi adulta, q. d. cervi ornamenta." 

ATTLE. Rubbish, refuse, or stony matter. A 

mini.ig term. 
ATTOM'D. Filled with small particles ; thick. 
Whereas mens breaths doe instantly congealc. 
And attom'd mists turne instantly to hayle. 

Drayton's Poems, p. 264. 

ATTONE. Altogether. 

And his fresh blood did frieze with fearefull cold. 
That all his sences seem'd berefte attonc. 

The Faerie Quecnc, II. i. 42. 



ATTONES. At once. North. 

And thenne they alyght sodenly, and sett> 
handes upon hym all attones, and toke hym pryd 
and soo ledde hym unto the castel. V 

Morte d' Arthur, i. i>v , 
Fair queen of love, I lov'd not all attonce. 

Peele's Works, i. 41. 

ATTORNEY. A deputy. This original mean- 
ing of the word is used in the Alchemist, ii, 1. 
See also Hawkins's Engl. Dram. i. 40. Shake- 
speare makes a verb of it in Measure for Mea- 
sure V. 1. 
ATTOUR. (1) Ahead-dress. {A.-N.) 
Nor I nil makin mencioun 
Nor of her robe, nor of tresour 
Of broche, ne of her riche attour, 
Ne of her girdle about her side. 

Rom. of the Rose, 3718. 

(2) Around. (A.-N.) See Atour. 

Attour his belte his liart lockis laie, 
Feltrid unfaire, or fret with frostis hore. 

Testament of Creseide, 162. 

ATTOURNE. To return. 

For there he woulde no longer make sojourne. 
But with Troyans to their lande attourne. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 14. 

ATTOURNEMENT. A law term, defined by 
Minsheu to be " a yeelding of a tenant unto 
a new lord." See also Wright's Monastic Let- 
ters, p. 88 ; Hohnshed, Chron. of Ireland, 
p. 102. 
ATTRACT. An attraction. 

For then their late attracts decline. 
And turn as eager as prick'd wine. 

Hudibras, III. i. 695. 
ATTRAITS. Flattery. Skinner. 
ATTRAP. To entrap. (Fr.) It sometimes means 
to dress, to adorn. See Richardson, in v. 

The king accompanied with the Dukes of Somer- 
set and Excester, and other of the line of Lan- 
caster, determined clerely to set on the Duke ef 
Yorke and his confederates, and them by force either 
utterly to vanquish, or by pollecy to attrap and 
bring to confusion. Hall, Henry VI. f* 92. 

ATTRIBUTION. Seems to be used by Shake- 
speare, 1 Henry IV. iv. 1, ior commendation. 
ATTRID. Poisoned. {A.-S.) 

Archars with arows with attrid barbis. 

MS. Ashmole 44, f. 42. 

ATTRITION. Grief for sin, arising only from 
the fear of punishment. See Tyndall, quoted 
by Richardson, in v. / 

ATTROKIEN. To fail. {A.-S.) 

I nelle noujt fastinde late him go. 

That heo beon over-come. 
And attrokicn bi the weie for feblesse. 
That honger hem habbe i-nome. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 1. 

ATTRY. Venomous ; poisonous. (A.-S.) 
He shal hem smyte and do to lijt; 
He shal hem jyve ful attry dynt. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 131 
With iren, fuyr, or attri beest. 
Mow that ever thei may hardest. Ibid. f. 132. 
ATTUR. Hotter. 

As owre the glede attur ys feyre. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 88. 

ATTWEEN. Between. Far. dial. 

Attwecn too thcevys nayled to a tre. 

Lydgate'i Minor Poem*, p. 86*- 



ATW 



1(79 



AUD 



. .^SE. To entice. 

^ Servauntes, avoyde the company 

Of them that playe at cardes or dyse ; 
For yf that ye them haunte, truely 
To thefte shall they you scone attyse. 

Anc. Poetical Tracts, p. 11. 

ATUGON. Drawn. Verstegan. 

AT-UNDERE. In subjection. 

Prayes hym for the pes, and profyrs fulle large 
To hafe pet^ of the Pope, that put was at-undere. 
Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 87. 

AT-VORE. Before. Rob. Glouc. 
AT-WAPED. Escaped. 

What wylde so at-waped wyjes that scho-tten, 
Watz al to-raced and rent, at the resayt. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 44. 

A-TWAYN. In two; asunder. See Southey's 
notes to the Morte d' Arthur, ii. 472. 
And clef ys body evene a-twayn 
With that stvonge spryng. 

MS. Aahmole 33, f. 30. 
A-TWEE. In two. North. 
ATWEEL. Very well. North. 
ATWIN. (1) Asunder ; in two. Suffolk. See 
Ritson's Anc. Pop. Poet. p. 65 ; Sir Tristrem, 
pp. 152, 271 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 3589. 
She and her sonne was departed a<M;tn, 
For he and she were to nye kynne. 

Syr Deffori, 900. 
(2) To part asunder. 

Thefurste payne of the seven. 

That ;e me herd byfore neven, 

Ys the grete drede that the soule ys inne, 

Whan the bodye and yt schal a-twynne. 

MS. Laud. 486. 

AT-WIRCHE. To work against; to do evil 
work to. 

Al that trowe on Jhesu Crist, 
Thai fond at-wirche ful wo. 

Seynt Mergrete, p. 103. 
ATWIST. Disagreement. North. In Somer- 
setshire it is used for twisted. 
AT- WIST. Knew. 

Another dai Clarice arist. 
And Blauncheflour at-wiat 
Will hi made so longe demoere. 

Hartshorne*s Met. Tales, p. 105. 
And thou in thine halle me sle. 
For traisoun it worth at-wist the. 

Gyof Warwike, p, 251. 

ATWITE. To twit; to upbraid. (^.-5.) See Rob. 
Glouc. p. 33; State Papers, iii. 23. In our 
second example it is used for the participle. 
See Atwot. 

Sir steward, that was ivel y-smite. 
In unworthschip it worth the atwite. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 152. 
He was wroth, ye schul here wife, 
For Merlin hadde him atwite. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 341. 

ATWIXE. Between. See Amis and Amiloun, 865. 
How first the sparke was kyndled of envie 
Atwixe Grekys and hem of Troye town. 

MS. Digby 232, f . 2 

ATWIXT. Between. Suffolk. See the Faerie 
Queene, I. viii. 13. The Prompt. Parv. gives 
atwyxyne, atwexyn, and atwyxt ; and atwixin 
occurs in Troilus and Creseide, i. 418. 

ATWO. In two ; asunder. West. 

Avoutrie is the gretest theft that may be ; for it 



is theft of body and of soule, and it is like to homi- 
cide, for it kerveih atwo and breketh atwo hem that 
first were made on flesh. Personea Tale, p. 104. 

ATWOT. Twitted; upbraided. 

The loverd let make a gret fere. 
And let of-sende a neyghebour, 
Ich understonde a god harbour, 
And set his wif forth fot-hot. 
And hire misdedes hire atwot. 

Sevyn Sages, 187Ck 
The soudan cleped hem fot-hot. 
And his sones deth hem atwot. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 296 
AT-YANCE. At once. North. 
ATYL. (1) Furniture; attire. See the example 
from Robert of Gloucester, quoted under 
Aseynt. 
(2) To array ; to accoutre. (A.-N.) 
So that, at certeyn day y-set, to thys batayle hii come, 
A lute wythoute Parys, atyled wel y-nou. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 184. 

A-TYME. On a time. 

A-tyme, to speke myd hys moder, to Engelond he com. 
An gret folc of Normandye myd hym hyder he nome. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 326. 

ATYR. Attire; ornaments. (J.-N.) 

Theo atyr was therein so riche. 
In al this world nys him non liche. 

Kyng Alisaunder, ^0.82. 

AU. All. North. Tusser, p. 174, has Ju for 
August, probably for the sake of the rhyme, 
though perhaps from Fr. Aouf. 
AUBADE. A serenade. Minsheu. {Fr.) 
AUBERK. A hawberk. 

Auberk, aketoun, and scheld. 
Was mani to-broken in that feld. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 221. 

AUCEY. So the first foho of Beaumont and 
Fletcher reads, in the Coxcomb, iv. 4. The 
second folio reads awkeward — " What awke- 
ward words they use beyond the seas !" 
Mr. Dyce reads sawcy [saucy?] in his edition, 
iii. 187. The reading of the second folio must 
be preferred to conjectural emendation, but 
aucey may be right, and some form of auk, q. v. 
AUCTE. Property. 

To-morwen shal maken the fre, 
Anda«f(e the yeven, and riche make. 

Havelok, 531. 

AUCTORITEE. A text of scripture, or of some 
celebrated writer. {Lat.) See Notes to Rish- 
anger's Chronicle, p. 111. 

But, dame, here as we riden by the way. 
Us nedeth not to speken but of game. 
And let auctoiitees in Goddes name 
To preching, and to scole eke of clergie. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 6858. 

AUCTOUR. An author. {Lat.) 

By witte of man, al thynge that is contryved 
Standithe in proporcioune, plainly to ccKiclude. 
In olde auctours lyke as it is discryved, 
Whether it be depnesse or longitude. 

Lydgate's Minor PoetM, p. 80l 

AUCYNTURE. A cincture. 

And also holy watyr uppon the aonday in dede 
Gevyn by the preist that of the hathe cure, 
Yn tyme of nede is for thy holy aucynture. 

MS. Laud 416, f. 48. 

AUDACIOUS. This word was not always used 



AUG 



110 



AUG 



by oiir early writers in a bad sense, but fre- 
quently meant no more than liberal or com- 
mendable boldness. See Love's Labom-s Lost, 

V. 1. 

AUD-FARAND. A term applied to children who 
have copied the manners of elderly people. 
Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, says, " a forward 
or old-growing child, as children are said to 
be aud-farand when they are vsdtty or wise 
beyond their years, apud Boreales." Kennett 
derives it from A.-S. Faran. See also his 
Glossary, ed. 1816, p. 72. 
AUD-FASHINT. Grave; sagacious; ingenious. 

North. 
AUDIENCE. Hearing. Chaucer. 
AUD-PEG. An inferior sort of cheese, made of 

skimmed milk. North. 
AUEN. Own. 

Qui suld I him servis yield ? 
Al sal be at myn auen weild. 

MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. f. 4. 
AUFYN. The bishop at chess w^as formerly so 
called, and is conjectured to be derived from 
the Arabic al-fil, an elephant, that being the 
piece which took the place of the bishop in 
the East. In the tract De Vetula, falsely 
ascribed to Ovid, the following pieces are men- 
tioned as used in chess, — Miles et Alpinus, 
RoccuSj Rex, Virgo, Pedesque. See Ducange, 
in V. Alphinus; and Alfyn. 

So yn a day, a? he pleide at the chesse, and by- 
helde the kyiig sf ite yn the pley, somtyme hy and 
somtyme lowe, among aufyns and pownys, he 
tnought therwithe that hit wolde be so with him, 
for he shuldedey, and be hid uiidir erthe. 

Gesta Romanorum, p. 61. 
And of awfyna eke also 
On hir syde she had two, 
Wroght of a stone of grete fame, 
Eliotropia was the name, MS. Fairfax, 16. 
AUGENT. August; noble. 

Hayle, cumly kyngis augent! 

Good surs, I pray you whedder ar ye ment. 

Sharp's Cou. Myst. p. 101. 

AUGGERES. Agues. 

A man that is here y-hunge and lyght, 
Tho never so stalworthe and whight. 
And comly of shape, lovely and fayr, 
Auggeres and ruelles will soon apayr. 

J. de Wageby (Hampole), p. 5. 

AUGHENE. Own. 

He covetyd noghte to dye, if it were plesyng to 
theFadire of hevene; and never the lesse his aughene 
Fadire wolde noghte here hym. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 179. 
AUGHT. (I) Possessions; property. {A.-S.) 
He highth hem aughtte and gret nobleys. 
He schulden hit hele and ben m pels. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 6884. 
Havelok his sone he him tauhte. 
And hise two douhtres, and al his anhte. Havelok, 2215. 

(2) Possessed. See Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 126; 
Sevyn Sages, 1336 ; Ipomydon, 1422. 

King Triamours elders it laught. 

King Darri sum time it aught. Gy ofWarwike, p. 313. 

(3) Ought ; owed. East. 

For mi lordes doubter sche is. 
And ich his nori, forsothe y-wis. 
Therefore ich auight him trewethebere. 

Gy of fVarwike, p. 7. 



(4) Anything ; at alL (A.-S.) -^ 

And as they were in great aventure, ' 
They saw a drowmound out of meiure ; \ 
The drowmound was so hevy fraught, y 
That unethe myght it saylen aught. ^^ 

Richard Cver de Lion, S4^ 

(5) Eight. 

That es at saye, a twelvemonthe and aughte mo- 
nethes salle thou lyfte, and thane he that thou trais- 
tez one salle giffe thee a drynke of dedd. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 40. 
They ocupyede the empyre aughte score wynttyrs. 

Morte Arthwe, MS. Lincoln, f . 56. 

AUGHTED. Cost. 

Bevis did on his acquetoun, 
That had aughted many a town. 

Ellis's Met. Rom. ii. 111. 

AUGHTENE. The eighth. 

One the aughtene day of thi byrthe here, 
That the firste day es of the newe 5ere, 
Circumcysede in body walde thou be, 
Alles the law was thane in sere contr^. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 190. 
A ftyr the aughtende day, whene undronne es rungene. 
Thou salle be hevedede in hye, and with horsse drawene. 
Morte Arthur e, MS. Lincoln, f. 58. 

AUGHTS. Any considerable quantity. North. 

This is probably connected with aught, q. v. 
AUGHT-WHERE. Anywhere. {A.-S.) 

As wolde God above that I had give 
My blode and fleshe, so that I might live 
With the bones that he hdid. aught-wherez'wiie 
For his estate, for soche a lustie life 
She shouldm ledin with this lustie knight. 

Hypaipyle and Medea, l73. 

AUGLE. To ogle. North. Kennett gives this 
form of the word in his glossary, MS. Lansd. 
1033, f. 25. 
AUGRIM-STONES. Counters formerly used in 
arithmetic, and which continued to be em- 
ployed long after the introduction of Arabic 
numerals. In the Winter's Tale, iv. 2, the 
clown says, "Let me see; — Every 'leven wether 

tods ; every tod yields pound and odd 

shilling : fifteen hundred shorn, — what comes 
the wool toi* — I cannot do't without counters." 
His astrelabre, longing for his art. 
His augrim-stones, layen faire apart 
On shelves couched at his beddes hed. 
His presse y-covered with a falding red, 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 3210. 

AUGUELLE. A kind of fish, mentioned in an 
old document quoted in Davies's York Records, 
p. 124. Qu. Anguelle. 

AUGULKOC. This word occurs in some glosses 
from the Cambridge MS. of Walter de Bibbles- 
worth, printed in Reliq. Antiq. ii. 83. The 
French is \in treyn. Qu. Anyulkoc. 

AUGURIOUS. Predicting. 

I beleeve the scruple those augwious people in 
such kind of accidents have, would have made this 
man have abandoned me to the fury of those cursed 
animals. 

A Comical Hi.'ttory of the World in the Moor., 1659. 

AUGURYNE. A fortune-teller. 

And treuly I have seen of Paynemes and Sira- 
zinos, that men clepen auguryncs, that whan wee 
ryden in armes in dyverse contrees upon oure cue- 
myes, be the flycnge of foules thei wolde telle us th» 
prenosticaciouns oc thinges that felle aftre. 

MaundevUe's Travel*, p. 167' 



AUM 



111 



AUN 



. JSTA. A cant term for the mistress of a 
Suse of ill-fame. See Ben Jonson's Works, 
.d. GifFord, iv. 46. 
jHTEN. Eight. 

Auhten jere Edgar regned kyng and sire ; 
He lies in tombe in the abbey of Glastenbire. 

Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 36. 
AUK. Inverted ; confused. In the East of Eng- 
land, bells are " rung auk" to give alarm of 
fire ; and Palsgrave has, " I rynge auke- 
warde, je sonne abrausle." It was formerly 
the general custom to ring hells backward in 
cases of fire. See GifFord's Massinger, i. 236. 
The older meaning is angry, ill-natured, as in 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 18 ; where we also have, 
" awke, or WTonge, sinister.'" This last sense 
is still in use in the North of England, and 
Tusser tells us that bad husbandry droops *' at 
fortune so auke." See the Five Hundred Points, 
1573, f. 58. An auk stroke is a backward 
stroke, as in Palsgrave, f. 18 ; Morte d' Arthur, 
i. 148, 284. Brockett says that the word is 
applied to a stupid or clumsy person in the 
North of England. 

3e that llste has to lyth, or luffes for to here 
Off elders of aide tyme,and of theireat^/iredefiys. 
Morte ArtJiure, MS. Lincoln, f. 53. 
AUKERT. Awkward. Var. dial 
AUL. An alder. Herefordsh. The foUovsdng is 
a country proverb : 

When the bud of the aul is as big as the trout's eye, 
Then that fish is in season in the river Wye. 

AULD. (1) Old. Var. dial. 

(2) The first or best, a phrase used in games. 
" That is the auld bowl." East. 

(3) Great. North. It is used in the same man- 
ner as old in the Merry Wives of Windsor, i. 4. 
See Pegge's Anecdotes, p. 100. 

AULD-ANE. The devil. North. Perhaps the 
more usual term is Auld-Nick. 

AULD-LANG-SYNE. A favourite phrase in the 
North, by which old persons express their re- 
collections of former kindnesses and juvenile 
enjoyments, in times long since past, — immor- 
talised by the song of Burns, " Should auld 
acquaintance be forgot." See Brockett, in v. 

AULD-THRIFT. Wealth accumulated by the 
successive frugality of a long race of ancestors. 
North. 

AULEN. Of alder. Herefordsh. 

AULN. A French measure of 5 ft. 7 in. said by 
Lewis to be used in Kent. 

AUM. (1) An aim. Palsgrave, f. 18, has, " Aume 
or marke, esme." 

(2) An elm. North. 

(3) Allum. North. 

AUMA. A sort of pancake. This is given by 
Boucher as a Herefordshire word, but it seems 
to be now obsolete. 
AUMAIL. To enamel. It is a substantive in 
Syr Gawayne, p. 11. 
All bar'd with golden bendes, which were entayld 
With curious antickes, and full fayre aumayld 

The Faerie Queene, II. iii. 27. 

AUMAIST. Almost. North. 



AUMBES-AS. Arabes-as, q. v. 

Ake i-hered beo swete Jhesu Crist, 

Huy casten aumbes-as. MS. Laud. 108, f. 107 

Stille, stille, Satanas ! 

The is fallen aunbesas I MS. Bigby B6, f . 1 19. 

AUMBLE. An ambling pace. {A.-N.) 
His stede was all dapple gray. 
It goth an aumble in the way. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 1,^814. 
AUMBRE-STONE. Amber. Palsgrave. 
AUMBRY. A cupboard; a pantry. North. 
Sometimes spelt aumery, or aumry. 
Some slovens from sleeping no sooner be up. 
But hand is in aumbrie, and nose in the cup. 

Tusser's Five Hundred Points, 1573, ii.5. 

AUMELET. An omelet. Skinner. 
AUMENER. A purse. (A.-N.) 

Than of his aumcner he drough 
A little keie fetise i-nough, 
Whiche was of gold polishid clere. 

Rom. of the fiose,2087. 
AUMENERE. An almoner. 

Seynt Jone, the aumenere, 
Seyth Pers was an okerere. 

MS.Harl. 1701, f. 37. 

AUMER. To cast a shadow over ; to shadow. 
The substantive is spelt aumerd. It cor- 
responds to the old word umhre. Craven. 
AUMERE. A purse. Tyrwhitt considers this 
to be a corruption of aumener, q. v. 
Were streighte glovis with avmere 
Of silke, and alway withgodechere 
Thou yeve, if that thou have richesse. 

Rom. of the Rose, 2271. 
AUMONE. Alms- Skinner. 
AUMOUS. Quantity. When a labourer has 
been filling a cart with manure, corn, &c. he 
will say at last to the carter or waggoner, 
" Haven't ya got your aumous." Line. 
AUMPEROUR. An emperor. 
The numperour Frederic and the king Philip of France, 
A lie hii wende to Jerusalem todogode chaunce. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 486. 
Ore Loverd wende mid is desciples 

Into Philipcs londe ; 
Cesares brothur the aumperour 

Gan is desciples fonde. MS. Laud. 108, f. I. 
AUMPH. Awry ; aslant. Salop. 
AUMRS. A cupboard. North. 
AUMRY-SOAL. " A hole," says Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, " at the bottom of the cupboard." 
1 laid um here, under the awmj-t/soal. 

Yorkshire Dialogue, p. 44. 

AUMS-ASE. Literally, two aces, the lowest 
throw in the dice. It seems, however, from a 
curious extract in Collier's Hist. Dram. Poet, 
ii. 314, an old game at dice was so called. 

AUMUS. Alms. North. Thoresby, in hiS' 
Letter to Ray, 1703, spells it awmoss. 

AUNCEL. A kind of land-sale weight, prohi- 
bited by statute on account of its great uncer- 
tainty. See Brit. Bibl. ii. 512. In the fol- 
lowing passage from Piers Ploughman, Mr. 
Wright's manuscript reads auncer, which 
can hardly be correct. " Awncell weight, as 
I have been informed," says Cowell, Interpre- 
ter, 1658, " is a kind of w(;ight with scales 



AUN 



112 



AUR 



hanging, or hooks fastened at each end of a 
staff, which a man lifteth up upon his fore- 
finger or hand, and so discernelli the equaUty 
or difference between the weight and the thing 
weighed ;" and he afterwards adds, " a man of 
good credit once certified mee that it is stil 
used in Leaden-all at London among 
butchers." 

Ac the pound that she paied by 
Peised a quatron moore 
Than myn owene au7icer, 
Who so weyed truthe. Piera Ploughman, p. 90. 
AUNCETERES. Ancestors. According to Mr. 
Hunter, this word is not quite obsolete in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire. Skelton, i. 128, has 
auncetry for ancestry. 

So schaltow gete god los and gretli be menskked. 
As han al thin aunceteres or thow were bigeten. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 185. 
An hondreth wynter here before, 
Myne aunsetters knyghtes have be. 

Robin Hood, i. 10. 

AUNCIAN. Aged. 

The olde auncian wyf hejest ho syttez. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 38. 

AUNCIENTES. Elders. 

The preistes, judges, and auncientes bare cheif rule, 
and governed the people as well as it would bee. 

Redman's Complaint of Grace, 1554. 

AUNCIENTY. Antiquity. See Skelton's Works, 
i. 74, ii. 415; Cooperi Thesaurus, in v. Aetas, 
Antiquitas. 

What auncientye than, is theyr Portuis and masse 
booke of. The Burnynge of Paules, 1563. 

AUND. Owned. North. 

AUNDEIRYS. Andirons. In the inventory of 
effects belonging to Sir John Fastolfe, " ij. 
staundyng aundeirys" are mentioned. See 
Archaeologia, xxi. 269. 

AUNDER. Afternoon ; evening. According to 
Carr, this word is nearly extinct in Craven ; 
Grose says it is used in Cheshire; and 
Hartshorne gives it as a Shropshire word. It 
seems derived from undern, q. v. Jamieson 
says that orntren in Scotland is " the repast 
taken between dinner and supper." Cotgrave 
several times mentions aunders-meat as an 
afternoon's refreshment. See his Dictionarie, 
in v. Gouber, Gouster, Recine, Bessie. 

AUNDIREN. An andiron, q. v. Palsgrave, f. 
18, translates " aundyren" by chenet. 
With that aundiren he thret Sir Gij, 
And with gret hate sikerly. Gy of Warwike, p. 250. 

AUNGE. An angel. {A.-N.) 

Eche day therwith je xal be content ; 

Aunge alle howrys xal to jow apere. Cov. Myst. p. 88. 

AUNT. A woman of bad character; a pro- 
curess or a bawd. Tbis sense is common in 
early plays, although aunt and uncle were the 
usual appellations given by a jester or fool to 
all elderly persons, without implying any im- 
proper meaning, a custom, according to 
Pegge, generally pursued in Cornwall. In 
a Midsummer Night's Dream, ii. 1, the term 
aimt seems to be applied to an old woman, or 
gossip, not necessarily in the bad sense, as the 
commeutators tell us. 



AUNTE. Instead of "up here aunte. 

Heralds* College MS. reads, " to-gedere.'^ 

Heo gederede up here aunte here est aboute wj^ 

And destruyde hire londes eyther in his syde. ' 

Rob. Glouc. p. a 

AUNTELERE. A stag's antler. See Twety's 
treatise on hunting in ReUq. Antiq. i. 151. 

AUNTER. (1) An adventure. {A.-N.) North. 
Rider makes it synonymous with hap or 
chance. In the provincial glossaries, it is 
sometimes explained, " needless scruple, mis- 
chance, misadventure." See Attele. 

(2) To adventure; to ventmre. (A.-N.) See 
Piers Ploughman, pp. 382, 435, 471 ; Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 35. 

I wol arise and auntre it, by my fay. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 4207. 

(3) An altar. 

Be-forn his aunter he knelyd adoun. 

Songs and Carols, 8t. xi. 

AUNTEROUS. Adventurous; bold; daring. 
" A castell aunterous,^^ in Lybeaus Disconus, 
279, glossed formidable. The Prompt. Parv. 
p. 19, makes it synonymous with doubtful, but 
the other meaning is found at p. 279. 
Thay that were aunterous by-syde. 
In a cuntr^ fulle wyde, 
Thay come thedir that tyde. 

Sir Degrevante, Lincoln MS. 

AUNTERS. Peradventure ; in case that ; lest ; 

probably. North. 
AUNTERSOME. Daring ; courageous. North. 

This is of course from aunter, q. v. 
AUNTRE. On the contrary ; on the other hand. 
Auntre, they swore hym hool oth 
To be hys men that wer there. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 3878. 

AUNTREOUSLICHE. Boldly; daringly. (A.-N.) 
Al auntreousliche ther he comen wes. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 83. 

AUNTROSE. Doubtful ; dangerous. (A.-N.) 
Thanne seide Alisandrine, auntrose is thin evel, 
Ful wonderliche it the weves, wel 1 wot the sothe. 
Will, and the Werwolf, p. 34. 

AUNTY. Aunt. Var. dial. 
AU-OUT. Entirely. Craven. 
AUP. (1) A wayward child. North. It is pro- 
nounced Aups in Craven, but the word is not 
in general use in Yorkshire. 
(2) Up. West. 
AURE. Over. [Avre .?] 

His gloves and his gamesuns gloet as the gledes, 
A-rayet aure with rebans, rychist of raye. 

Robson's Met. Rnm. p. 15. 

AUREAT. Golden; gilt. Hence, good, ex- 
cellent. See Skelton's Works, i. 11, 77; 
Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 250; Percy's 
Reliques, p. 26. 

Thys boke was written with letters anrcut, 
Perpetually to be put in memory. 

Jshmole's Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 2277* 

AURE-HIET. Overtook. 

He prekut oute prestely, 
And aure-hiet him radly, 
And on the knyjte conne cry. 
And pertely him reproves. 

Robsorts Met. Rom. ft tn 



AUT 



113 



AUV 



l^vJRIFIED. Made pure as gold. 

Fined also and made full pure. 
And aunfied be at the last. 

Jshmole's Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 389. 

AURRTJST. Harvest. Wore. 

AURSELS. Ourselves. North. 

AURUM-MULICUM. A composition occasion- 
ally mentioned in early documents relating to 
the arts, and fully described in the following 
passage : 

Here may thou lere to make awum muliciim. 
Take a viole of glas, and cute it wele, or a longe 
erthen pot; and take j. pounde of salt armonyac, 
and j. li of sulfure, and j. li of mercuric cru, and 
j. li of tyn ; melte thi tyn, and caste thi mercurie 
therin, and then alle that other, and grynde alle 
these thinges togidere upon a ston, and then put alle 
in a fiole, or in an erthen pot, and stoppe al the 
mothe save also mochel als a paper lefe, era spoute 
of parchemyn may stonde in ; and then set it on the 
fyre in a forneie, and make furste esy fiere, and 
afturwarde goode fire, the mountanee of ij. oures, 
til that thou se no breth come oute of the glas; 
and then take it of the fire, and breke the glas. 

MS. Sloane 2584, f. 5. 

AURUM-POTABILE. 

And then the golden oyle caWed aiirum-potabile, 
A medicine most mervelous to preserve mans 
health. Ashmole's Tlieat. Chem, Brit, p. 422. 

AUSCULTE. To raise up ; to exalt. The MS. 
Bodl. 175, reads "exhalt" in the following 
passage : 

Ausculte you not to excelente. 

Into highe exsaltacion. Chester Plays, i. 10. 

AUSE. (1) To try; to essay ; to promise favour- 
ably, e. g., " He auses well saying's as how 
he's a young un." Salop. See Aust. 

(2) Also. Gil gives this as a Lincolnshire word 
in his Logonomia, 1619. 

And .some beyonde us twentie or thirtie lange miles, 
that make pure shift in the citie, and in the countrie 
a use. Biillein's Dialogue, 1573, p. 4. 

AUSIER. An osier. Suffolk. 

AUSNEY. To anticipate bad news. Somerset. 

AUSPICATE. Auspicious. 

Enter and prosper, while our eyes doe waite 
For an ascendent throughly auspicate. 

Herrirk's Works, ii. 146. 

AUSPICIOUS. Joyful.* So Shakespeare seems 
to use the word in Hamlet, i. 2 : 

With one auspicious, and one dropping eye. 
AUST. To attempt. Warw. It is also used as 

a substantive. 
AUSTERNE. Stern ; severe. In the Testament 
of Creseide, 154, we have the form austrine 
in the same sense. 

But who is yond, thou ladye faire. 
That looketh with sic an austeme face ? 

Percy's ReUques, p. 75. 
Thane the burelyche beryne of Bretayne the ly ttylle 
Counsayles Syr Arthure, and of hyme besekys 
To ansuere the alyenes wy th austerene wordes. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 56. 

A.USTRIDGE. An ostrich. Cotgrave has, 
" Austruche : an austridge, or ostridge." We 
have had Astridge, q. v. 

AUT. (1) Ought. See Rob. Glouc. p. 452. 

Weil aut I sinnc !cte, 

An aeb wit teres wete. Warton's Hist. Engl. Poet, i. 24. 



(2) All the ; out. North. 

AUTECER. Parent; ancestor. See the Co- 

ventry Mysteries, p. 88. Should we read 

anceter ? 
AUTEM. A church, in the canting language^ 

There are several compounds of this wora, as 

autem-mort, a married woman. See Dcdslev's 

Old Plays, x. 372. 
AUTENTICKE. Authentic.Chaucerhasitas a sub- 

stantive. See Thynne's Animadversions, p. 48. 
AUTENTIQUALL. Authentic. 

Now for the third parte touchyng recordcs and 

registres, wee have them soformall, so autentiqnall, 

so seriously handeled. Hall, Henry VIII. f. 253. 

AUTEOSE. 

The flowre is of a gode lose. 

That men calleth auteose. Reliq. Antiq. i. 195. 

AUTER. An altar. iNorth. 

Thanne he havede his bede seyd. 
His offrende on the auter leyd, Havelok, 1386. 
AUTERS. Explained, ** strange work, or strange 
things," in the Clavis at the end of the York- 
shire Dialogue, p. 89. It is probably an error 
for enters, the genuine early form of the word. 
AUTHENTIC. Regularly bred; fashionable. 
Nares says it *' seems to have been the proper 
epithet for a physician regularly bred or 
licensed." See All's Well that Ends Well, 
ii.3. 
AUTHER. Either. 

Bot harder the devel bites tham 

That gud dedes has wrojl. 
If thai ever afterward fal in, 

Auther in dede or thojt. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f 81. 

AUTOMEDON. The charioteer of Achilles, and 
hence some of our early dramatists have ap- 
plied the name generally to coachmen. See 
Beaumont and Fletcher, ed. Weber, xiv. 53. 

AUT-OPON. Out upon ! An exclamation ex- 
pressive of disapprobation. North. 

AUTORITY. Authority. A provincialism, as 
well as the old form of the word. See the 
Craven Dialogues, p. 330. 

AUTORS. Ancestors. {Lat.) 
Y geve yow, Mede, withoute assoyne, 
Theo tour, and the cites of Babyloyne : 
Tyre, Numen, and Pamphile, 
And into Ynde xx. score myle ; 
My riches, and my tressours. 
And alle hath do myn autors. Kyng Alisaunder, 4519. 

AUTOUR. An author. Chaucer. 
AUTRAGE. To outrage. 

Let us se how well we can autrage. 

Maitland's Lambeth Books, p. 302. 

AUTREMITE. Another attire. So explained 
by Skinner. Tyrwhitt reads vitremite. 
And she that helmid was in starke stouris. 
And wan by force touni? strong and touris. 
Shall on herhedde now werin autremite. 

Chaucer, ed. Vrry, p. 164. 

AUVE. The helve of an axe. Saloj). 
AUVERDRO. To overthrow. West. 
AUVERGIT. To overtake. West. See Jennings's 

Observations, p. 184. 
AUVERLOOK. To overlook ; to bewitch ; to look 

upon with the evil eye. Tl^est. 
AUVER-RIGHT. Right over ; across. West, 

8 



AVA 



114 



AVA 



AUVISARD. On the visor ? 

Atte last he held him aumaard. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 190. 

AUVISE. Counsel; advice. 

And seyde, Joseph, leve thy fantesye 
And ihyn erroure, for it is folye 
Withouten auvise to deme sodeynelye. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 5. 

AUWAWNTAGE. Advantage. 

The heghest worlde, that passes alle thyng. 

Was made for mans endeles wonnyng ; 

Fot ylk mane salle hafe thare a place. 

To wonne ay in joy that here has grace ; 

That worlde was mademoste for owre auwawntnge, 

For thaire sawlles to be owre ryght erytage. 

Hampole, North C. MS. 

AUWARDS. Awkward; athwart. North. See 
Ackwards. A beast is said to be auwards, 
when it lies backward or downhill, so as to be 
unable to rise ; a circumstance often liappen- 
ing with sheep that are heavy in the wool. 
AU3T. (1) Ought. 

Floure of hevene, Ladiand Quene, 

As sche auT^t wel to bene. MS. Addit. 10036, f. 62. 

(2) Owed. The version printed in CoUier's 
Shakespeare's Library, p. 273, reads " owhte." 

The worsehipe therof whiche I au^te, 
Unto the god I there betaujte. 

Gower, MS. So<:. Antiq. 134, f. 234. 

(3) Possessions ; property. 

Bitwene his childre he delt his au^t, 
His londe to Isaac he bitaujt. 

Cursor MundifMS. Coll. Tiin. Cantab, f. 22, 

(4) High. Rob. Glouc. 
AVA'. At aU. North. 

AVAGE. A rent or duty which every tenant 
of the manor of Writtel, in Essex, pays to the 
lord on St. Leonard's day, for the liberty of 
feeding his hogs in the woods. Phillips. 

AVAILE. Value ; profit : advantage. See Cocke 
Lorelles Bote, p. 2 ; Dial of Great. Moral, 
p. 123 ; Towneley Mysteries, p. 150. 

AVAITE. To await ? 

The which ordeynede for a law, that what tymc 
there was any fyre in that cite, there shulde be a 
bidelle y-ordeined for to avaite hit, and to malce an 
highe proclamacione in the cite. 

Gesta Romanorum, p. 52. 

AVALE. (1) To descend; to fall down. (A.-N.) 
Cf. Maundevile's Travels, p. 2G6; Holinshed, 
Hist. Scot. p. 91 ; Troilus and Creseide, iii. 
627 ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 394 ; Debate be- 
tween Pride and Lowliness, p. 9 ; Skelton's 
Works, i. 85. 

Then the seneschall smot his hors with his spurris, 
and come to theym, for the see was availed and 
withdrawn. MS. Digby, 185. 

(2) To lower; to let down. (J.-N.) This 
term is often applied to the letting down 
the front of the helmet, or the visor only with- 
out the ventaile, as in Robson's Met. Rom. 
p. 15; Morte d' Arthur, i. 152. Hence the 
phrase " to vale the bonnet," to lower the 
bonnet, or take off the hat ; and, figuratively, 
to acknowledge inferiority. Sec Peter Lang- 
toft, p. 97. 

And myjty tyrauntes, from here ryallc see 

He hath avatid and y-put adoun. 

Lydifd^* MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 4. 



He nold avalen neither hood ne hat, 

Neabiden no man for his curtesie. I 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 3124( 

(3) To loosen ; to shake. Lord Surrey has thrf 
expression " with raynes avayled,'' explained 
loosened in Warton's Hist. Eng. Poet. iii. 31, 
but our second meaning is perhaps the best. 

(4) To assault. SMnner. 
AVALYD. Diminished. 

Crete feet and rounde, and grete clees, and the 
foot a lytel avalyd, smale by the flankes, and longe 
sydes, a lytel pyntel and litel hangyng smale ballokes. 

MS.Btidl. 546. 
AVAN. Filthy ; squalid. A Northamptonshire 
word, according to the Addenda to Junii Etym. 
Anglic, in v. 
AVANCE. (1) To advance; to profit. {A.-N.) 
See Chaucer, Cant. T. 246 ; Troilus and Cre- 
seide, V. 1434; MS. Ashmole 39, f. 12. 
Sir Philip the Valayse 

May him noght avance. 
The flowres that faire war 

Er fallen in Fraunce. Minutes Poems, p. 39. 

(2) Advancement. 

He ordaineth by his ordinaunce 
To parishe priestis a powere. 

To anothir a gretii avaunce, 
A gretir point to his mistcre. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 180. 

(3) The herb barefoot. It was used in cookery, 
as in a recipe in the Forme of Cm-y, p. 13, 
which the original, MS. Addit. 5016, seems to 
read avante. See Reliq. Antiq. i. 55 ; Prompt. 
Parv. pp. 17, 266; Tusser, p. 118; Warner's 
Antiq. Culin. p. 5. Markham, in his Countrie 
Farme, ed. 1616, p. 182, says " costmarie and 
avens are verie pleasant hearbes to give a sa- 
vour like spice in pottage and salads." See 
also Topsell on Serpents, p. 62 ; Cooper, in v. 
Cariophillata ; MS. Sloane 5, f. 11. 

AVANCEMENT. Advancement. 

Thorgh conseile of som of hise, refused he that present ; 

Thei said, on other wise he salle haf avancement. 

Peter Langfoft, p. 103. 

AVANITTE. Thought ; will ; pleasure. 
God and grace es with thaim wroghte. 
That with swylke pride dyse gyse iher clothe ; 
Never the lese ylk man may 
Eftyr hys avanittt make hym gay. 

R. de Brunne, MS. Bowes, p. 24. 
AVANSE. To escape from. 

For any cas that may be-tyde, 
Schall non therof avanse. 

The Cokwold's Daunce, 165. 

AVANTAGE. Advantage. {A.-N.) 

As sooth is sayd, elde hath gret avantage 
In elde is bothe wisdom and usage. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 24491 

AVANT-CURRIERS. Florio has " Etesii, windes 
blowing very stiffely for fortie dales together 
from the east, just about the dog-daies, called 
of mariners the Avant-curriers." 

AVANTERS. Portions of the numbles of a deer, 
which lay near the neck. See Syr Gawayne, 
p. 50 ; Book of St. Alban's, sig. D. iv. 

AVANTMURE. The fore-wall of a town. 
This term is given as EngUshin Palsgrave and 
Cotgrave. (/'>.) 



AVA 



115 



AVE 



An early kind of peach. 



:^AVANT-PEACH. 

' / Skinner. 

' AVANTTWARDE. The vanward of an army. 
I salle have the avanttwarde wytterly myselvene. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 56. 

AVARDE. Afraid. {A.-S.) 
AVAROUSER. More avaricious. {A.-N.) 

Are no men avarouser than hii 

Whan thei ben avaunced. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 26. 

AVARYSY. Avarice ; covetousness. May we 
read an arysy ? 

Oure Lord say to the edder Iho. 
Fend, why dyde thou hym that wo ? 
The fend ansuerd with avarysy. 
Fore I had to hym envye. MS. Ashmole 61, f. 85, 
AVAST. A sea term, meaning stop, hold, 
enough. It always precedes some orders or 
conversation. See Tooke's Diversions of Pur- 
ley, p. 573; Skinner, in v. Tooke days that 
Dr. Johnson's interpretations, which I have 
here adopted, are erroneous, hut such are its 
ordinary uses by sailors. Johnson's etymology 
from Ital. and Span. Basta is sufficiently 
plausible. 
AVAUNCY. To advance ; to raise. 

For I thenke to aimuncy myne, 

And wel the more schal be here pyne. 

MS. Addit. 10036, f. 49. 

AVAUNT. (1) Before. 

The morow came, and forth rid this marchaunt 
To Flaunders ward, his prentishim avaunt, 
Till he to Bruges came full merily. 

Chaucer, ed. Vrry, p. 140. 

(2) Forward. {A.-N.) This was an ancient hunt- 
ing cry. See Sir H. Dryden's Twici, p. 45. 
And with that worde came Drede avamit, 
Whiche was abashed and in grete fere. 

Rom.of the Rose, 395n. 
Sir Degrevant was thane sa nere. 
That he those wordis myght here ; 
He said, Avant, banere ! 
And trompis on hight. 

Sir Begrevaunt, Lincoln MS. 

{i) A boast. {A.-N.) See Chaucer Cant. T. 227 ; 
Reliq. Antiq. ii. 21. 

Than said Sir Degrevaunt, 
Thou salle noght mak thine avaunt. 
That I salle be recreaunt. 
For frend ne for faa. 
, , Sir Degrevaunt, Lincoln MS. 

(4) To boast. 
This proverbe lerne of me, 
Avaunt nevyr of thy degree. Antiq. Rep. iv. 401 

(5) Dismissal. " To give her the avauni/' 
Henry VIII. ii. 3. In the following passage it 
apparently means leave, departure, or perhaps 
praise, boast. 

AUe thay mad thair avaunt 
Of the lord Sir Degrevaunt. 
. ^,. . ,, Sir Degrevawit, Lincoln MS. 

AVAUNTANCE. Boasting. 

The vice clcpid avauntance. 
With pride hath take his aqueintance. 
. ^ Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 54 

AVAUNTARYE. Boasting. 

And thus the worschipe of his name, 
Thorow pride of his avauntarye. 
He turneth into vilenye. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 54. 



h 



Rebuke him for that ilk of that avauntrte. 

Peter Langtoft, p. Ifl4, 

AVAUNTLAY. Under the old system of hunt- 
ing it was customary to send one or two cou- 
ples of hounds, with a man, to several points 
where it was expected the game would pa^s 
Mlien the deer or other animal came up these 
hounds were uncoupled. See Sir H. Dryden's 
notes to Twici, p. 44. Relay properly means 
any of these sets of hounds ; but avauntrelay, 
or, more commonly, avauntlay, those which' 
when a hart was unharboured, were a-head of 
him. See further observations on this sub- 
ject in a curious work, entitled the Booke of 
Hunting, 4to. Lond. 1586. 

AVE. (1) Have. 

Therfore we must fight agayne hym, and we shhall 
ave victorye, for he is but feble agayne them that 
wyl withstonde hym. Dial. Great. Moral, p 97 

(2) Evening. 

The king ther stode with his mein^ 
On a palmesonnes ave. 

K tTT-, A -r.^ Arthour and Merlin, p. 200. 

AVEARD. Afraid. West. 

But an he have his legs at liberty, 
Cham aveard he will never live with you. 

London Prodigal, p ]f'7 

AVEAUNT. Graceful; becoming. So also the 
origmal MS. of Le Bone Florence of Rome, 
128, reads ; which Ritson alters to avenaunt. ' 
Ageyne hym came syr Otes the graunt, 
A doghty knyght and an aveaunt. 

Le Bone Florence of Rome, 665. 
Thys swyrde ys gode and aveaunt. 
But I faght wyth a gyaunt. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii 38, f. 244. 

AVE-BLOT. A reckoning; a payment, ifmsiew." 

AVE-BOORDS. Cotgrave has, " Aubes, the 

short boords which are set into th'outside of 

a water-mills wheele ; we caU them ladles, or 

ave-boords." 

AVEDEN. Had. 

Quanne he weren alle set. 
And the king aveden i-gret. 
He greten, and gouleden, and goven hem ille, 
And he bad hem alle ben stiUe. Havelok, 'l63. 

AVEER. Property. {A.-N.) 

Ne thei don to no man otherwise than thei wolde 
that other men diden to hem ; and in this poynt thei 
fulle-fillen the ten commandementes of God: and 
thei 3ive no charge of aveer ne of ricchesse. 

Maundevile's Travels, p. 292. 

AVEL. (1) The awn or beard of barley. East. 

(2) To tear away. Browne. 

AVELACE. Explained by Skinner, " the rings 
or gymews of a bag;" but conjectured by him 
to be a mistake for anelace, q. v. 

AVE LONG. EUiptical ; oval. It is translated 
by oblongus, in the Prompt. Parv.p. 17. Carr, 
in his Craven Glossary, conjectures it to be a 
corruption oi oblong, and a correspondent sug- 
gests to me half -long ; but the form awelonae, 
in the MiddlehUl MS. of the Promptorium, 
seems to warrant Mr. Way's derivation from 
A.-S. Aivoh. Major Moor says, " Workmen 
—reapers or mowers— approaching the side of 
a field not perpenthcular or parallel to th^'.ir 
hne of work, will have an unequal portion to 



AVE 



116 



AVE 



do — the excess or deficiency is called avellong 
work." 

AVELY. In the Eastern counties corn is said to 
be avely, if, when dressed for market, a por- 
tion of the awns adhere to the grains. 

AVEN. Promise ; appearance. Salop. Perhaps 
connected with the old word avenant, q. v. 

AVENANT. (1) Agreement; condition. {A.-N.) 

Luf hir efter thine avenant, 
And sho sal be to the tenant. 

Ywaine and Oaivin, 3765 
They may make to here avenaunt. 
But over mesure ys nat cumnaunt. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 22. 
(2) Becoming ; graceful ; agreeable. See War- 
ton's Hist. Eng. Poet. ii. 229 ; Ywaine and 
Gawin, 3885 ; Robson's Met. Rom. p. 12. 
And I were to tlve avenant, 
I wald be thi servaunt. 

Sir Degrevaunt, Lincoln MS. 
When she was fiften winter old. 
In al that lend nas ther non y-hold 

So semly on to se , 
For sche was gentil and avenaunt, 
Hir name was cleped Belisaunt, 
As ye may lithe at me. 

^7nis and Amiloun, 427- 

. 3) Accomplished ; able ; valiant. 

The sowdan, that left yn Tervagaunt, 
With hym he broght a fowll geaunt 
Of Egypte ; he hette Guymerraunt, 

Greet as an ok : 
No dosyper nas so avenaunt 

To stonde hys strok. Octovian, 923. 

AVENANTLI. Suitably; well; becomingly. 
Ther were in eche bataile of burnes two thousand. 
Armed at alle pointes and avenantli horsed. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 136. 

AVENAUNTLICHE. Beautifully. 

To seche thoru that cit^ ther nas non sich, 
Of erbes, and of erberi, so avenauntUche i-diht. 

Pistill of Susan, st. 1. 

AVENGE. The feast of Advent. (A.-N.) See 
MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 215, where a wrong 
reading has apparently crept into the text, and 
I am not sure whether it should not be anence 
in the same sense as anent, q. v. 

AVENE. An ear of corn. This is the form of 
the word awn in the Prompt. Parv. p. 18. 
" Avenes eyles" is translated by the French 
arestez, in Walter de Bibbles worth, Reliq. 
Antiq. ii. 80. Eiles we have already had an 
example of in v. Ails, and it is translated by 
arista in MS. Lansd, 560, f. 45. 

(2) Evening. 

Hi sul him and elde folow. 
Both avene and eke a-morw. 

Reliq. Jntiq. i. 194. 

AVENG. Took; received. {A.-S.) 
Vor the folc so thycke com, the wule he her loverd slou, 
Aboute him in cch alf, that among so mony fon 
He aveng dethes wounde, and wonder nas yt none. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 223. 

A-VENIMED. Envenomed. 

His armes alle a-vet'iimed beth ; 
That venim is strong so the deth. 

d/ of Warwike, p. 98. 

AVE NOR. The j)erson who formerly, in the 

household establishment of the king, and in 



that also of great barons, had the care of thi , 
provender for the horses. The following acA 
count of his duties is given in the Book of \ 
Curtasye, p. 25, and it has been also quoted 
from the original manuscript by Mr. Stevenson. 

The aveyner schalle ordeyn provande good won. 

For tho lordys horsis everychon ; 

Thay sehyn have two cast of hay, 

A pek of provande on a day ; 

Every horse schalle so muche have 

At racke and manger that standes with stave ; 

A maystur of horsys a squyer ther is, 

Aveyner and ferour undur hym i-wys. 

Those jomen that olde sadels schyn have. 

That schyn be last for knyjt and knave. 

For yche a hors that ferroure schalle scho. 

An halpeny on day he takes hym to : 

Undur ben gromes and pages mony one. 

That ben at wage everychone ; 

Som at two pons on a day, 

And som at iij. oh. I jou say ; 

Mony of hem fotemen ther ben, 

That rennen by the brydels of ladys schene. 
AVENSONG. Evening. 

Fram afternone to avensong. 
So to knightes he was strong. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 178. 

AVENT. Avaunt ! 

Avent, avent, my popagay, 

What, will ye do nothyng but play ? 

Ritsnn's Ancient Songs, p. 101. 

AVENTAILE. The moveable front to a helmet, 
which covered the face, and through which the 
wearer respired the air, " qua ventus hauritur." 
The term is sometimes used for the whole 
front of the helmet. 

His helm he setteth on is heved. 
And fastnede the aventaille. 

3IS. Ashmole 33, f. 3. 
For, as hedrough a king by thaventaile, 
Unware of this, Achilles through the maile 
And through the bodie gan him for to rive. 

Troilus and Creseide, v, 1557. 

AVENTE. To open the aventaile for the pur- 
pose of breathing. See Le Bone Florence of 
Rome, 1941 ; Torrent of Port. p. 66. (^.-A^.) 
Thai foughten soo longe, that by assente 
Thai drewe them a litil bysyde, 
A litil while thaym to avente. 
And refreshed them at that tyde. 

MS. Douce 175, p. 30. 
AVENTERS. Chance. (A.-N.) 

The bowmen, and eke the arblasters, 
Armed them all at aventera. 

Richard Coo- de Lion, 2188. 

AVENTOUR. (1) To venture. 

Nil ich me nothing aventour. 
To purchas a fole gret honour. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 9. 
(2) An adventurer. BoJcenham. 
AVENTRE. To throw a spear. {Ital.) Spenser 
uses the word, and Nares thought it was pecu- 
liar to that writer. 

Thenne this one knyght avcntryd t grete spere, 
and one of the x. knyghtes encountred with hym, 
but this woful knyght smote hym so hard that h« 
folic over his hors taylle. Morted' Arthur, i. 117. 1 

AVENTROUS. Adventurers. {A.-N.) 
As dooth an heraud of armes 
Whan aventrous cometh to justes. 

Picr3 Ploughman, p. 370 



AVE 



117 



AVE 



^VENTURE. (1) Adventure; chance ; fortune ; 
See Morte d' Arthur, 1. 289 ; Maundevile's 
Travels, pp. 185, 282. 

Aventure so hath turned his pas 
Ageynes the kyng his mas. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 7837. 

(2) Perchance. 

Ac aventure, for the fyght. 
This victorie is the y-dyght. 

Kyng Alisminder, 3922. 

AVENTURLY. Boldly. 

' Thissquier that hath brought this hade. 
The kyng had wend he had the dede, 
And aventurly gan he gone. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 52. 

AVER. (1) A work-horse. North. " A false 
aver," a sluggish horse, a lazy heast. See 
Kennett's Glossary, p. 21. 

Alsua the sothe for to schewe, 
ye lent thame averes to drawc. 

Sir Degrevante, MS. Lincoln, f. 130. 
(2) Peevish. Northumb. 

AVERx\GE. A course of ploughing in rotation. 
North. Carr explains it " winter eatage," 
and others the stubble, in which senses it seems 
to be the same with averish, q. v. 
AVER-CAKE. An oat-cake. 

A fewe cruddes and crem. 
And an aver-cake. 

MS. Rawl. Poet. 137, f- 25. 
AVER-CORN. A reserved rent in corn paid to 
religious houses by their tenants or farmers. 
Kennett. According to Skinner, it means corn 
drawn to the granary of the lord of the manor 
by the working cattle, or avers, of the 
tenants. 
AVERE. Riches; property. {A.-N.) 
The maistir of ther pedaile, that kirkes brak and brent, 
And abbeis gan assaile, monkes slouh and schent. 
Was born in Pikardie, and his name Reynere, 
In suilk felonie gadred grate avere. 

Peter Langtoft, p. 124. 

AVERIL. April. North. 

When the nyhtegale singes, the wodes waxen grene, 
Lef ant gras ant blosme springes in Averyl, y wene. 
Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 92. 

AVERING. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, says, 
" When a begging boy strips himself and goes 
naked into a town with a fals story of being 
cold, and stript, to move compassion and get 
better cloaths, this is call'd avering, and to goe 
a avering.*^ 

AVERISH. The stubble and grass left in corn 
fields after harvest. North. 

In these monthes after the cornne bee innede, it 
is meete to putt draughte horsses and oxen into the 
averish, and so lonnge to continue there as the meate 
sufflceth, which will ease the other pastures they 
went in before. Archceologia, xlii. 379. 

AVE RL AND. Land ploughed by the tenants 
with their avers, for the use of a monastery, 
or for the lord of the soil. 

Quod autem nunc vocatur aver,and, fuit terra 
nisticorum ejus. Chron. J. de Brakelonda, p. 75. 

AVEROUS. Avaricious. 

And also this tyme es ogayns averoua men, that 
•chynes and gifes na fruyte bot when it es roten. 

MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f. 3. 

^VEROYNE. The herb southernwood, men- 



tioned several times under this name in the 
Liber Medicinae in the Library of Lincoln Ca- 
thedral, tf. 280, 287, 307, e.g. " Take averoyne, 
and braye it with hony and vyneacre, and 
drynke it." See also Archseologia, xxx. 350 ; 
Pistill of Susan, st. ix. 
AVERPENNY. Money contributed towards the 
king's averages. See Nicolson and Burn's 
West and Cumb. ii. 609 ; Chron. J. de Brake- 
londa, p. 75 ; Skinner, in v. 
AVERRAY. To aver ; to instruct. 
Thou schalt write that y say, 
Mani man for to averray. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 45. 

AVERRUNCATE. To avert ; to prevent. i^Lat.) 
I wish myself a pseudo-prophet. 
But sure some mischief will come of it. 
Unless by providential wit. 
Or force, vreaver7U»cate it. Hudibras, I. i. 758. 
AVERSATION. Aversion; great dislike to. 
See Taylor's Great Exemplar, p. 61, quoted 
by Boucher, in v. 
AVER-SILVER. A custom or rent so called, 
originating from the cattle, or avers, of the 
tenants of the soil. 
AVERST. At the first. 

Averst byeth the hestes ten, 
Thet loki ssolle alle men. 

MS. Arundel 51, f. 13. 

AVERTY. Mad; fiery. (A.-N) 

The respons were redy that Philip did tham here. 
A knyght fulle averty gaf tham this ansuere. 

Peter Langtoft, p. 260. 

AVERY. (1) The place where the provender for 
the king's horses is kept. Skinner. Boucher, 
in V. Aver, considers it to be the stable. It 
seems certainly to be derived from aver, and 
not from haver, oats, as Minsheu supposes. 

(2) Every. 

The iij.de tokene ys that avery meke man or 
womman ys not enhaunsydd, neyther have ony 
lykynge in preysynge. MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 8. 

AVE-SCOT. A reckoning; an account. Minsheu. 

AVESYLY. Advisedly. 

Now and thow wolde wele and avesyly beholde 
thi Lorde Jhesu, thow may fynde that fro the cruwne 
of the hevede to the sole of his fete, thare was no 
hole spotte lefte one hyme. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 183. 

AVET. Weight. 

And ys avet more bi six and thritti leed punde, 
that beeth to hundred and sextene wexpunde. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. ,0, 

AVETROL. A bastard. {A.-N) 

He asked what was his medicine ; 
Beff and broth gode afine. 
What than, was he an avetrolf 
Thou seist soht, sire, be mi pel. 

Sevyn Sages, 11 07. 

AVEXED. Troubled ; vexed. See Book of St. 
Alban's, sig. B. iv. ; Dial. Great. Moral, p. 177. 
The curious coincidence between part of the 
follo\\ang passage, and the well known Unes ia 
Macbeth, ii. 2, has not yet found a notice in 
the editions of Shakespeare. 
As thus I lay aveied full sore 
In suche thynges, as of right bythe agayne nature, 
I herde a voyce seyyng, sclepe thow no more ! 

Todd's llluatrutiont, p, 297 



AVI 



118 



AVO 



AVEYSe. Careful; wary. {A.-N.) 
Also the kyng and his ir.eignd, 
fi\addest weren atid aveyst. Kyng Alisnundc , 52()1. 

AVIEU. To view. (^.-A'^.) Palsgrave has, " I 
aveice, I take syght of a thing." 

Thenglysshmen sawe them well, and knewe well 
howe they were come thyder to aview them. 

'Notes to Minot's Poems, p. 117. 

AVIIS. Opinion. (J.-N.) 

And seththen seyd hir aviis 

Of God, that Loverd was and ever is?e. 

Seynt Katerine, p. 179- 

A VILE. To despise. The Heralds' College MS. 
reads, " aviled holy chirche, that hy righte was 
free." 

And the Sonnenday of the Passion amaiisede all the, 
That auilede to holi chirche, that mid ri3te was so fre. 

Rob. Glouc. p. 495. 

AVINTAINE. Speedily. (A.-N.) 
Have ich eni so hardi on. 
That dorre to Hamtoun gon. 
To themperur of Almaine, 
And sai her cometh, avintaine, 
Al prest an hondred knighte. 
That fore his love wilen fighte 
Bothe with spere and with launce. 

Beves of Hamtoun, p. 107. 

AVIROUN. Around. {A.-N.) 

Alse a wente him to plaie 
Aboute her in this contrai. 
In this conrt4 aviroun, 
A mette with a vile dragoun. 

Beves of Hamtoun, p. 98. 

A7IS. Advice. {A.-N.) See Chaucer, Cant. T. 
1870 ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 180 ; Langtoft, 
p. 32. 

The kyng at his avys sent messengers thre. 

Langtoft' s Chronicle, p. 285. 

A^VISAND. Obsei-ving. {A.-N.) 

The herbe she toke, well avisand 

The lefe, the sede, the stalke, the floure. 

And said it had a gode savour. 

And was no common herb to find. 

And well approved of uncouth kind. 

diaucer's Dreame, 1882. 

AVISE. (1) To observe ; to look at. {A.-N.) 

Heo heom avysed among theo play. 
For he was nought of that contray. 

Kyng Alisnunder, 221- 

(2) To consider ; to advise with one's self ; to 
inform ; to teach. ''Arise you well," i.e. con- 
sider well what you are about, is a frequent 
phrase in the old romances. In the sense of 
" to inform," it is used by Shakespeare, 
Merry Wives of Windsor, i. 4, where Mistress 
Quickly says to Simple, " Are you avis'd o' 
that ?" a provincial mode of confirming any 
observation. See also the Towneley Mysteries, 
pp. 61, 170. *' A\aseth you," Chaucer, Cant. 
T. 3185, look to yourselves, take care of your- 
selves. Cf. Const, of Mason, p. 38. 
He avi/sed hym full wele. 
Fro the hedd downewarde every dele. 

MS. Omtab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 196. 

AVISe. Circumspect. {A.-N.) 

Of werre and of bataile he was fulle aviae, 
Ther wisdom suld availe was non so trcwc als he. 
Langtoft'x Chronicle, p. I)i8. 

AVISEE. To look upon. Skinner. 
AVISELY. Advisedly. 



4 



Avisely, who so takyth hede therto. 

Lydgate, MS. Aahrnnle 39, f, 

AVISE]\IENT. Counsel; Advice. {A.-N.) 
Ten schippes wer dryven, thorgh ille auisement 
Thorgh a tempest ryven, the schipmen held tham 
schent. Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 148. 

AVISINESSE. Deliberation. {A.-N.) 
And Mary fulle mekely listeneth alle. 
And gan mervayle with gret avisines^e. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 28. 

AVISION. A vision. {A.-N.) 
A litel or he weremordred on a day. 
His mordre in his avision he say. -Chaucer, Cant. T. 15120. 
AVIST. A fishing. West. 
AVIVES. A disease in horses, thus described by 
Markham : 

The horse having drunke much, or watered verie 
quickly after his heat and travaile, and upon it grow- 
ing cold, and not being walked, doth beget the aviccg, 
which doe but little differ from the disease called the 
klng's-evill, because as well in beasts as in man, the 
king's evlU commeth of too much cooling of water, 
the throat having beene heated, whereupon the horse 
looseth his appetite to eat, and his rest likewise, and 
his eares become cold. 

The Count rie Far me, ed. 1616, p. 13!?. 
AVIZE. To see ; to survey ; to observe. 

Then th'one herselfe low ducked in the flood, 
Abash't that her a straunger did avize. 

The Faerie Queene, II. xii. 66 

AVOCATE. To call from. {Laf.) 

The time of Sir Walter Raleigh's execution was 
contrived to be on my Lord Mayor's day, that the 
pageants and fine shows might avocate and draw 
away the people from beholduig the tragedie of the 
gallantest worthie that England ever bred. 

Aubrey, MS. Ashmole. 

AVOERY. The right which the founder of a 
house of religion had of the advowson or pa- 
tronage thereof, similar to the right of presen- 
tation belonging to those who built, or en- 
dowed, parish churches. In some instances 
these patrons had the sole nomination of the 
abbot or prior, either by direct investiture, or 
delivery of a pastoral staff; or by immediate 
presentation to the diocesan ; or if a free elec- 
tion were left to the religious foundation, a 
licence for election was first to be obtained 
from the patron, and the election was to be 
confirmed by him. Kennett, quoted in Boucher. 
AVOID. To leave ; to quit ; to expel. Avoid ! 
i. e. get out of the way, a word used at the 
passing of any great personage through a 
crowd. See Cov. Myst. p. 131. In the fol- 
lowing passages it means the withdrawal of 
dishes from the table. See also llariison's 
Description of England, p. 161. 
Awoydcs tho borde into tho flore, 
Tase away tho trestes that ben so store. 

Boke of Curtasye, p. 33. 
All the servyse of brede, messes of kytchyn, wyne, 
ale, wax, wood, that is dispended bothe for the kings 
bourde, and for the hole messe, and other of the 
chaumbre, and as well the servyse for the king for 
all night, as the grfete avoydes at feastes, and the 
dayly drinkinges bctwixtmelesin the kings chaumbre 
for strauugers, and thereof to make trew recorde, 
and to bring it dayly to the countynp bourde befor* 
noone. Liber Niger Domus Regis Edto. IV. p. '^ 



AVO 



119 



AYO 



A.VOIDANCE. Expulsion; avoidance. See 
Prompt. Parv. pp. 19, 111 ; Wright's Monastic 
Letters, p. 101. 

•-'lom spyttyiige and snyftynge kepe the aJso, 
By prevy avvydans let liyt go. 

Constitutions of Masonrt/, p. 36. 

AVOIDONS. In a general sense means, the va- 
cancy of a benefice by death or removal of the 
incumbent; but in Monast. Anglic, ii. 198, 
quoted in Stevenson's additions to Boucher, it 
signifies the profits during such a vacancy. 
AVOIR. Property. {A.-N.) 

A burgeis was in Rome toun, 
A riche man of gret renoun ; 
Marchaunthe was of gret avoir. 
And had a wif was queint and fair. 

Sevi/n Sages, 2205. 

AVOIR-DE-PEISE. Articles of merchandise 
that are sold by weight. (J.-N.) Cowell says 
" it signifieth such merchandise as are weighed 
by this weight, and not by Troy weight." 
Hail be je, marchans, with jur gret packes 
Of draperie, avoir-de-peise, and jur wol-sackes. 

Reliq. Antiq. ii. 175. 

AVOKE. To revoke; to call away to some other. 

See Rider, Richardson, and Boucher, in v. 
AVOKET. An advocate. {Lat.) Wickliffe. 
AVONGE. To take. See Afonge. 

So that atte laste, wat halt yt to telle longe ? 
The kyng bygan and ys folc Cristendom avonge. 

Rob. Glow. p. 231, 

AVOORDIN. Affording. Somerset 

AVORD. To afl'ord. TFest 

Becaze the bishop zent mun word, 
A could not meat and drink avord, 

AVORE. Before. West. 

My ancestor To-Pan beat the first kettle-drum, 
Avore hun, here vrom Dover on the march. 

1 -rr.v^^ ^«^« o/« Tub, i. 2. 

AVORE WARD. At first. 

And hii, wan hii were i-suore, other sixe toke. 
Code fourme among hom, of the land to lokei 
And of thedeserites, so that avorewurd 
The bissop hii chose of Bathe, Water Giffard, 
And maister Nicole of Eli, bissop of Wurcetre' 

AVOREYE. Before. «»"•<='»- ...«7. 

Ich bidde the hit by my sseJd, 
. ,r^ -^^0'-e.ve the wycked vend. MS. Arundel 57. f. 2 

AVORN. Before him. West. 

AVOTE. On foot. 

Myd syx hondred kynjtes, and thre thousend men avoir, 

Cadour, erl of Cornwayle, ajen hym he sende. 

A^rmrr^jT -r. ^ Rob. Glouc. ji. 168. 

AVOUCH Proof; testimony. Shakespeare has 
A vnirS^ «^'o^^cAme/^^ in the same sense. 

AVOURE. Confession; acknowledgment. 
He bad him stand fabide the bitter stoure 
^f his sore vengeaunce, or to make avoure 
Of the lewd words and deedes which he had done. 

AVOURY An old law term, nearly equivalent 
to justification. Nares. 

Therforeaway with these avouries : let God alone 
be ouvavoujrue; what have we do to runne hether 
or thether, butonely to the Father of heaven ? 

*-»r^xTr^^ ^"^^m<^>-'s Sermons, ed. 1571, f. fid 

AVOUTRER. An adulterer. (^.-A^) ilso an 
adultress, as m Prompt. Parv. p. 19. 



For in this world nis dugge for the bowe, 

That can an hurt dere trom an hole y-knowe. 

Bet than this sompnour knew a slie lechour. 

Or an avoutrer, or a paramour. Chancer, Cant.T. 6954. 

AVOUTRYE. Adultery. Sec Chaucer, Cant. T. 
6888, 9309 ; Rehq. Antiq. i. 29 ; Hartshorne's 
Met. Tales, p. 170 ; Apology for the Lollards, 
p. 78. (A.-N.) 

And he begotyn in avoutrye, 
Othir ellys barayn bastard born. 
ATT/^TTT , X MS. Rawl.Poet. n^, 

AVOW. (1) Avow; an oath. {A.-N.) 
He sayd, sirs, in jour cumpany 
Myne avow make I. Robson's Romances, p. Gl 
And to mende my misse I make myn avnve. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 20 
(2) To allow ; to pardon. 

Wold thou speke for me to the kyng. 
He wolde avow me my slyngyng. 

MS. Catitab. Ff. v. 48, f. 53. 
{6) 1 he term avoioed seems to be used in the 
sense of covered, in Orpheo, ed. Laing, 325. 
See the quotation under Bonsour. The 
MS. Ashmole 61 reads amelyd in the same 
passage. 
AVOWE. (1) The patron to a benefice. Cowell 
says the Avowe is " he to whom the right of 
advowson of any church appertaineth, so that 
he may present thereunto in his own name." 
See Ritson's Robin Hood, i. 42. 

(2) An advocate. 

And hendely they bysechith the 
That thou beo heore avowe ; 
Forgeve heom, sire, thy maltalent; 
They wol do thy comaundement. 
.„v _, , King Alisannder,2\m. 

(3) Patronage. The Heralds' College MS. reads 
avovjery, q. v. 

Vor thoru avowe of him, the sone bigan thatstrif. 

Rob. CHouc. p. 477. 

AVOWERY. Patronage; protection. (A-N) 

See Langtoft's Chronicle, pp. 180, 260 It 

also means cognizance, badge, distinction, as 

m the Archaeologia, xvii. 296. 

Y telle ou for sothe, for al huere bobaunce 

Ne for the avowerie of the kyng of Fraunce, 

Tuenti score ant fyve haden ther meschaunce. 

WnUTT A ^ ^'-iefs Pol. Songs, p.m. 

AVOWT. A countenance. (A.-N.) Perhaps a 
IS here the article, but the compound is again 
found in the same form. 

He weres his vesere with avowt noble. 

Morte Arthure, 3IS. Lincoln, f 85 

AVOWTER. Adultery. [Avowtere.?] 

Than the secound schal be his wif bi r^soun of 
avowter, and he schal be cursid but if he tak to her a- 
to his wif. Apolog!/ for the Lollards, p. Js'. 

AVOY. (1) A cry used to call hounds out of 

cover. See Sir H. Dryden's Twici, p. 45 
(2) Avoid; leave; quit. 

And in the dark forth she goeth 

Till she him toucheth, and he wroth.e. 

And after her with his hand 

He smote : and thus when she him found 

Diseased, courteously she said, 

Avo!/, my lord, I am a maid ; ' 

And if ye wist what I am. 

And out of what lineage 1 came, 

Ve would not be so salva/je. 

Cower, ap. Knight's ShaJi. jti, .^^ 



AWA 



120 



AWA 



AVIUL. April. North. 
AVRORS. Frozen. West. 
AVURN. Slovenly in dress. Beds. 
/VVY. (I) Vow; oath. 

Thou base mad thy nvy wyth xij. men for to fyjte. 
Of al oure 5onder company the alre-beste kny3te. 

MS. Ashmole33. 
(2) A navy. [A.neavy?] 

Ane avj/ of shippes fcha spyec] thame before, 
Which when thay mett, tha myght well ken 
Howe thay were Troyanes and banislied men ; 
Antyoner was lodesman, none wordier his place. 
And Corenius graunde captayne of thole race ; 
There was great joye when eche other dyd boorde, 
Sone was accordement, and Brute chosen lorde. 

MS. Lfin.sd. 208, f. 8. 

AVYEDE. Showed the way. (^.-A^^.) 

Sir Arthure and Gawayne avyede theme bothene. 
To sexty thosandez of mene that in theire syghte 
hovede. Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 92. 

AVYNET. In the middle ages a collection of 
fables from Avienus was called an Avynet, 
from ^sop, an Esopet, &c. 

By the po feet is understande. 
As I have lerned in Avynet. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 243. 

AVYOWRE. See an instance of this form of 
the word in the Plumpton Correspondence, 
p. 192. 

A-VYSSETH. A-fishing. 

A-day as he wery was, and a suoddrynge hym nome. 
And ys men were y-wend avysseth, seyn Cutbert to 
hym com. Rob. Glouc. p. 2G4. 

AW. (1) I. Northumb. So we have awm, I am; 
aiost, 1 shall ; awve, I have ; aw^ thar say, I 
dare say. 

(2) Yes. Warw. 

(3) Totally. Craven. 

(4) All. North. 

Listeneth now to Merlins saw, 
And I woU tell to aw, 
What he wrat for men to come, 
Nother by greffe ne by plume. 

Warton, iii. 136. 

(5) To owe. See the quotations given in Ste- 
venson's additions to Boucher, and below in 
V. Aive. 

AWAHTE. Awoke. {A.-S.) See a quotation 
from an early MS. in the Cottonian Library, in 
Stevenson's additions to Boucher. 

AWAIT. (1) Watch; ambush. {A.-N.) 

The leon sit in his awaite alway 
To sle the innocent, if that he may. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 7239. 
(2) To attend upon ; to watch. (A.-N.) 

And this sire Urre wold never goo from sire 

Launcelot, but he and sir Lavayn awayted evermore 

upon hym, and they were in all the courte accounted 

for good knyghtes. Morte d' Arthur, ii. 387. 

Thor is ful many an eye and many an ere 

Awaiting on a lord, and he not wher. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 7634. 
But keepith wel your tourn, how so befall. 
On Thorsday next, on which we awayte all. 

Hoccleve's Poems, p. 70. 
And so dely vcrcd me the said book thenne, my lord 
therleof OxenfoTd awuyting on his said grace. 

CuxtGn's Vegccius, sig S. v. 



AWAITER. An attendant. In the ordinances 
for the household of George Duke of Clarence,^ 
1493, in ** the estate, rule, and governaunce 
of the seid prince in his ridinge, beinge de- 
parted from his standing housholde," mention 
is made of " xij. esquiers awaiters, and eveiy 
of them j. persone." See the Ordinances and 
Regulations, 1790, p. 98. 

AWAKID. Awake. Somerset. 

AW ALE. To descend. {A.-N.) 

The post ben grete and noujt smal. 
How myjte tlie lofe awale ? 

MS. Cantab. Dd. i. 17. 
AW ANTING. Deficient to ; wanting to. 

Nothing was awantitighex that might conferre the 
least light or lustre to so faire and well-composed a 
temper. Two Lancashire Lovers, 164(t, p. 2. 

AWAPE. To confound ; to stupefy ; to astound 
(A.-S.) See Kyng Alisaunder, 899, 3673 ; 
Troilus and Creseide, i. 316. 

Fram this contek that were ascaped. 
Sore adrad and awaped. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 120. 
And he allone awapid and amate, 
Comfortles of eny creature, MS. Digby , 230. 

AWARANTYSE. Assuredly. It is so explained 

in a glossary in the Archaeologia, xxx. 404. 
AWARD. To ward off; to bear off. Rider has, 

" To award a blow, ictum inhihere." 
AWARE. (1) To be aware of the approach of 
any one. 

And riding towards Nottingliam, 

Some pastime for to spy ; 
There was he aware of a jolly beggar. 
As ere he beheld with his eye. 

Ritson's Robin Hood, ii. 123. 

(2) An exclamation for making attendants in 
large establishments prepared for the approach 
of some one. 

Come, saies hee, thou shaltsee Harry, onckle, the 
onely Harry in England ; so he led him to the cham- 
ber of presence, and ever and anon cryes out, Aware, 
roome for me and my uncle ! 

Armin's Nest of Ninnies, 1608. 

AWARIE. To curse. (A.-S.) 
Thenne spac that holde wif, 

Crist awarie hire lif ! MS. Digby 86, f. lf)7. 

Theves, ye be ded, withouten lesinge, 
Awarid worth ye ichon. Gy of Warwike, p. 166. 
A WARN. To warn ; to forewarn. 

That all our friends that yetremaine alive, 
Maie be awarn'd and save themselves by flight. 

The True Tragedie,]595 

AWARP. To bend ; to cast down. (A.-S.) 

Eld me awarpeth. 

That mi schuldren scharpith, 

And ^outhe me hath let. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 210. 
AWARRANT. To warrant ; to confirm. 

Yf the Scriptures awarrant not of the mydwyfes 

rcporte, 
The authour telleth his authour, then take it in 
sporte. Chester Plays, \. i. 

AWART. Thrown on the back and unable to 

rise, spoken of cattle. North, 
A-WASSCIIEN. Washed. 

Seththe [thei] a-wasschen, I wcne, 
And wente to the sete. 

Warton's Hist. Kngl. Poet. i. 10. 

A- WATER. Ou the water. See Piers Ploughman, 



AWE 



121 



AWE 



pp. 342, 388. Here it seems to be a phrase 
implying disorder. 

But if he had broke his arme as wel as his legge, 
when he fell out of hoaven into Lemnos, either 
Apollo must have plaied the bone-setter, or every 
occupation beene layde a-tvater. 

Gossan's Schools of Abuse, 1579. 

AWAY. (1) A way. Coverdale translates 
Jeremiah, xliii. 12, "And shall departe his 
awayeixom. thence in peace." — (f. 43.) 

(2) Past. '' This week away." Beds. 

AWAY-GOING. Departure. See Bailhe's Let- 
ters, i. 68, quoted in the new edition of Boucher. 
If I recollect rightly, the word occurs in a 
prose tract in the Thornton MS. 

AWAY-THE-MARE. A kind of proverbial ex- 
pression, apparently meaning, farewell to care. 
It occurs twice in Skelton, and other references 
are given in the notes, p. 162. The follow- 
ing example occurs in a poem attributed to 
Skelton. 

Away the mare, quod Walis, 

I set not a whitinge 

By all their writing. Doctour Doubble Ale. 

AWAYWARD. Going away ; away. 

A-nijt as he awat/ward was. 

An angel to him cam. Joachim and Anne, p. 164. 

Faste awaywarde wold thou ryde. 

He is so fowle a wyghte. 

MS. Lincoln, A. i. 17, f . 103. 
Hischerertt/'e//M;a)rfe fro me caste. 
And forth he passid at laste. 

Goiver, MS. Snc. Antlj. 134, f. 39. 

AWAY-WITH. To endure. See Isaiah, i. 13 j 
Greene's Works, i. 135 ; Webster's Works, 
ii. 112. 

He was verie wi^e, modest, and warie, being no- 
thing delicat in his fare, nor curious of hisapparell. 
He could aivaie with all wethers, both hot and cold, 
and indure anie paines. 

Holinshed, Conquest of Ireland, p. 38. 

AWBEL. « Jwbel or ebelle tre," is translated 
m the Prompt. Parv. by ebonus, viburnus. 
Although scarcely agreeing with the Latin 
terms, it probably means the abele, or white 
poplar, which is called ebbel in the eastern 
counties. 

AWBLAST. An arbalest. This form of the word 
occurs in MS. Bib. Reg. 17 C. xvii. f. 57. 

AWCTE. Possessed. 



Quanne that was sworn on his wise. 
The king dede the mayden arise. 
And the erl hire bitaucte. 
And al the lond he evexeawcte. Havelok, 207 
AWD. Old. North. 

My Maugh did say this hay'l be nought, you'l see ; 
I find an awd ape now, hes an awd ee ! 

Yor7cshi7-e Dialogue, p. 55. 

AWDRYES-DAY. St. ^theldrytha's day. See 
Paston Letters, ii. 248, quoted in Hampson's 
Kalendarium, ii. 26. 
AWE. (1) Ought. See Towneley Mysteries, 
pp. 24, 55 ; Robson's Met. Romances, p'. 26. 
I awe thurghe ryghte the to lufe ay, 
And to love the bathe nyghte and daye. 

MS. Lincoln, A. i, 17, f, 189, 
Sen we are comen toCalvarie, 
Lat iike man helpe now as hym nwe. 

Early Mysteries, Walpole MS. 



(2) To own ; to possess ; to owe. See Ywaine 
and Gawin, 720 ; Robson's Met. Romances. 
p. 27, for instances of this last meaning. 

Als I sat upon that lowe, 

I bigan Denemark for to flM^e. Havehfc, 1292 

(3) An ewe. 
^we bleteth after lomb, 

Lhouth after calve cu ; 
Bulluc sterteth, bucke verteth, 

Murie sing cuccu. Ritson's Ancient Song.?, j U 

(4) " For love ne for awe," Will, and the Wer-' 
wolf, p. 195, a proverbial expression not im- 
common in the old English metrical ro- 
mances. See an instance in R. de Brunne MS 
Harl. 1701,f. 18. ' 

AWEARIED. Wearied ; tired. 

Heere the nobles were of sundrie opinions • for 
some awearied with the note of bondage, would 
gladhe have had warres: other, having regaid to 
their sons lieng in hostage with the enimies, would 
m no wise consent thereto. 

A ^X7n T, A xT-r^ . Holinshed, Hist, of Scotland, p. 9(). 

AWE-BAND. A check upon. The word occm-s 
with this explanation in the Glossogi-anhia 
Anghcana Nova, ed. 1719, in v. but it seems to 
be properly a Scotch word. See Jamieson, in v 
AWECCHE. To awaken. 

O frere ther wes among. 
Of here slep hem shulde awecche. 
Wen hoe shulden thidere recche. 
A-\irTiT^-n Reliq. Antiq. \\. 2'JQ 

AWEDE. To become mad ; to lose the senses. 
{A.-S.) SeeLybeaus Disconus, 395, 618, 957- 
Sir Tristrem, p. 297 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 162. 
And wept evere as it wolde awede for fere. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 3. 
And told bothe squier and knight. 
That her quen awede wold. 

Sir Orpheo, ed. Lainir 49 

AWEIGHTTE. Awoke. (J.J.) ^' 

The kyng swoghened for that wounde. 

And hastilich hymself aweightte. 

And the launce out pleightte. 

And lepe on fote with swerd of steel. 

And gan hym wereswithe wel, 
Awr.T-r^ m Kyng Alisaunder, 5858. 

AWELD. To govern ; to rule. (A.-S.) 

Eld nul meld no murthes of mai ; 

When eld me wol aweld, mi wele is a-wai. 
ATirr-xT r^ ,. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 210. 

AWEN. Own. North. 

Our Henry, thy awen chose knight, 
Borne to enherite the region of Fraunce 
By trewe discent and be title of right. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 229. 
Bot to the kynge I rede thou fare 

A ^TTT^xT^T." "'^^^ ^'^ awenne wille Sir Perceval, 320. 

AWENDEN. Thought. 

The Jewes out of Jurselem awexiden he were wode. 

AWENSWERABLE. AnswerabTe^' '""'■ '' "*' 

To use all pleasures in suche mediocrytie as 

should be accordinge to reason, and awen,werable to 

honestie ^rchuiologia, xxviii. 150. 

A WER. An hour. Lane. 

Wake on nwyr for the love of me. 
And that to me ys more plesaunce 
Than yfif thu sent xij. kyngs free 
To n?y sepulkyr with grett puysschaunce. 
For my dethe to take vengeaunce. 

Mind, Will, and Understanding, p. |0. 



AWII 



122 



AWL 



aWET. Know. 

Be mey home wc schall meet 

Velf Roben Hode be nerhande. Robin Hood, i. 93. 

AWEYNYD. Weaned. 

Maiihode is y-com now, myne own dere sone, 
It is tyme thow be aweynyd of thyn old wone. 

History ofBeryn, 512. 

AWF. (1) An elf. North. 

Some silly doting brainelesse calfe. 
That understands things by the halfe. 
Say that the fay rie left thisaw/f/e. 
And tooke away the other. 

Drayton's Poems, p. 171. 

(2) An idiot ; a noodle. North. 
AWFRYKE. Africa. 

Lystenyth now, y schall yow telle. 

As y fynde in parchement spelle. 

Of syr Harrowee, the gode baron, 

That lyeth in Awfryke in pryson. 

MS. Cantab Ff. ii. 38, f. 217- 

AWFUL. (1) Obedient ; under due awe of au- 
thority. 

We come within our awful banks again, 
And knit our pow6rs to the arm of peace. 

2 Henry IV. iv. 1. 

(2) Fearful ; fearing. Rider. 

AWGHT. Ought. 

The fyerthe es for he es uncertayne 
Whethyr he salle wende to joy or payne J 
Who so wyll of there fowre take hede, 
Hym awght gretly the dede here to drede. 

Hampole, MS. Bowes, p. 61. 

AWGHTEND. The eighth. 

The awghtend has this curssyng laght, 
Als thei that deles wyth wychcraft. 
And namely with halowyd thynge, 
Als with howselleor cremyng. 

Hampole, MS. Bowes, p. 7 

AWGRYM. Arithmetic. 

Than satte summe, as siphre doth in awgrym. 
That noteth a place, and no thing availith. 

Deposition of Richard II. p. 29. 

A-WHAKF. Whirled round. 

And wyth quettyng a-wharf, er he wolde lyjt. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 82. 

A-WHEELS. On wheels. Var. dial. The term 

is used by Ben Jonson. 
AWHERE. Anywhere. See Skinner's observa- 
tions on this word in the fourth part of his 
Etymologicum, who says it means desidermm, 
and hence Coles explains it desire. 
3yf thou madest awhere any vowe 
To wurschyp God for thy prowe. 

MS.Harl.mi^i.VX 

For yf my foot wolde nwher goo, 
Or that myn hod wolde ellis do, 
Whan that myn herte is Ihera^en, 
The remenaunt is alle in vayne. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 108. 
T knowe ynough of this matter, Pamphagus, not 
thither mvhere but riche. Acolastus, 1540. 

AWIIEYNTE. To acquaint. 

Awheynte the noght withe ilke man that thou 
metest in the strete. 

Howe the goode Wif thaught hir Daughter, p. 9. 

AWHILE. Awhilst. It is used as a verl) in 

some counties in the expression, "I cant 

awhile,'* i. c. I can't wait, I have no time. As 

a prcjiosition it means, until, whilst. 

A-WllOLE. Whole ; entire. Somerset. 



A-WILLED. Willed. 

That had a-willed his wyll as wisdom him taughU 
Deposition of Richard II. p. i- 

AWING. Owing. 

And, madam, there is one duty awing unto m» 
part wherof was taken or my master deceased, whosr 
soul God have mercy, and most part taken to yi)ur- 
i^'^lfe since he died. Plutapton Correspondence, p. 41. 

AWINNE. To win; to accompUsh a purpose. 
See Reliq. Antiq. ii. 243 ; Hartshorne's Met. 
Tales, p. 87 ; Sir Tristrem, p. 238. 

For al hire wrenche, and al here ginne. 
The more love sche ne might awinne. 

Sevyn Sages, 1822. 

AWIRGUD. (1) Accursed. Verstegan. 
(2) Strangled ; throttled. 
A-WITE. To accuse. {A.-S.) 

Be not to hasty on brede for to bite. 
Of gredynes lest men the wolde a-wite. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 157. 

AWITH. (1) Ought. 

And if the prest sacre Crist wan he blessith the 
sacrament of God in the auter, awith he not to 
blessith the peple that dredith not to sacre Crist ? 

Apology for the Lollards, p. 30. 

(2) Away. This is Hearne's conjectm-e in a 

passage in Peter Langtoft, p. 99. 
AWKERT. Perverse ; stubborn ; obstinate ; un- 
accountable. North. The adverb axvkertly is 
also used. Awkward occurs in a similar sense 
in Shakespeare : 

Was I, for this, nigh wrackt upon the sea, 

And twice by awkward wind from England's bank 

Drove back again unto my native cliiie ? 

2 Henry VI. iii. 2. 
And undertook to travaile dangerous waies. 
Driven by aukward winds and boisterous seas. 

Drayton's Poems. 

AWKWARDE. Backward. Shakespeare, Mar- 
lowe, and Drayton, have awkward for adverse 
winds. See Palsgrave, f. 83. 

The emperour thane egerly at Arthurehe strykes, 
Awkwurde on the umbrere, and egerly hym hiitt z.^ 
Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 77' 

AWLATED. Disgusted. (A.-S.) 

Vor the king was somdel awlated, and to gret despit 

it nom, 
That fram so unclene thinges eni mete him com, 
And het it do out of is court, and the wrecches 
ssamedo. Rob. Glouc. v- Aii5. 

AWLDE. Old. Somerset. 

For he that knawes wele and kane se 
What hymself was, andes, and salle be, 
A wyser man he may he taulde, 
Whethyr he be 30wng man or nwlde. 
Than he that kan alle othyr thyng. 
And of hymself has no knawyng. 

Hampole, MS. Bowes, p. 17- 

AWLE. All. In Songs of the London Prentices, 
p. 62, we read, " I'll pack up my awls and be- 
gone," apparently meaning all his property. 
Bishop Kennett gives the following as an "old 
Northern song over a dead corps." See also 
the Antiq. Repert. iv. 453. 

This ean night, this ean night. 

Every night andnwle. 
Fire and fli-it, and candlelight. 
And Christ receive thy sawle. 

MS. Lansd. Iu33, in T. Fleet. 



AWN 



123 



AWR 



A WLUNG. All along ; entirely owing to ; all 
along of. North. 

AWLUS. Always. Lane. 

AWM. A measure of Rhenish ware, containing 
fourty gallons, mentioned in the statute 12 
Car. II. c. 4. 

AW-MACKS., All sorts;. all kinds. North. A 
Yorkshire anecdote is told of a well-known 
piscatory judge from the scnth, who, taking an 
evening's walk on the banks of the Ouse, fell in 
with a boy who was anghng, and asking him 
what kind of fish he was angling for, the lad 
replied, " Aw-macks." The word was a poser 
to his lordship, wht afterwards mentioning the 
circumstance to some of his acquaintance, said 
he fancied before then that he knew the names 
of every kind of fresh-water fish in the coun- 
try, but that he had tried in vain to find any 
notice of awmacks. 

AWMBELYNGE. Ambling. 

Mow Gye came faste rydynge 
On a mewle wele awmbelynge. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 153. 

A\v^MBREIlE. An almoner. Prompt. Parv. 

AV^MBYR. A liquid measure ; a kind of wine 
vessel. See Prompt. Parv. p. 19 ; Ducange, 
in V. Amhra; Qu. Rev. Iv. 377. 

AWME. (1) A suspicion. 

Thys tale was tolde on the Thursday, 
That they wolde redly come on the Fryday ; 
And also in that cete was sayde the same. 
And therofF had owre kynge an uwme. 

Archceiilogia, xxi. (52. 

(2) To guess. Palsgrave, in his Table of Verbes, 
f. 156, has, " / awme, I gesse by juste measure 
to hytte or touche a thyng, je esme, prime 
conjuga, and_;e prens mon esme, fay prins mon 
esme, prendre mon esme, conjugate in je prens, 
I take. I wyll awme to hytte yonder bucke in 
the paunche, Je esmeray, or je prendray mon 
esme de f rapper ce dayn la, a la pance." See 
further observations on this word in v. Ame. 

And whenne he is entred his covert, thei oughte 
to tarye til thei awme that he be entred twoskylful 
bowshot€-s. MS. Bodl. 546. 

AWMNERE. An almoner. See Amner. 
The awmnere by this bathe sayde grace. 
And the almes-dysshe base sett in place ; 
Ther in the kerver alofte schalle sette; 
To serve God fyrst, withouten lette. 
These other lofes he parys aboute. 
Lays hit myd dysshe, withouten doute. 
The smalle lofe he cuttes even in twynne, 
Tho over dole in two lays to hym. 
The aumenere a rod schalle have in honde. 
As office for almes, y undurstonde ; 
Alle the broken-met he kepys, y wate. 
To dele to pore men at the jate. 
And drynke that leves served in halle. 
Of ryche and pore, bothe grete and smalle ; 
He is sworne to overse the servis wele, 
And dele it to the pore every dele ; 
Selver he deles rydand by way, 
Aiid his almys-dysshe, as I ^uu say. 
To the porest man that he can fynde, 
O'he; allys, I wot, he is unkyudc. 

Boke of Curtasye, ap. Stcvfiison, in v. 

A^VX, (1) To own ; to acknowledge. North. 
(2) To own ; to possess. North. 



(3) To visit. " He never avms us," i. e. he never 
visits or calls upon us. Yorksh. 

(4) Own. See Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 118; 
Hall, Henry IV. f. 14. 

Kyng Arthour than verament 
Ordeynd, throw hys awne assent. 
The tabuUdormounte, withouten lette. 

The Cok wolds Dainice, 50. 

AWN'D. Ordained. Yor/csh. Kennett, MS 

Lansd. 1033, gives the example, " I am awn'd 

to ill luck, i. e. it is my peculiar destiny or 

fortune." 
AWNDERNE. An andiron. Prompt. Parv. 
AWNE. (1) The beard of corn ; the arista of 

Linnaeus. North. Ray has, " an awn or 

beard, arista." — Diet. Tril. p. 7. 
(2) Own. 

3onder, thai said, commes his awne sonne, 
That his aire sail be. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 91. 
AWNER. A possessor; an owner. North. Britton 

gives this as an early form of altar. See his 

Arch. Diet, in v. 
AWNSCHENYD. Ancient. Prompt. Parv. 
AWN-SELL. Own-self. North. So also ct^^'w- 

sells, own-selves. 
AWNTROUSESTE. Boldest; most venturesome. 

The awntruuseste mene that to his oste lengede. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 70. 

AWNTURS. Adventurous. 

He hath slayn an awntum knyghte, 
And flemyd my quene withowten ryghte. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 75. 
AWONDER. To surprise; to astonish. See 
Gy of Warwike, p. 197 ; Will, and the Werwolf, 
p. 12. Also, to marvel. 

On his shulder a crois he bare. 
Of him alle awondride ware. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 112. 
Of my tale ne beolh noght awondred, 
The Frenshe say he slogh a hundred. 

MS. Arund. Coll. Arm. 58, f.267. 

AWORK. On work ; into work. 

Will your grace set him aivork? 

Bird in a Cage, i. 1. 
These seditions thus renewing, emboldened the 
commonaltie (of London especially) to uprore, who, 
set atvorke by meane of an affray, ranne upon mer- 
chauntes straungers chiefly, as they are commonly 
woont to doo, and both wounded and spoyled a 
great number of them before they could be by 
the magistrates restrained. 

Polydore Vergil, ed. 1844, p. 98. 

AWORTHE. Worthily. See Poems of Scottish 
Kings, p. 25. The following example is taken 
from an early copy of Sir T. More's Elegy on 
Elizabeth of York. 

Comfort youre son and be you of god chere. 
Take alle aworthe, for it wol be none other. 

MS. Sloane 1825, f. 89. 
AWOUNDED. Wounded. 

I was aivouiided ther ful sore 
That I was nere ded therfore. 

MS. Addit. 10036, f. 37. 
AWR. Our. North. 
AWRAKE. Avenged. {A.-S.) 
Thus the yong knight. 

For sothe y-slawc was thare; 
Tristrem that trewe higbt, 

Awrake him al with caie Sir Tristrem, n. M*. 



AWT 



124 



AX 



AWREKE. To avenge. (J.-S.) It is used for 
the past participle in Rob. Glouc. p. 388, as 
Mr. Stevenson has observed. See Rob. Glouc. 
pp. 36, 136 ; Holinslied, Conquest of Ireland, 
p. 31. See Awroken. 

Quod King Richard: Sith it is so, 
I wote well what I have to do : 
I shull me of them so awreke. 
That all the world therof shall speke. 

Richard Coer de Linn, 1/71 • 
And "mercy" thai criden him so swiche. 
That he ^ave hem respite of her live. 
Til he had after his baronage sent. 
To awreken him thourgj jugement. 

Flur. and Blanch. 654. 

AWRENCHE. To seize. 

Hene myjt no ferther blenche, 

The dragon cowde so many awrenche. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 30, f. 114. 

AWRETE. To avenge. This form of the word 
occurs in Rob. Glouc. p. 361, where Mr. 
Stevenson considers it is a mistake for awrece, 
to avenge. (A.-S.) 
AWRITTEN. Written. Verstegan. 
AWRO. Any. 

Is ther fallen any affray 
In land awro where ? 

Towneley Mi/steries, p. 273. 

AWROKEN. Avenged. See Morte d' Arthur, 
i. 13. (J.-S.) 

That y am awrokcn now 
Of hym that my fadur slowe. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 119. 

AWRUDDY. Already. North. 

AWS-BONES. According to Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, " ox-bones, or bones of the legs 
of cows or oxen, with which boys play at aws 
or yawse." Yorksh. 

AWSOME. Appalling ; awful. North. 

AWT. (1) All the. North. 

(2) Out. North. 

AWTALENT. Evil will. {A.-S.) 

In sacrylege he syned sore, 

When he wrojht after the fendes lore. 

And fulfylled hys awtalent. 

And dyde the fendes commandment. 

MS. Ashmole 61, f.85. 

AWTER. (1) To alter. North. 
(2) An altar. 

A Is I fynde in my sawe, 
Seynt Thomas was i-slawe, 
At Cantyrbury at the awter ston, 
Wher iilany myraclys are i-don. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 41. 
Als so a preeste, al yf he be 
Synfulle and owte of charyt^, 
He es Goddes mynystcrand holy kyrkes. 
That the sacrament of the awie/- wyrckes. 
The whylk es never the lesse of myght. 
Alio yf the preeste here lyffe noght ryght. 

Hnmpole, MS. liowea, p. 113. 

AWTERATION. Alteration. North. 
AWTERT. Altered. Tim Bobbin. 
AWTH. (1) All the. North. 
(2) Ought ; anything. 

When mey father geffe me awth, 
Be God that me dere bowth, 
Sche stares yn mey face. 

Frere and the Boj/, st. xlx. 



AWTHE. Sad.> 

Pilgremes, in speche ye ar fulle atvtht. 
That shalle I welle declare you why. 
Ye have it hart, and that is rawthe. 
Ye can no better stand therby, 
Thyng that ye here, 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 274. 

AWTHYR. Either. 

A lie thase, he saycs, that com of Eve, 
That OS alle mcne that here behofesleve, 
Whane thai are borne, what so thai be. 
Thai saye awthyr a-a or e-e. 

Hampole, North C. MS. 

AWTS. Oats. Lane. 

AWVER. Over. Somerset. 

AWVISH. (1) Queer; neither sick nor well. 

North. Qu. elfish. 
(2) Elfish. Lane. It is often applied to a wag- 
gish fellow; but it is sometimes explained, 
*' silly, clownish." The adjective awvishtt/, 
horribly, supernaturally, is also used. 
AWWHERE. Everywhere; all over. 

Now thynk me what payneis bodies sufHr here, 
Thorow maladies that greveth hem awwhete. 

Hampole, MS. f, 6. 

AWYDE. Owed. 

The Archebysschoppe of Cawnterbury, the Erie of 
Essex, the Lonle Barnesse, and suche other as 
awyde Kynge Edwarde good wylle, as welle in 
Londone as in othere places, made as many menne 
as thci myghte in strengthynge the seide Kynge 
Edwarde. Warkworth's Chronich, p. 15. 

AWYN. Own. North. 

Last of all thedyr gan aproche 

A worthy man, hyr awyn ny cosyn. 

MS. Ratal. Poet. 118. 

AWYRIEN. To curse ; to execrate. (A.-S.) 

They woklen awyrien that wight 
For his wel dedes, 
And so they chewen charity. 
As chewen shaf houiides. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 490. 

AWYS. Awes; makes afraid. 

By thys ensample that us awy.i, 

Y rode that we leve alle oure foule sawys. 

MS.Harl. 1701, f. 11. 

AW3TE. Ought. 

And namely sythen hym owith to mynystre to alle 
the puple the precious body of Crist, aiv^te to ab- 
stene hym fro al ydil pleying bothe of myraclys and 
ellis. Relicj. Antiq. ii. 48. 

AX. (1) To ask. A common archaism and pro- 
vincialism. This word, though pure Saxon, is 
now generally considered a vulgarism. The 
form axse occurs in the Howard Household 
Books, p. 361. To ax, in the North, is to ask 
or publish banns in a church, and when they 
have been read three times, the couple are said 
to be a;v*d out. 

(2) Mr. Stapleton conjectures ax in the following 
passage to mean a mill-dam. See Blount's 
Law Dictionary, in v. Hatches. 

Also ther is a ax that my master clameth the keep- 
ing of; I pray you let them have and occupie the 
same unto the sametyme, and then we shall take a 
derecciou in every thing. 

Plumpton Correspondence, p. 71 • 

(3) "To hang up one's ax," an early proveibial 
expression, to desist from fruitless labour, to 
abandon an useless project. See Rob. Glouc. 



AXW 



125 



AYE 



p. 561, quoted in Stevenson's additions to 
Boucher. 
(4) An axktree. Kent. 

AXEN. Ashes. West. {A.-S.) 

Y not wharof beth men so prute; 
Of erthe and axen, felle and bone ? 

Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 203. 

AXEN-CAT. A cat that tumbles in the ashes. 
Devon. See the Exmoor Glossary, in v. 
Axwaddle. 

AXES. The ague. North. Generally, in old 
writers, it is applied to fits or paroxysms. In 
a fever drink, described in an early medical MS. 
in Lincoln Cathedral, f. 305, the herb horseshoe 
is to be taken, zxA^ paternoster said "byfore 
the axes:' See Warkworth's Chronicle, 
p. 23 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 218 ; Skelton's Works, 
ii. 101 ; Quair of James I. p. 54 ; Troilus and 
Creseide, i. 627, ii. 1315. 

AXEWADDLE. To wallow on the ground. 
Devon. An axewaddler, a term of reproach 
in a similar sense, and also, a dealer in 
ashes. 

AXFETCH. A kind of pulse. Sometimes spelt 
axvetch and axwort. It is the same as horse- 
shoe. See Gerard, p. 1057. 

AXIL-NALIS. Nails or bolts to attach the axle- 
tree to the body of the cart. See an inventory 
dated 1465 in the Finchale Charters, p. 299. 
Palsgrave has, " axUnayle, cheviUe d'aixeul." 

AXING. Request. {A.-S.) 

And they him sware his axing fayr and wel. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 1828. 

AXIOMANCY. Divination by hatchets. Cockeram. 
AXLE-TOOTH. A grinder. North. 
AX-PEDLAR. A dealer in ashes ; a person who 

hawks about woodashes. West. 
AXSEED. Axfetch. Minsheu. 
AXSY. To ask. {A.-S.) 

Ho that wyll there a-r*y Justus, 
Tokepe hys armes fro the rustus. 

In turnement other fyght ; 
Dar he never forther gon, 
Ther he may fynde justes anoon, 
Wyth syrLaunfal the knyght. 

Launfal, 1027. 

AXTREE. The axle-tree. See the Nomenclator, 
p. 267 ; Rehq. Antiq. ii. 78, 83. 

And of the axtre bitwene the polis tweyne. 

Lydgate, MS. Sac. Antiq. 134, f. 26. 
Thunder and earthquakes raging, and the rocks 
Tumbling down from their scyts, like mighty blocks 
Rowl'd from huge mountains.surh a noise they make, 
As though in sunder heav'ns huge axtree brake. 
.^rxT^r^ ^''"'Vton's Poems, p. 219. 

AXUNGER. Soft fat; grease. (Zg^.) 

The powder of earth-wormes, &nAaxunger, addeth 
further, grounswell. and the tender toppes of the 
boxe-tree, with oHbanum ; all these, being made up 
and tempered together to make an emplaster, he 
counselleth to bee applyed to sinnewes that are layed 
°P^"- TopselVs History of Serpents, p, 31 1 . 

AXWEDNESDAI. Ashwednesday. 

So tliat an Axwednesdai, al bi the Weste ende. 
To Gloucetre he wende, mid gret poer i-nou. 

. v«r^^™ ^0^' Giouc, p. 542. 

4XW0RT. Axfetch. Minsheu. 



AY. (1) An egg. 

The ay is round, and signefieth 

He schal have the sourmouncie. 

This is round the myddtll erd, 

Botheof lewedandof lerid. Kyng AUsaunder, i> 

(2) Ah ! 

yiy ! be-sherewe yow be my fay, 
This wanton clarkes be nyse all way. 

Ritson's Ancient Smigs, p. 101, 

(3) Always ; ever. In the North of England, it 
is sometimes employed as an expression of sur- 
prise or wonder. 

(4) Yes. Pronounced i, as, indeed, it is spelt in 
most old books. 

AYANCE. Against. 

At pointe terrible ayance the miscreants on nyght. 
An hevynly mystery was schewyd hym, old hookys 
reherse. Percy's Reliques, p. 73. 

AYAYNE. Again. 

Att Cresse he foughtea;/«.v«e. 

The kynge of Beme there was slayne. 

Rob. Glove, p. 592. 

AYDER. Either. 

W han ayder ost gan other asayle, 

Ther began a strong batayle. Octovian, 1507. 

Sche thowth lost, be the rode, 

Thatdydde the boye eney gode, 

Ayder met or dreynke. Frere and the Boi/, st. iii. 

AYE. (1 ) Against. See the Heralds' College MS. 
of Rob. Glouc. quoted in Hearne's ed. p. 407 ; 
and Stevenson's additions to Boucher, in v. 
(2) Fear ; trouble. {A.-S.) 

Thi men er biseged hard in Dunbar with grete aye. 
Larigtoft's Chronicle, p. 275. 

AYED. Aid. 

The murren rot is on their lot, 
Theyr helth is sore decayed ; 
Noremedie, thy must ueadsdie, 
Onles God be theyr ayed, 

Lambeth Early Books, p. 270. 

AYEL. A forefather. (A.-N.) 

And whan the renoune of his excellence. 
By long processe, and of his great encrease. 
Came by the report unto the audience 
Of his ayel, the great Astiages. Bochas, b. ii. c. 22. 
AYENBIER. Redeemer. 

Knelyng and praienge after thy Lorde thy 
maker, thyn ayenbier, thy love and thy lovyer. 

MS. Bodl. 423, f. 182. 
AYENBYTE. Remorse. 

This boc is Dan Michelis of Northgate, y- write an 
Englis of his ojene hand, thet hatte Ayenbyte of 
Inwyt, and is of the bochouse of Saynt Austines of 
Canterberi. MS. Arundel bl, f 2 

AYENE. Again. 

He camme ayene yet the next wek, 
And toke awey both henne and chek. 

Reliq. Antiq, i, 9 

AYE-NOWE. Enough. 

The emperoure gafe Clement welthis fele, 
To lyfe in reches and in wele, 

Aye-nowe for ever-more. MS.Linsoln 4 4 :9. f \M 
AYENSAY. Denial. •<».■» 

Ther is none ayensay nor excusacioun, 
Tyll the trouthe be rypped into the roote. 

Lydgate, MS. Ashmo^e 39. f. 45. 

AYENST. Against. 

Yes, for God, then sayd Robyn, 

Or elles I were a fole ; 
Another day ye wyll me clothe, 

I trowe, ayentt the yole. Robin Hood, I. 74 



AYG 



126 



AYR 



AYENSTONDE. To withstand. See Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 53. 

And whan ony such token was sey by day or be 

nyght, than anonc alle maner men of the contrey 

made hem redy to uyenstonde, yf ony enemyes had 

come. ^^^- ^'^'''" ^704. 

AYENST-STONDYNGE. Withstanding. 

He made a lawe that every ded kny^t shulde be 
buried in his armour and armys, and iffe ony mane 
weere so hardy for to spoyle him of his armys after 
that he were y-buriede, he shulde lese his life, with- 
oute ony ayem-t-stondynge. Gesta Romanorum, p. 10. 

AYENWARDE. Back. {A.-S.) 

And as he came ayeiiwarde privily. 

His nece awoke, and askith who goeth there ? 

Truilus and Creseide, iii. 751- 

AYERE. (1) An heir. 

And schowille pray hir soneso fayre, 
That we may sainene gete an ayere. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17> f- 99- 

(2) Breed. 

Many fawcouns and faire, 
Hawl-Lis of nobiUe ayere 
On hisperkegunnerepayre. 

Syr Degrevante, Lincoln MS. 

(3) Air ; breath ; atmosphere. 

Sothely wicked men conunipith here neighbores, 
for here throte is liche to a bcriel opynyng, that 
sleeth men thorogh evyl ayere, and swelwith hem 
jnne. ^^S- Tanner 16, f. 29. 

The tother world that es lawer, 
Whare the sternes and the planetes ere, 
Godd ordaynd anely for owre behofe. 
Be this skylle, als I kane profe. 
The ayere ho thethene, and theheete of sone, 
Sostaynes the erthe heere thare we wone. 

Hampole, MS. Bowes, p. 42. 

(4) To go out on an expedition, or any business. 

(J.-N.) 
There awes none alyenes to ayere appone nyghttys 
With syche a rebawdous rowtte, to ryot thy-selvene. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Linculn, f. 58. 
The fader seid to his sone dere. 
To lawe thu shalt go ayere, 
And coste me xx. naarke. 

MS. Harl. 2382, f. 119. 

AYEWARD. Backward. 

And lad me agen into the plase of Paradice, fro 
the whiche he ravished me, and eft ayeward he led 
me to the lake ther he ravesshed me. 

MS. Rawl. 1704. 

AYFET. Covet. Rob. Glouc. 

AYFULL. High ; proud ; awful. See the He- 
ralds' College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, 
quoted in Hearne's edition, p. 377, where the 
text reads heyvol, q. v. 

AYGHE. Awe; terror. 

Sum for gret ayghe and dout. 
To other kinges flowen about. 

Jrthour and Merlin, p. 18. 

AYGHT. Height. Ritson. 
AYGRE. Sour. This is merely the old ortho- 
graphy of eager, but is still in use in York- 
bbire. See Aiyre. 

And with a sodaine vigour it doth posset 
And curd, like wr/fi-re dioppings into milke, 
The thin and wholsome blood. 

Hamlet, ed. 1623, p. 258. 
AYG RE EN. The houseleek. See Kcnnett's 
Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033, f. 28 ; Prompt 
?arv. p. 251. 



AYGULET. An aglet. 

Which all above besprinck'ed was throughout. 
With golden aygulets that glistred bright. 

The Faerie Queene, II. iii. 26. 

AYILD. To yield. In many cases, the a may 
probably be the exclamation A ! See also 
Beves of Hamtoun, p. 10, where it is some- 
what difficult to decide, the editor having 
throughout that work confused the pronoun a 
with the prefix to the verb. 
Let now ben al your fight. 
And ayild the to this knight. Rembrun, p. 475. 

AY^IR. Air. Somerset. 

AYL. Always. Skinner. 

AYLASTANDE. Everlasting. 

That woman kynde schuld sustene the reprove 
of nyldstaiide coupabilit^ amonge men, sche that 
made man fall into synne. MS. Egerton 842, f. 203. 

AYLASTANDLY. Everlastingly. 

je served never joye aylastandly. 

For 36 fulfilled no3t the warkes of msrcy. 

MS. Egerton 927. 

AYLEDE. Possessed. 

Hir aylede no pryde. Sir Perceoal, ICO. 

AYLIS. Sparks from hot iron. It is translated 
by firrine, in the Cambridge MS. of Walter 
d'e Bibblesworth, ReUq. Antiq. ii. 84. 
AYMANT. A diamond. (^.-A^.) 
To here husbande a precyouse thyng, 
A bracelett and an aymant rynge. MS. Rawl. 258. 
AY-MEE. A lamentation. See Florio, in v. Ah ; 
Cotgrave, in v. Aachce. 

Nor delude the object he affected, and to whose 
sole choice he stood affyed with feined uymees. 

Two Lancashire Lovers, p. 116. 

AYMERS. Embers. (A.-S.) See Forme of Cury, 
p. 40 ; Reliq. Antiq. i. 52. 

Tak the cvoppe of the rede dok, and fald it in a 
lefeof the selvene, and roulle it in the aymers. 

MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 291. 

Tak havremeale, and sawge, and laye hem in bote 

aymers, and erly at morowe sethe hem in a potte 

with watur and wyne, and do therto oyniones and 

■lolkes of eyrene, and thanne serve hitforthe. 

MS. Culin. Middlehill, f. 13. 

AYN. Eyes. 

When therl seye it was sir Gii, 
Hefeldoun on knes him bi, 
And wcpe with both his ayn. 

dy of IVarwike, y>. 335, 

AYOH. Avn-y ; aslant ; on one side. Salop. 
AYONT. Beyond. North. 
A-YOU-A-HINNY. A Northern nurse's lullaby. 
See Bell's Northern Rhymes, p. 296; Croft's 
Excerpta Antiqua, p, 107. 
AY-QUERE. Everywhere. 

Jy-qnere naylet ful nwe for that note ryehod. 

Syr Gawayne, p. 24. 

AYRE. (1) An heir. See Towneley Mysteries, 
p. 114; Audelay's Poems, pp. 4, 12; Dial. 
Great. Moral, p. 233; Ywainc and Gawin, 
3093 ; MS. Ashmole 33, f. 4G. 

Myn honoure sal noght passe fra this gcneracioun 
in alle other that er at come withoatenrt.v/e?. 

MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f. 16. 

(2) Ready; yare. 

Anoiethe squyer made him fiyr». 
And by hyra-sclfe forth can he fare. 

Squyr of Lowe Dcgri, 601. 



AYS 



127 



AZO 






(3) Ere; before. 

Ilde he ne wylde he with welleand wo, 
Scho hade hym upe with hyre to go ; 
Thus tellys he sythen with mekylle drede, 
Howagayne hys wyl!e with, hyre he 3ede. 
Scho lede hym to malielle felde. 
So grette ane ayre he never behelde. 

R. de Brunne, MS. Bowes, p. 22. 

(4) Air. 

For the corrupcyowne of hys body, 
Yf it solde lange abowne erthe ly, 
Yt moght the aj/re so corrumpped make. 
That men tharof the dede solde take. 

Hampole, MS. Bowes, p. 37. 

AYREABLE. Arable. 

Thcirehaye, theirecorne to repe, bynde, or mowe, 
Sette oute theire falowes, pastures, and lande ayreable. 

MS. Ashmole .'>9, f. 19. 

AYRELY. Early. 

Of this the prophet wytnes beres 
In a salme of the sawter thorgh this vers ; 
The prophet says thus als wrytene es, 
Arjrely a man passes als the gres, 
Ayrely are the begynnyng of the day 
He florysches and passes away. 

Hampole, North C. MS. 

AYREN. Eggs. IntheFormeofCury,p. 77,the 
following receipt is given to make an erbolate, 
a kind of confection composed of herbs, 
" Take persel, myntes, saverey, and sauge, tan- 
sey, vervayn, clarry, rewe, ditayn, fenel, south- 
renwode ; hewe hem and grinde hem smale ; 
medle hem up with ayrene ; do butter in a 
trap, and do the fars therto, and bake it and 
messe it forth." 

Mentoheom threowe drit and donge. 
With foule ayren, with rotheres lunge. 

Kyng Aliaaunder, 4719- 
AYRY. (1) To make an aerie. 

Expressing the loftinesse of the mountaines in that 
shoore, on which many hawkes were wont to ayry. 

Drayton's Poems, p. 21. 

(2) .Joyful ; in good spirits. Skinner. 
AY-SCHELLE. An egg-shell. 

The dragon lay in the strete, 

Myghte he nought dure for hete ; 

He fondith to creope, as y ow telle, 

Ageyn into theay-5ffte/Ze. Kyng Alisaunder, b'J'J. 

AYSCHETTE. Asked. 

Mercy mekelyche of hym he ayschette, 

Chron. Vilodun.Tp. 25. 

AYSCHIS. Ashes. We have already had other 
forms of this word, and more may probably 
be met with. See the Liber Niger Domus 
Regis Edw. IV. p. 85. The following is a 
curious early receipt for making white 
soap. 

Tak tweybushelleof wood ayschis, and a buschel 
of lyme, and thre buschelis of comun ayschis, so that 
ther be no ayschis of ook therynne, and brenne thi 
comun aysches twyes, and make a lye in the same 
wyse as y reherside bifore, and put it in a vessel with 
a flat botme ; and in ij. galones of that lye, put iiij. 
li of talowh, what talowh evere it be, and evere as it 
sethith, put therto more of lye into the tyme that o 
galone be put yn bi tymes, and loke it be wel y-sterid 
among, and tak up therof alwey to it be swich as 
thou wilt have, and contynue the fire wel, and thou 
Bchalt not faile. MS. Sloane 73, f. 214. 

AYSE. (1) Ease. {A.-N.) 



So that sche was the worse at ayse. 
For sche hath thanne no service. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 238. 
Thus may a traytour baret rayse. 
And make manye men ful evele at ayae. 

Reliq. Antiq. ii. 91. 
Thanne was Engelond ath ayse ; 
Michel was suich a king to preyse, 
That held so Englond in grith ! Havelok, 59. 
(2) To make at ease. {A.-N.) 

I made it not for to be praysed, 
Bot at the lewed mene were aysed. 

Walton's Hist. Engl. Poet. i. 68 
AYSELLE. Vinegar. ^^ Ay sell, other alegar," 
is mentioned in a recipe in the Forme of Cury, 
p. 56. See Prompt. Parv. p. 143 ; MS. Lin- 
coin. Med. f. 294 ; Towneley Mysteries, 
p. 260. 

A fuUe bittire drynke that was wroghte. 
Of ay stile and galle that the lykede noghte. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 190. 
Ayssel&ni. galle raysed on a rede. 
Within aspounge thai gun hyde. 

MS. Bibl. Coll. Sion. xviii. 6. 

AYSHWEED. A kind of herb mentioned by 
Minsheu, who appears to say it is the same as 
the gout-wort. 
AYTHIR. Either. 

Als clere goide hir brydille it schone, 
One aythir syde hange bellys three. 

True Thomas, MS. Lincoln, f, 149. 
Withowttyne gyftes ^ede thay noghte, 
Aythire haddetownnes three. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 99. 
Ther mouthe men se to knlthes bete, 
Ayther on other dintes grete. Havelok, 2665. 

AYTTENE. Eighteen. 

The golden nombre of the same yere, 
Ayttene accounted in oure kalendere. 

Lr/dgate, MS. Ashmole 39, f. 50. 

AY-WHERE. Everywhere. See Sir Trist-rem, 
pp. 236, 248, 284: Hardyng's Chronicle, 
f. 159 ; Peter Langtoft, p. 78. Aywhore is 
glossed by evermore in MS. Harl. 1701, f. 43, 
which seems to be its meaning in the Towneley 
Mysteries, p. 115, and in our second example. 
In the following passage, the Cambridge MS. 
Ff. ii. 38, reads '* every whare." 
He sent abowte every ay-where. 
That aile his mene solde make thame jare 
Agaynes the erle to fyghte. 

Erie of Tolous, MS. Lincoln, f. 115 
And gadred pens unto store. 
As okerers done aywhore, MS. Harl. 1701, f. 37. 
A-ZET. Set; planted. Dorset. 
AZOCK. The mercury of metal, an alchemical 
term. It is used by Ben Jonson, in the Al- 
chemist, ii. 1. It may not be out of place to 
mention that Ben may have taken this and 
other technical words from MS. Sloane 313, an 
alchemical MS. which formerly belonged to 
him, and has his name on the first page. Ash- 
mole spells the word azot, in his Tlieat. Chem. 
Brit. pp. 77, 89, 375. 
AZOON. Anon ; presently. Exmoor. 
AZOR. An alchemical preparation, a recipe for 
which occurs in MS. Sloane 1698, f. 7. In the 
same manuscript is given a curious list of simi- 
lar terms, but most of them are too techuieai 



B 



128 



B 



to require a place in this work. Thus we have 
azogribali for vitriol, azimac for ink, &c. 

AZURE-BYSE. Among some curious receipts 
in MS. Bloane 2584, p. 3, we are told that 
♦* 3if thou wilt prove azure-byse, whether it 
he good or bade, take a pensel or a penne, 
and drawe sraalle rewles upon blewe lettres 
with that ceruse, and jif thi ceruse be nojt 
clere white bote dede fade, then is the blewe 
nojt fyne." 

AZZARD. A sneaking person ; an insignificant 
fellow. North. We have also the adjective 
azzardly, poor, ill-thriven. 

AZZLE-TOOTH. A grinder. Craven. 

AZZY. A wayward child. Yorkshire. 

A3A. Against. 

^jrt the day of rykenyng. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 226. 

A3E. (1) Against. 

For he tho5te al that tresour have, 
Thej it were aje lawe. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. b^J . 

(2) Again. 

And that hy ne come nevere a-^f. 

Bote by him brojte. MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 

By Mahoun, saide thekyngajee, 

Y nolde the lete ly ves bee. 

MS. Aihmole 33, f. 48. 
A3EFULLEST. The most fearfuL 
Of ane emperour the a'^ef idlest that ever armys hauntid. 

MS.Mhmole 44,f. 1. 

A3EIN. Against. 

j4'^ein him alle, a'^ein alle he, 
A wondir wijte mon shal he be. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. I7. 

A3ENBOU3TIST. Hast redeemed. 

Thou heldist forth thin hond, and the eerthe de- 
vouridehem. Thou were leder in thi meici to thi 
puple, the whiche thou a'^enb/iw^tist. 

Wickliffe, MS. Bodl. 277. 

A3ENCHARE. 

But many one wyl never beware, 

Tyl sum myschaunce make hem a-^enchare. 

MS. Uarl. I70I, f. 14. 

A3ENNIS. Against. 

Mikil more if he pronounce without autorit^ or lif 
contrariously a-^ennis the Lordis wille. 

Apology for the Lollards, p. 8. 

A3EN-RIS1NG. Resurrection. 

For the sevende day, withoute lesyng. 
Is tokne oi w^enrisyng. 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57, art. 2. 

A3ENSEIDE. Denied. 

Thou sufTridest hem to deperte fro me, that is, fro 
my wille and myn entent ; and thei hadde me as 
wiatyng, for 1 a-^enaeide hem in her workis and her 
wordis. MS. Tanner 1, f. 347. 

A3ENSSEYTH. Denieth. 

He a-^ensiet/th alle that tresun. 
And setteth thus hys resun. 

MS. Harl. 1101, f.43. 



A3ENST0D. Withstood. 

Werfor Poule a-^enstod him in the face, and redi,l« 

guid him, for he was reprovable. 

Apology for the Lollards, p. 6, 

A3ENST0NDYN. To withstand. It is trans- 
lated by sisto and obsto in Prompt. Parv. p. 70 
A3ENW0RD. On the other hand. 

He biddith not here to curse him that synnith not, 
nor to asoyle him that bidith in synne ; but a-^enword 
to asoile him that levith his synne, and put him ou*- 
of cumpany that lastith in his syniie. 

Apology for the Lollards, p. 70 

A3ER. (1) Yearly. 
Heo wol rather bi-levehere truage, that jehem bereth 

«5e;-. Rob. Ulouc. p. 100. 

(2) Over. 

Ytf he of Goddes wordes aght here, 

Theroffhym thynk a hundreth jere ; 

Bot yf it be at any playng. 

At the hale-hows or othir janglyng. 

For to rache with ilk a fyle, 

Ther hym thynk nojthbota qwylle ; 

111 Gode serves swylk men er irke, 

Thatqwen thai com unto thekyrk, 

Tomattyns or mese songyn. 

Thai thynk it lastes a'^er langyn ; 

Than sal he jangy] or telle sura tale. 

Or wy t qware thai sal haf best ale. 

R. de Brunnti, MS. Bowes, p. 63. 

A3EYENST. Against. 

The volk of Gy wes wyth bowes comen a-^eyenst the. 

Reliq. Antiq- ii. 225, 

A3EYN-SAYING. Denial. 

Caym say his synne was knowed. 
And that the erthe had hit showed ; 
He wist a^eyn-saying was noon. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 8. 

A3EYNUS. Against. 

Errour he schal maynteine none 
A^eynus the craft, but let hyt gone. 

Constitutiont of Masonry, p. 23, 

A3LEZ. Fearless. 

How that dojty dredles dernely ther stondcz. 
Armed ful apez; in hert hit hym lykcz 

Syr Gawayne, p 86. 

A3T. (1) Ought. 

Thes sevene thingefr at the lest 

Felle on that like daye ; 

For that ojf alle holy kirke 

To honour hit for ay. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 83. 
(2) Eight. 

For if thou be in dedly synne. 

And therof schal be schrifene, 
A^t thynges the bus haf therto, 

Oritbe dene (org\i&ne. S.Cantab.Fi. v.4i).f.!!n 

A3TE. (1) Possessed. 

I dar notte telle 30, lord, for schame, 
The godus now that he ape. 

Robnoii's Met. Rom. p. 32. 

(2) Noble ; honourable. Rob. Glouc. 



B" To know a B from a battledoor," an old 
phrase, generally implying, according to 
Nares, a very slight degree of learning, or the 
being hardly able to distinguish one thing from 
another. It is sometimes found in early printed 
works, as if it should be thus written, " to 
know A. B. from a battledoor," an instance of 



which occiu-s in Taylor's Workes, 1630, ii. 59. 

You shall not neede to buy bookes ; no, scorneto 
distinguish a B. from a battlc-doore ; onely looke that 
youi eares be long enough to reach our rudiments, 
and you are made for ever. Guls Hornebaoke,lG{)'J ip.'i. 

For in this age of crittickes are such store, 

That of a B. will make a battledore. 

Taylor's Motto, 1622, sig A. Hi. 



I 



BAB 



129 



BAB 



BA. (1) To kiss. See Chaucer, Cant.T., 6015. 

Also a substantive, as in Skelton, i. 22. 
(2) Both. (A.-S.) 
'3) A ball. Percy. 
BAAD. (1) Continued. Yor&sh. 

(2) To bathe. Craven. 

(3) A woman of bad character. Cumb. 
BAAKE. To bake. Palsgrave. 
BAAL. A ball. 

To this house I have devised how you maie so 
secretly conveigh me, that you maie there keepe me 
at your pleasure to your owne use, and to my greate 
contentation, where I maie at pleasure enjoye hym, 
more dearely beloved unto me then the baales of 
myne owne eyes. Riche's Farewell, 1581. 

BAA-LAMB. A lambkin ; a pet term for a 
lamb. Var. dial. 

BAAL-HILLS. Hillocks on the moors, where 
fires are fancied to have once been in honour of 
Baal. Craven. 

BAAN-CART. The body. Craven. The form 
baan, bone, occurs in several compounds in the 
Northern dialect. 

BAANT. Am not ; are not. Var. dial. 

BAAR. To bear. Maundevile. 

BAARD. A sort of sea-vessel, or transport 
ship. Phillips. 

BA-ARGE. Generally used in Devonshire to 
signify a fat heavy person. See the Exmoor 
Scolding, p. 9. 

BAAS. Base. In the Papers of the Shak. Soc. 
i. 50, " baas daunces" are mentioned. These 
were dances very slow in their movements. 
See also Nugse Poeticae, p. 2. 

BAASTE. (1) To sew. Palsgrave. 

(2) Bastardy. Prompt, Parv. 

BAATH. Both. North. 

BAB. (1) To bob down. North. 

(2) A baby ; a child. Var. dial. 

(3) To fish in a simple and inartificial manner, 
by throwing into the water a bait on a line, 
with a small piece of lead to sink it. Eels 
and crabs are sometimes caught in this way. 
We have all read of the giant who ** sat upon 
a rock, and bobbed for v/laale.'* This is merely 
another form of the word. 

BABBART. The " evele i-met, the babbart," 

are among the very curious names of the hare 

in the Reliq. Antiq., i. 133. 
BABBLE. (1) Hounds are said to babble, " if 

too busie after they have found good scent." 

Gent. Rec. p. 78. 

(2) To talk noisily. Var. dial. 

(3) An idle tale. Rowley. 
BABBLEMENT. Silly discourse. North. 
BABBLING. A noisy discourse. " Babbhng or 

much speaking." Becon's Early Works, p. 169. 

BABBY. (1) A baby. Var. dial. 

(2) A sheet or small book of prints for chil- 
dren. North. 

BABBY-BOODIES. Same as baodies, q.v. 

BABE. A child's maumet, Gouldman. See 
Baby. This may also be the meaning of the 
^ord in a difficult passage in Cymbeline, iii. 3, 
where Hanmer and the chief modern ed'tors 



read bribe. Palsgrave tias, *^Babe that chyl- 

dren play with, pouppee." 
BABELARY. A foolish tale. More, 
BABELAVANTE. A babbler. 

Sir Cayphas, harcken nowe to me ; 
This babelavante or kinge woulde be. 

Chester Plays, ii. 34. 

BABELYN. To totter; to waver. Prompt. Parv, 

BABERLUPPED. Thick-lipped. Piers Ploughm. 

BABERY. Childish finery. Webster. Stowe 

has babblerie in the same sense. See Strutt's 

Dress and Habits, ii. 201. 

BABEURY. An architectural ornament. Chaucer 

mentions a castle being ornamented 'w^th 

many subtill compassings ; 

As bahewies and pinnacles. 
Imageries and tabernacles. 

House of Fame, iii. 99. 
Urry reads barbicans, but see Stevenson's ad- 
ditions to Boucher, in v. The latter writer 
wishes to connect this word with babewyns, 
an ancient term for grotesque figures executed 
in silver work. 
BABEWYNE. A baboon. Maundevile. 
BABIES-HEADS. A kind of toy for children. 

See the Book of Rates, 1675, p. 24. 
B ABIE S-IN-THE-E YES. The miniature re- 
flection of himself which a person sees in the 
pupil of another's eye on looking closely into 
it, was sportively called a little baby, and our 
old poets make it an employment of lovers to 
look for them in each others eyes. See Rich's 
Honestie of this Age, p. 49 ; Brand's Pop, 
Antiq., iii. 25 ; Nares, in v. 

When I look babies in thine eyea. 
Here Venus, there Adonis lies. 

Randolph's Poems, p. 124. 
She clung about his neck, gave him ten kisses, 
Toy'd with his locks, look'd babies in his eyea. 

Heywood's Love's Mistresa, p 8t 

BABION. A baboon. See Ben Jonson, ii. 240 ; 
Skelton's Works, i. 124 ; Drayton's Poems, 
p. 247. 

BABLACK. A name given to two free-schools 
at Coventiy and Warwick. See Cooke's Guide 
to Warwick Castle, 1841, p. 93. The term is 
derived from a piece of land at Coventry 
formerly so called, and on which the bablack 
school there is now situated. The boys are 
clothed in yellow and blue, and perhaps the 
bablack school at Warwick is so called because 
a similar uniform has been adopted. It also 
appears from Sharp's Cov. Myst., pp. 146, 
179, 187, that there was formerly a monastii 
institution at Coventry of the same name, and 
most Ukely on the same spot. 

BABLATIVE. Talkative. 

In communitie of life he was verye jocund ; 
neither to bablative withe flattery, nor to whust with 
morositie. Philotimua, 1583. 

BABLATRICE. A basilisk.' 

O you cockatrices, and you bablatrices, 

That in the woods dwell. Locrine, p. 26. 

BABLE. A bauble. The glass or metal orna- 
ments of dress are sometimes called bablejs. 
See Strutt's Dress and Habits, ii. 153 ; Thorns' 
Anecdotes and Traditions, p. 19 ; Florio, in. «, 

B 



BAC 



130 



BAC 



Buhole, Coccole. Miege explains it, " to talk 
confusedly," but that would more properly 
be spelt babel. In Skelton^we have babyls, 
baubles. 
BABS. Children's pictures. North. 
BABULLE. A bauble. An old proverb in MS. 
Douce 52, says, " A fole scholde never have 
a babidle in hande." 

Lyke a fole and a fole to bee, 
Thy habulle schalle be thy dygnyt^. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 241, 
BABY. According to Minsheu, a " puppet for 
children." The word constantly occurs as a 
child's plaything, a toy, and is still in use in 
the North for a picture, especially such as 
would amuse children. So in the French 
Schoole-Maister, 1631, f. 98, '' Shall we buy 
a babie or two for our children for pastime ?" 
See also the Book of Rates, p. 24 ; Malone's 
Shakespeare, xiii. 108 ; Cleaveland's Poems, 
p. 64 ; Brit. Bibl., ii. 399 ; Du Bartas, p. 3 ; 
Florio, in v. Bdmbola, Bdmba, Cucca, Ddndola, 
Pipdta ; Cotgrave, in v. Poupette ; Baret's 
Alvearie, B. 7, 8. A Bartlemy Fair doll is 
often mentioned as a Bartholomew baby. 
Compare the Captain, i. 3, — 

"and now you cry for't. 

As children do for babies, back again." 

Beaumont and Fletcher, ed. Dyce, iii. 235. 

Where the editor asks whether the author did 
not write babies, another word altogether, — 
What gares these babies and babies all ? 

King and a Poore Northerne Man, 1640. 
For bells and babyes, such as children small 
Are ever us'd to solace them withall. 

Drayton's Poems, p. 243 

BABY-CLOUTS. A puppet made of rags. 
Cotgrave translates muguet, " a curiously 
dressed babie of clowts." 

And drawing neare the bed to put her daughters 
armes, and higher part of her body too, within 
sheets, perceiving it not to be her daughter, but a 
baby-clouts only to delude her. 

Two Lancashire Lovers, 1640, p. 113. 

BABYSHED. Deceived with fooHsh and child- 
ish tales. See the Towneley Mysteries, p. 78. 

BACCARE. An exclamation signifying " go 
back," and supposed to be a corruption of 
back there. It occurs in Shakespeare, Lilly, 
Heywood, and other contemporary writers. 
From a passage in the Golden Aphroditis, 1577, 
" both trurape and drumme sounded nothing 
for their larum but Baccare, Baccare,'" it 
would seem to have been taken from some 
old tune. 

BACCIIAR. The herb ladies' glove. A full 
description of it is given in Holmes's Academy 
of Armory, p. 88. 

BACCIIES. Bitches. 

The bacchc.s that hym scholde knowe. 
For sone mosten heo blowe pris. 

App. to Walter Mapes, p. 34r). 

BACCIIUS-FEAST. A rural festival ; an ale. 

See Stub's Anatomic of Abuses, cd. 1595, p. 

110; Dee's Diary, p. 34. 
BACE. (1) The game of prisoners' base, more 

generally written base, q. v. Cotgrave has, 



" Barres, the martiall sport called Barriers 
also the play at bace, or prison-bars." 

(2) A kind of fish, mentioned in Prompt. Parv., 
p. 20, supposed by Mr. Way to be the basse, 
or sea-perch. Cf. Baret's Alvearie, B. 198; 
Florio, in v. Baicolo ; Palsgrave, Subst. f. 18. 

(3) To beat. Devon. 

(4) The pedestal of an image. An old archi- 
tectural term. See Willis, p. 76. 

BACE-CHAMBYR. A room on the lower floor. 
Prompt. Parv. 

BACHELER. A knight. Chaucer. 

BACHELERIE. Knighthood. Also explained 
by Tyrwhitt, the knights. It sometimes means 
a company of young bachelors, and occasion- 
ally, bachelorship. Cf. Chaucer, Cant. T., 
8146, 17074; Rob. Glouc. pp. 76, 183. 

BACHELOR'S-BUTTONS. The campionflower. 
According to Grey, Notes on Shakespeare, i. 
107, there was an ancient custom amongst 
country fellows of carrying the flowers of this 
plant in their pockets, to know whether they 
should succeed with their sweethearts, and 
they judged of their good or bad success by 
their growing or not growing there. " To 
wear bachelor's buttons" seems to have been 
a phrase for being unmarried. In some parts 
of the country, the flower-heads of the com- 
mon burdock, as well as the wild scabious, 
are also called by this name. 

BACINE. A bason. 

That on was rede so the fer. 
The eighen so a bacine cler. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 57. 

BACK. (1) Arere-mouse; a bat. SeeLydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 152; Tundale, p. 41 ; Prompt. 
Parv., p. 21. 

(2) Kennett says, " along the Severn they think 
it a sure prognostick of fair weather, if the 
wind back to the sun, i. e. opposes the sun's 
course." MS. Lansd. 1033. 

(3) In some counties, when a person is angiy 
they say his backus up. Kennett has, *' baxup, 
angry, provoked. Oxfordsh." 

(4) In mining, the back of a lode is the part of 
it nearest the surface ; and the back of a level 
is that part of the lode extending above it to 
within a short distance of the level above. 
Watson. 

BACK-ALONG. Backward. Somerset. 

BACK-AND-EDGE. Completely ; entirely. See 
a play, quoted by Nares, in v. In Yorkshire 
obtains the opposite phrase, " I can make 
back ner edge of him ;" I can make nothing 
of him. 

BACKARDS-WAY. Backwards. Yorksh. 

BACKAS. The back-house, or wash-house, or 
more generally bakehouse. Var. dial. Spelt 
backhowse in the Ordinances and Regulations, 
p. 4, where it is probably used in the first 
sense. 

BACK HAND. An iron chain passing in a groove 
of the cart-saddle to support the shafts. North. 

BACK BAR. The bar in a chimney by whidi any 
vessel is suspended over the fire. Var. dial. 



BAG 



131 



BAD 



BACKBERAND. The bearing of any stolen 
goods, especially deer, on the back, or open 
indisputable theft. An old law term. 

BACK-BOARD. A large board on which the 
dough is rolled out previously to making it 
into loaves. North. 

BACK-BREAK. To break the back. Florio. 

BACKBRON. A large log of wood put on at the 
back of a fire. Dorset. 

BACKBY. Behind ; a little way off. North. 

BACK-CAST. The failure in an effort ; a re- 
lapse into trouble. North. 

BACK-CAUTER. Cotgravehas, ''Cautere dorsal, 
the backe-cauter, somewhat hke a knife, or 
having a back like a knife, and searing onely 
on the other side." 

BACKEN. To retard. Var. dial. 

BACK-END. Autumn. YorJcsh. It is applied as 
well to the latter end of the month, week, &c. 

BACKENING. Relapse; hindrance. Yorksh. 

BACKER. Further back. West. We have also 
^ac^er^y,late,apphedto crops; ^ae^er^s, back- 
wards ; backerter, more backwards. Chaucer 
\\d&backirmore, La Belle Dame sans Mercy, 85. 

BACK-FRIEND. (1) A secret enemy. See 
Comedy of Errors, iv. 2 ; Hall, Henry VII., 
f. 1 ; Florio, in v. Inimico, Nemico. 

(2) A hangnail. North. 

BACKING. Nailing the back on a chair suitable 
to the seat. Holme. 

BACK-O'-BEYOND. Of an unknown distance. 
North. 

BACK-OUT. A back-yard. Kent. 

BACK-PIECE. This term explains itself. It is 
the piece of armour that covers the back. 
See Hall, Hen. IV., f. 12. 

BACKRAG. A kind of wine, made at Bacharach 
in Germany, occasionally mentioned by our 
old dramatists. Nares. See also Hudibras, 
III. iii. 300. 

BACKS. The principal rafters of a roof. A 
term in carpentry. 

BACKSET. To make a backset, to make a stand 
to receive a chased deer, and to cast fresh 
hounds upon him at the latter end of the 
course. Holme. 

BACKSEVORE. The hind part before. Devon. 

BACKSIDE. The barton, or any premises at the 
back of a house. Var. dial. 

No innkeeper, alehouse keeper, victualler, or tip- 
pler, shall admit or suffer any person or persons in 
his house or backside to eat, drink, or play at cards. 
GrindaVs Remains, p. 1:58. 

BACKSTAFF. An instrument formerly used for 
taking the sun's altitude at sea; being so 
called l)ecause the back of the observer is 
turned towards the sun when he makes the 
observation. It was said to have been invented 
by captain John Davis about the year 1590, 
and it is described by him in his " Seaman's 
Secrets." 

BACKSTAND. Resistance. 

Lytle avayleth outward warre, except there be a 
sure staye and a stedfast hackstande at home, as 
wel for the savegarde and securite, as for the good 
governaunce of such as be left behinde. 

Hali, Henry VII. f. 3. 



BACKSTER. A baker. North. 

BACKSTERS. Wide flat pieces of board, which 
are strapped on the feet, and used to walk over 
loose beach on the sea coast. South. 

BACK-STOCK. A log of M'ood. Hollyband. 

BACKSTONE. A pecuHar kind of stone to bake 
bread, but more particularly oat-cakes upon. 
The larger, or double ones, as they are usually 
called, are about 28 to 30 inches by 16 to 20, 
and the smaller ones vary in size, 16 or 18 
inches square. Meriton gives the Yorkshire 
proverb, " As nimble as a cat on ahaite back- 
stane." — Yorkshire Ale, ed. 1697, p. 84. 

BACKSTRIKING. A mode of ploughing, in 
which the earth having been previously turned, 
is turned back again. Suffolk. 

BACKSUNDED. Shady. Dorset. 

BACK-SWANKED. Lean in the flank, a term 
applied to a horse. Miege. 

BACKSWORD. The game of single-stick. Wilts. 
A backsword, properly speaking, is a sword 
with one sharp edge. 

BACKWARD. (1) The state of things past. Shak. 

(2) A Jakes. Var. dial. 

BACKWATER. Water not wanted for turning 
the wheel of a water corn-mill, what is super- 
abundant, and generally flows down a channel 
cut for the purpose. Also, a current of water 
from the inland, which clears off the deposit 
of sand and silt left by the action of the sea. 

BACKWORD. An answer to put off an engage- 
ment. North. 

BACK-WORM. A disease in hawks, the worm 
itself generally being in the thin skin about 
the reins. It is the same as the filander. See 
Blome's Gent. Rec. ii. 51. 

BACKWORT. A herb mentioned by Florio, in v. 
Consdlida maggivre. It appears from Gerard 
to be the same as the comfrey. 

BACON. A clown. Shak. 

BACTILE. A candlestick. (Za^.) 

BACUN. Baked. 

BACYN. A light kind of helmet, mentioned in 
Richard Coer de Lion, 2557 ; basyn, Kyng 
Alisaunder, 2333. This is another form oi 
the word bassinet, q. v. 

BAD. (Ij Sick; ill. Var. dial. Sometimes we 
hear right bad, or right on bad. 

(2) A rural game, played with a bad-stick, for- 
merly common in Yorkshire. It probably re- 
sembled the game of cat. See Kennett's 
Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033. 

(3) Poor. Var. dial. 

(4) Entreated; asked; prayed. 

To Jhesu Crist he bad a boone, 
Fayre knelyng on hys knee. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 46 

(5) Offered; invited. See Sir Eglamour, 929, 
1080, Thornton Romances, pp. 159, 166. 

(6) To take the husks off walnuts. West. 

(7) Bold. Gov. Myst. 

(8) A bad person or thing. See Jarf^Zs in Warner's 
Albions England, ed. 1592, p. 58. 

BADAYLE. Battle. 

Of swerde of plate and eek of mayle, 
As thouje he schulde to badayle. 

Gotver, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 14«. 



BAF 



132 



BAG 



BADDE. Ellis suggests either the usual mean- 
ing, or the perfect tense of the verb abide. In 
Reliq. Antiq., ii. 101, it means delay. 
A staf in his bond he hadde, 
And schon on his fet badde. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 73. 

BADDELICHE. Badly. Rob. Glouc. 
BADDER. Comp. of bad. North. See Chaucer, 

Cant. T., 10538, and Nares, in v. 
BADDING. ShelUng walnuts. West. 
BADE. (1) Delay. Cf. Sir Perceval, 41, 111, 

484, 666, 1533, 'l760, 2128, 2129; and the 

example under Alsuithe. 

(2) Abode; remained. See Minot's Poems, p. 20; 
Sir Tristrem, p. 148 ; Perceval, 569, 612, 892. 

(3) Prayed. Rob. Glouc. Cf. Ellis's Met. Rom., 
iii. 72 ; Chaucer, Cant. T., 7449. 

(4) Commanded. Chaucer. 

(5) A pledge ; a surety. {A.-S.) This at least 
seems to be the meaning of the word in 
Perceval, 1029, 1305. 

(6) To bathe. Warw. 

(7) In Mr. Robson's Romances, p. 58, the word 
occurs in a peculiar sense ; " alle of fellus that 
he bade" skins of animals that he caused to 
remain, i. e., killed. 

BADELYNGE. Paddling, as of ducks. Skinner 
gives this word on the authority of Juliana 
Barnes. It means a flock or company of ducks. 

BADGER. (1) A pedlar; acorn-factor. Some- 
times, a person who purchases eggs, butter, &c. 
at the farm-houses, to sell again at market. 

(2) To beat down in a bargain. Var. dial. 

BADGER-THE-BEAR. A rough game, some- 
times seen in the country. The boy who per- 
sonates the bear performs his part upon his 
hands and knees, and is prevented from getting 
away by a string. It is the part of another 
boy, his keeper, to defend him from the at- 
tacks of the others. 

BADGET. A badger. East. Badget is also a 
common name for a cart-horse. 

BADLING. A worthless person. North. 

BADLY. Sick; ill. North. 

BADS. The husks of walnuts. West. 

BAEL. Bale ; sorrow. 

BAELYS. Rods. 

With brennyng haelys the! hem dong. 
And with hem droffe to peynis strong. 

Tundule, p. 16. 

BAESSYS. See Base. 
BAFFERS. Barkers; yellers. 

Houndes for the hauk beth fi3ters and grete 
bdffej-s. MS. Bodl. 546. 

BAFFLE. (1) To treat with indignity; to use 
contemptuously. Properly speaking, to bofflc 
or bafful a person was to reverse a picture of 
him in an ignominious manner ; but the term 
is used more generally. See Middleton's 
Works, ii. 449; Ben Jonson,v. 127; Dodslcy's 
Old Plays, vi. 18. In the Muse's Looking- 
glass, i. 4, it signifies to beat, in which sense 
it also occurs in Moor's Suffolk Words, p. 13. 

(2) To cheat, or make a fool of; to manage 
capriciously or wantonly ; to twist irregularly 
tog(!thcr. East. Corn, knocked about by the 
*;ii<J. is said in Suilblk to Ijc baj)led. 



BAFFLING. Affront ; insult. See Middleton's 
Works, iv 44 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, i. 142; 
Maione's Shakespeare, xvi. 16. 

BAFFYN. To oark. Prompt. Parv. 

BAFT. Abaft. Chaucer. 

BAFTYS. Afterwards } Cov. Myst. 

BAG. (1) The udder of a cow. Var. dial. 

(2) To cut peas with an instrument resembling 
the common reaping-hook, but with a handle 
sufficiently long to admit both hands. West. 
In Oxfordshire the term is apphed to cutting 
wheat stubble, which is generally done with 
an old scythe. 

They cannot mowe it witli a sythe, but they cutt 

it with such a hooke as they doe bagge pease with. 

Aubrey's Wilts, MS. Royal Soc, p. 123. 

(3) When a servant is dismissed, he is said to 
have got the bag. In some parts, to give a 
person the bag is to deceive him. A person's 
bag and baggage is everything he has got. 

(4) The stomach. Hence eating is bagging, or 
filling the stomach, to put into a bag. Cf. 
Cotgrave, in v. Emplir ; Harrison's Descri])- 
tion of England, p. 233. An animal with 
young is said to be bagged. See Perceval, 717; 
Nares, in v. Bag ; Florio, in v. Rimpregn^uole ; 
Tusser's Husbandry, p. 104. Nares explains 
it, to breed, to become pregnant. 

(5) To move ; to shake ; to jog. See the Rara 
Mathematica, p. 64. 

BAGAMENT. Worthless stuff; nonsense. Line. 
BAGATINE. An Italian coin, worth about the 
third part of a farthing, alluded to in Ben 
Jonson, iii. 219. 
BAGAVEL. A tribute granted to the citizens 
of Exeter by a charter from Edward I., em- 
powering them to levy a duty upon all wares 
brought to that city for the purpose of sale, 
the produce of which was to be employed in 
paving the streets, repairing the walls, and the 
general maintenance of the town. Jacobs. 
BAGE. A badge. Prompt. Parv. 
BAGEARD. A badger. More. 
BAGELLE. Rings ; jewels. So explained in 

Hearne's Glossary to Peter Langtoft, p. 282, 
BAG-FOX. A fox that has been unearthed, and 

kept a time for sport. Blome. 
BAGGABONE. A vagabond. Beds. 
BAGGAGED. Mad; bewitched. Exmoor. 
BAG GAGE LY. Worthless. Tusser. 
BAGGE. (1) A badge. Prompt. Parv. 
He beris of golde a semely sighte. 
His bagges are sabylle ylkane. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 141. 
(2) To swell with arrogance. Chaucer. Tynvhitt 

savs " rather, perhaps, to squint." 
BACJGERMENT. Rubbish. Line. 
BAGGIE. The belly. Northumb. 
BAGGIN. Food. Cumb. 
BAGGING. The act of cutting up wheat stubble 
for the purpose of thatching or burning. Oaon. 
Also, becoming pregnant. See Florio, in v. 
Impregndggine ; and Bag. 
BAGGING-BILL. A curved iron instrument 
used for various agricultural purposes. It is 
also called a bagging-hook. 



BAI 



133 



BAI 



BAGGINGLY. Squintingly. This word occurs 
in the Rom. of the Rose, 292, explained by 
some arrogantly. Tyrwhitt's explanation, here 
adopted, best suits the context, and the cor- 
responding passage in the original. 
BAGGING-TIME. Baiting time. North. At 
Bury, CO. Lane, about the year 1780, a re- 
freshment between dinner and supper was 
called bagging, while at Chorley, distant only 
about twenty miles, the term was not in use. 
BAGHEL. Same as bagelle, q. v. 
In toun herd I telle. 
The baghel and the belle 
Ben filched and fled. 

Wright's Political Songs, p. 307* 

BAGINET. A bayonette. Var. dial, 

BAGLE. An impudent woman ; an opprobrious 
term for a woman of bad character. Salop. 
Perhaps this is merely a variation of baggage, 
though Mr. Hartshorne derives it from the 
French b^gueule. 

BAG-OF-NAILS. The name of a sign, said to 
be corrupted from the Bacchanals. He squints 
like a bag of nails, i. e., his eyes are directed 
as many ways as the points of a bag of nails. 

BAG-PUDDING. A rustic dish, said, in an old 
nursery rhyme, to have formed the repast of 
King Arthur ; but mentioned, I believe, in no 
modern dictionary. It appears, from Taylor's 
Workes, i. 146, that Gloucestershire was for- 
merly famous for them ; but Welsh bag-pud- 
dings are mentioned in Hawkins' Eng. Dram, 
iii. 170. Howell, English Proverbs, p. 6, gives 
this, " Sweetheart and bagg-pudding." See 
also Heywood's Edward IV., p. 47 ; Florio, in 
V. Offa, Poltiglia. 

BAGWALETOUR. A carrier of baggage. 

Howe shall the cuntrey thenne susteyne two soo 
greate traynes, as the kinges majestie and they must 
have ; specially considering the nombre of hagwale- 
toura that shall com with them out of Fraunce. 
State Papers, i. 536. 

BAGY. A badge. Berners. 
BAHN. Going. Yorksh. 
BAHT. Both. 

Than sent he many ay messenger 

After Sarzyns buht far and ner. 

Guy of Warwick, Middlehill MS. 

BAICH. A languet of land. Ray. 

BAICS. Chidings ; reproofs. Tusser. This word 
and the previous one are from Hunter's addi- 
tions to Boucher. 

BAIDE. Endured. Northumb. 

BAIGNE. To drench ; to soak. 

BAIL. (1) A beacon ; a signal; a bonfire. North. 
Also bailes, flames, blazes. Cf. Piers Plough- 
man, p. 490. 

(2) The handle of a pail, bucket, or kettle ; the 
bow of a scythe. East. 

BAILE. (1) Battle. See Rob. Glouc. p. 37, 
where the Arundel MS. reads bataille. 

(2) A wooden canopy, formed of bows. See the 
Rutland Papers, p. 6 ; Ordinances and Regula- 
tions, p. 127. 

BAILEY. A name given to the courts of a castle 
formed by the spaces between the ciixuits of 



walls or defences which surrounded the keep. 

Oxf. Gloss. Arch. 
Four toures ay hit has and kernels fair, 
Thre baillies al aboute, that may nojt apair. 

MS. Egerton 927, 

BAILIWICK. Stewardship, Dent. Florio speUs 

it baily-weeke, in v. Castaldia. 
BAILLIE. Custody ; government. {A.-N.) See 
Rom. of the Rose, 4302 ; Kyng AUsaunder, 
7532 ; Langtoft, pp. 61, 127, 280. 
BAILS. Hoops to bear up the tilt of a boat. 

Bourne. 
DAILY. A bailiff ; a steward; also, a sheriff's 
officer. 

As haJye, sergeaunt, or reve, 

That fallit hys lordys goodes to reseyve. 

MS. Hatton 18. 
And for to somoun all them to this fest. 
The baily of Roston thereto is the best. 

MS. Rawl. C. 86. 
BAIN. Near ; ready ; easy. North. Ray ex- 
plains it, " willing, forward," and Wilbraham 
" near, convenient." In the east of England 
it means, pliant, limber. " To be very bain 
about one," officious, ready to help. As an 
archaism, it signifies, obedient, ready, willing. 
See Chester Plays, i. 69 ; Robson's Romances, 
p. 46 ; Towneley Mysteries, pp. 28, 39. 
A monthe day of trewse moste ye take. 
And than to batayle be ye bnyne. 

MS. Haii 2252, f. 125. 

BAINE. (1) A bath. See Patterne of Painfull 
Adventures, pp. 188, 195 ; Rutland Papers, 
p. 8, bayn. 
(2) To bathe. 

No more I do my mirthis fayne. 
But in gladnesse I swym and baine. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 116. 
BAINER. Nearer. North. 
BAINLY. Readily. 
BAIRE. Fit ; convenient. Durham. 
BAIRMAN. A poor insolvent debtor, left bare 
and naked, who was obliged to swear in court 
that he was not worth above five shillings and 
five pence. Phillips. 
BAIRN. A child. North. The several com- 
pounds of this word are too obvious to require 
insertion. 
BAIRNWORTS. The daisy. Yorksh. 
BAISE. A bastard. In Sir C. Sharp's Chron. 
Mirab. p. 9, is the entry, " Isabel, daughter to 
Philippe Wilkinson, bur. 30 May, 1633, baise 
with another man's wife," from the register of 
Hart. 
BAISEMAINS. Comphments ; salutations. 

Spenser. 
BAISKE. Sour. {Su. Goth.) 
BAIST. To beat. North. 

He paid good Robin back and side. 

And baist him up and down ; 
And with his pyke-stalf laid on loud, 
. Till he fell in a swoon. Robin Hood, i. 102. 
BAISTE. Abashed. 

Bees noghte baitte of jone boyes, ne of thaire bryghte 

wedis ; 
We salle blenke theire boste for alle theire bolde 
profire. Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 8J. 



BAL 



i34 



BAL 



BAIT. (1) A luncheon ; a meal taken by a la- 
bourer in the morning. Var. dial. In Torrent 
of Portugal, p. 66, it apparently means to re- 
fresh ; to stop to feed. 

(2) To lower a bargain, Var. dial. 

(3) To flutter. A hawking term. 

(4) Food ; pasture. North. 

B AIT A.ND. Explained by Hearne, in great haste. 
See Peter Langtoft, p. 307. 

BAITEL. To thrash. Norih. 

BAITH. Both. North. 

BAIT-POKE. A bag to carry provisions in. 
North. 

BAJ ARDOUR. A carter ; the bearer of any 
weight or burden. Kersey. 

BAK. A bat. " The blode of a ba^" is an in- 
gredient in a medical receipt in MS. Lincoln 
A.i. 17, f. 282. 

Thane come thare flyande amangez thame baJckes, 
grettere thane wilde dowfes, and thaire tethe ware 
lyke mene tethe, and thay didd mene mekille disese 
and hurte. Life of Alexander, MS. Lincoln, f. 29. 

BAKED. Incrusted. Var. dial. 

BAKED-MEAT. Means generally, meat pre- 
pared by baking ; but, in the common usage of 
our ancestors, it signified more usually a meat- 
pie. This signification has been a good deal 
overlooked. Nares. 

BAKEN. Baked. 

BAKERLEGGED. A person whose legs bend 
outwards is said to be bakerlegged. Grose has 
baker-knee^ d, " one whose knees knock toge- 
ther in walking, as if kneading dough." See 
Cotgrave, in v. Billart. 

BAKER'S-DOZEN. Thirteen. Sometimes, four- 
teen. Florio has, " Serqua, a dozen, namely 
of egges, or, as we say, a baker's dozen, that 
is, thirteene to the dozen." See also the same 
dictionary, in v. Aggiknta. 

BAKESTER. A female baker. Derby sh. In 
Pier's Ploughman, pp. 14, 47, we have bakstere 
in the same sense. 

BAKHALFE. Hinder part. See Restoration of 
Edward IV., p. 14. 

There biganne many vanitees growe upon hym, 
as hit were upon his bakhalfe. 

Caxton's Divers Fruitful Ghostly Maters. 

BAKHOUSE. A bakehouse. North. Seethe 
Prompt. Parv. p. 21. 

BAKIN. The quantity of bread baked at one 
time. Yorkshire. This term also occurs in 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 21. 

BAKING-DRAUGHT. Part of the hinder quar- 
ter of an ox. See Holme's Academy of Ar- 
mory, iii. 87. 

BAKK. A cheek. Stevenson. 

BAKKER. More backwards. 

With that anone I went me bakkcr more, 
Myselfe and I metliought we were i-now. 

Chaucer, MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 99. 

BAKPANER. A kind of basket; probably a 
l)annier carried on the back. Caccton. 

BAKSTALE. Backwards. Prompt. Parv. 

BAL. (1) A flame. See Stevenson's additions 
to Boucher, in v. This may be the meaning 
of the word in Wright's PoUtical Songs, p. 318. 

(2) A.-uine. West. 



BALADE-ROYAL. A balade anciently meant 
any short composition in verse, or even in mea- 
sured lines. A poem written in stanzas of 
eight Unes was formerly said to be composed 
in balade-royal A poem byLydgate, in MS. 
Ashmole 59, f. 22, is called a balade-royal, and 
several other pieces in the same MS. are said 
to be written " balade-wyse.'' Stanihurst, 
Description of Ireland, p. 40, mentions one 
Dormer who wrote in ballad-royal. 

BALANCE. (1) Balances. Shak. 

(2) Doubt ; uncertainty. " To lay in balance," 
to wager. Chaucer. 

BALANCERS. Makers of balances. See the 
curious enumeration of the different trades in 
Cocke Lorelles Bote, p. 10. 

BALASE. To balance. Baret. Cf. Harrison's 
Description of England, p. 235. 

BALASTRE. A cross-bow. Caxton. 

BAL ATE. To bleat ; to bellow. Salop. 

BALAYS. A kind of ruby. See Palsgrave, 
subst. f. 19. Balayn, in Richard Coer de Lion, 
2982, is perhaps the plural of this word. See 
also Skelton's Works, ii. 347 ; Court of Love, 
80 ; Cotgrave, in v. Balay ; Ordinances and 
Regulations, p. 120. 

BALCHE. To belch. Huloet. 

BALCHING. An unfledged bird. West. 

BALCOON. A balcony. Howell. 

BALD. Swift ; sudden. Verstegan. 

BALDACHIN. A canopy, usually supported by 
columns, and raised over altars, tombs, &c. ; 
but more particularly used where the altars 
were insulated, as was customary in early 
churches. Britton. 

BALDAR-HERBE. The amaranthus. Huloet. 

BALDCOOT. The water-hen. Drayton. Spelt 
balled-cote in Walter de Bibblesworth, MS. 
Arund. 220, f. 301. 

BALDE. (1) Bold. Minot. 

(2) To encourage. {A.-S.) 

BALDELICHE. Boldly. 

This woman wente forth baldeliche. 
Hardy hy was y-nouj. 

MS. Coll, Trin. Oxon. 57. 

BALDELY. Boldly. Minot. 
BALDEMOYNE. Gentian. SeeMS. Sloane 5, 
f. 5 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 22. 

Loke how a seke man, for his hele, 
Taketh baldemoyne with canelle. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 49. 

BALDER. (1) To use coarse language. East. 

(2) Bolder. ' Reliq. Antiq. ii. 20. 

BALDERDASH. Explained " hodge-podge" in 
the glossary to Tim Bobbin. Any mixture of 
rubbish is called balderdash. See D'Israeli's 
Amenities of Literature, i. 234. In some dis- 
tricts the term is more restricted to absolute 
filth, whether applied to language or in its 
literal sense. Ben Jonson calls bad liquor by 
this name, and it is occasionally found as a 
verb, to mix or adulterate any liquor. 

BALDFACED. White-faced. Yorksh. 

BALD-KITE. A buzzard. In Cotgrave it is 
tbc translation of buzart and buze. 

BALDLY. Boldly. Miaot» 



BAL 



135 



BAL 



BALDOCK. Some kind of tool, mentioned in 
the 51st section appended to Howell's Lexi- 
con. 

BALDORE. Bolder. Rob. Glouc. p. 509. 

BALDRIB. Not the same as the spare-rib, as 
generally stated, which has fat and lean, and is 
cut oif the neck. The baldrib is cut lower 
down, and is devoid of fat ; hence the name, 
according to Minsheu. 

BALDRICK. A belt, girdle, or sash, of various 
kinds; sometimes a sword-belt. There are 
several instances where it would seem to have 
been merely a collar or strap round the neck, 
though it was more generally passed round 
one side of the neck, and under the opposite 
arm. See Hayward's Annals of Qu. Eliz. 
p. 30 ; Fabian, p. 540 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 27 ; 
Hall, Henry VIII., fF. 3, 6 ; Malone's Shake- 
speare, vii. 22 ; Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 8 ; 
Croft's ExcerptaAntiqua, p. 13 ; Cyprian Aca- 
demy, 1647, ii. 21 ; MS. Bib. Reg. 7 C. xvi. 
f. 68 ; Cunningham's Revels Accounts, p. 126 ; 
Strutt, ii. 50 ; Patterne of Painfull Adventures, 
p. 206 ; Todd's Illustrations, p. 320. A kind 
of cake, made probably in the shape of a belt, 
was called a baudrick. See some old printed 
receipts in 4to. C. 39, Art. Seld. in Bibh Bodl. 
and Wyl Bucke's Testament, p. 34. 

BALDUCTUM. A term appUed by Nash to 
some of the affected expressions of Gabriel 
Harvey. It seems to have been nearly syno- 
nymous with balderdash, and is found in a 
similar sense in Stanihurst's Description of 
Ireland, p. 29. 

BALDWEIN. Gentian. Gerard. 

BALE. (1) Sorrow; evil; mischief. (A.-S.) 
Ryght thus I mene, I mak no lengere tale, 
But je do thus, grettere growyth oure bale. 

MS. Rawl. Poet. 118. 
Therwhile, sire, that I tolde this tale, 
Thi sone mighte tholie dethes bale. 

Sevyn Sages, 702. 

(2) Basil wood. Skinner. 

(3) The scrotum ? Stevenson. 

(4) Ten reams of paper. Kennett. 

(5) A pair of dice is frequently called a bale. 
This term is found in Skelton, Ben Jonson, 
and later writers. 

(6) The belly. Madden. 

(7) Destruction. Prompt. Parv. 
BALEFUL. Evil ; baneful. This word occurs 

in 2 Henry VI., iii. 2, and earlier in Syr 
Gawayne, p. 105. 
BALEIS. A large rod. {A.-N.) Also the 
verb baleisen, to beat with a rod, which is 
still in use in some parts of Shropshire. Piers 
Ploughman. 
BALENA. A whale. {Lat.) 

The huge leviathan is but a shrirape 
Compar'd with our balena on the land. 

Tragedy of Hoffman, 1631. 

BALEW. Evil. {A.-S.) 

BALEYNE. Whalebone ? Skinner. It is pos- 
sible this may be the same with balayn in 
Richard Coer de Lion, 2982. 

BALEZ. Bowels. Gaw. 



BALHEW. Plain; smooth. Prompt. Parv. 

BALIAGE. The office of a bailiff. See Fiorio, 
in V. Bagliuo, Baile. 

BALIST. An ancient engine, or kind of ord- 
nance, for projecting stones. 

RALISTAR. A man using a cross-bow. 

BALK. (1) A ridge of greensward left by the 
plough in ploughing, or by design between 
different occupancies in a common field. The 
term is translated by terrce porca in an old 
vocabulary in MS. Bodl. 604, f. 39 ; but by 
grumus, a heap, in Withals' Dictionarie, ed. 
1608, p. 89. See also Reliq. Antiq. ii. 81 ; 
Cotgrave, in v. Assillonnement, Cheintre ; 
Towneley Myst. p. 99 ; Gov. Myst. p. 343 ; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 123 ; Nomenclator, p. 
385 ; Fiorio, in v. Delirdre ; Holinshed, Hist. 
Ireland, p. 174. From this last example it 
appears that the explanation given by Withals 
is correct, and Baret has, " a balke or banke 
of earth raysed or standing up betweene twoo 
fm'rowes." To draw a balk is to draw a 
straight furrow across a field. 

(2) A particular beam used in the construction 
of a cottage, especially a thatched one. The 
sidewalls and gables being erected, a pair of 
couples or strong supports is placed between 
each pair of gables, and the balk is the strong 
beam, running horizontally, that unites these 
below. This balk is often used in the poorer 
cottages to hang various articles on, a custom 
alluded to in Chaucer, Cant. T., 3626 ; 
Hawkins' Engl. Dram. i. 171. A similar beam 
in a stable or outhouse is also called a balk, 
as in Topsell's Foure Footed Beasts, p. 395 ; 
Kennett's Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033 ; and 
the term is occasionally apphed generally to 
any beam or rafter. See also Prompt. Parv. 
pp. 21, 30, 196; Tusser, p. 204; Skelton, i. 
114; Book of Rates, 1675, p. 24. Huloet 
has, *' balke ende whych appeareth under the 
eaves of a house, procer." 

Bynde hit furste with balke and bonde, 
And w^ynde hit siththen with good wonde. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab., f. 11. 

(3) To heap up in a ridge or hillock, in 1 Henry 
IV., i. 1. It seems to have the usual meaning 
of omit in Tam. Shrew, i. 1; Sanderson's 
Sermons, 1689, p. 39. " Balk the way," get 
out of the way. Downfall of Robert, Earl of 
Huntingdon, p. 80. 

(4) A simple piece of machinery used in the 
dairy districts of the county of Suffolk, into 
which the cow's head is put while she is 
milked. 

(5) Straight young trees after they are felled are 
in Norfolk called balks. 

(6) " To be thrown ourt' balk," is, in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, to be published in the 
church. " To hing ourt' balk," is marriage 
deferred after publication. 

BALKE. (1) To leave a balk in ploughing. 
But so wel halte no man the plogh. 
That he ne balketh otlierwile. 

Gowcr, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134. f. 87. 



BAL 



136 



BAL 



(2) To belch. (J.^S.) 

Perceavyng by the grefe of their communications 
the dulces pryde nowe and then to balke oute a lytle 
brayde of envye towarde the glorye of the kynge. 

Hardyng, Supp. f. 84. 

(3) To be angry. Reynard the Foxe. 
BALKER. A great beam. East. 
BALKERS. Persons who stand on high places 

near the sea-coast, at the time of herring 
fishing, to make signs to the fishermen which 
way the shoals pass. Blount. 

BALKING. A ridge of earth. Latimer. 

BALK-PLOUGHING. A particular mode of 
ploughing, in which ridges are left at inter- 
vals. East. 

BALKS. The hay-loft. Chesh. Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, says the hen-roost was so called. 

BALK-STAFF. A quarter-staff. North. 
Balk-staves and cudgels, pikes and truncheons, 
Brown bread and cheese, that swam by luncheons. 
Cotton's Poetical Works, 1734, p. 12. 

BALL. (1) Bald. Somerset. 

(2) The pupil of the eye. " Ball, or apple of 
the eye." Huloet, 1552. 

Son after, wen he was halle. 
Then began to slak hyr balle. 

Guy of Warwick, Middlehill MS. 

(3) The palm of the hand. YorJcsh. Also the 
round part at the bottom of a horse's foot. 
See Florio, in v. Cdllo. 

(4) A name given to various animals. It is 
mentioned as the name of a horse in Chaucer 
and Tusser, of a sheep in the Promptorium, 
and of a dog in the Privy Purse Expences of 
Henry VIII., p. 43. It is the common name 
of a field in Devonshire. 

(5) The body of a tree. Lane. 
BALLACE. To stuff; to fiU. Ballast, filled. 

Comedy of Errors, iii. 2. Cf. Hall's Satires, 
iv. 5 ; Ford's Tracts, p. 9. Huloet has balas- 
sen, translated by sahurro. 

BALLAD. To sing ballads. Shah. 

BALLADIN. A kind of dance, mentioned by 
Minsheu and Skinner. 

BALLANDES. Ballances? Ballandes are men- 
tioned in the Rates of the Custome House, 
1545, quoted in the Brit. Bibl. ii. 398. 

B ALLANS. Ballances. 

BALLANT. A ballad. North. 

BALLARD. A castrated ram. Devon. The 
word occurs in an obscure sense in Reliq. An- 
tiq. ii. 56. 

BALLART. One of the names of the hare in 
the curious poem printed in Rehq. Antiq. i. 133. 

BALLAST. A ruby. See Balays. 

BALLASTER. A small pillar usually made 
circular, and swelling towards the bottom, 
commonly used in a balustrade. Oxf. Gloss. 
Arch. 

BALLATRON. A rascal ; a thief. Minsheu. 

BALLE. (1) The " balle in the bode," a curious 
phrase for the head, occurring in Urry's 
Chaucer, p. 625; Kyng AHsaunder, 6481; 
Towneley Myst. p. 17; Arthour and Merlin, 
p. 16. 



(2) Palsgrave has, " I balle as a curre dogge 
dothe, je hurle." 

BALLED. (1) Bald. "Balled reson," a bald 
reson, a bare argument. Cf. Piers Ploughman, 
pp. 176, 436; Dial. Great. Moral, p. 109; 
Chaucer, Cant. T., 198, 2520; Depos. Rich. 
II. p. 29 ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 179. 

(2) Whitefaced. North. 

BALLEDNESSE. Baldness. See Reliq. Antiq. 
ii. 56 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 482. 

BALLERAG. To banter; to rally in a con- 
temptuous way; to abuse; to scold. Var. 
dial. 

BALLE SSE. Ballast. Huloet. 

BALLIARDS. The game of bilUards. Spenser 
has it, and it is also found in Florio, in v. 
Ciigole. 

BALLINGER. A small saihng vessel. The 
word occurs with various orthographies in Har- 
rison's Description of Britaine, p. 79 ; Hall, 
Henry V. f. 26 ; Egerton Papers, p. 12 ; State 
Papers, ii. 76; Hardyng's Chronicle, f. Ill; 
Manners and Household Expences, pp. 222, 
470. Among the miscellaneous documents at 
the Rolls House is one, 1. 187, containing an 
account of the charges for repairing and rig- 
ging of the " ballyngar named the Sunday," 
A. D. 1532. See also Ducange, in v. Balin- 
garia. 

And toke londe nygh to a gret tourment that was 
called Couleigne, and went to londe in a balangere, 
he and xxi. men with hym. MS. Digby 185. 

BALL-MONEY. Money demanded of a mar- 
riage company, and given to prevent their 
being maltreated. In the North it is custo- 
mary for a party to attend at the church 
gates, after a wedding, to enforce this claim. 
The gift has received this denomination, as 
being originally designed for the purchase of 
a foot-ball. Brockett. The custom is men- 
tioned by Coles and Miege. 

BALLOCK-GRASS. The herb dogs'-stones. 

BALLOCKS. Testiculi. {A.-S.) There is a 
receipt "for swellinge of balloMs" in MS. 
Bib. Reg. 17 A. iii. f. 149. Cf. ReUq. Antiq. 
ii. 280. Receipts for a mess called balo/c 
brothe are given in Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 
68, Forme of Cury, p. 53. It appears from 
Palsgrave's Acolastus, 1540, that ballocke- 
stones was once a term of endearment. Some- 
times spelt balloxs, as in an early receipt in 
Bright MS. f. 14. 

BALLOK-KNYF. A knife hung from the girdle. 
Piers Ploughman. 

BALLOON. A large inflated ball of strong 
leather, formerly used in a game called balloon^ 
the ball being struck by the arm, which was 
defended by a bracer of wood. The antiquity 
of aerostation has been absurdly deduced from 
the mention of this game in Du Bartas. It is 
spelt balloo in Ben Jonson,iii. 216. Cf. Ran- 
dolph's Poems, 1643, p. 105 ; Cunningham's 
Revels Accounts, p. xvii. ; Middleion's Works, 
iv.342; Strutt's Sports, p. 96; Florio, ww.Bal- 



I 



BAL 



i^r 



BAN 



hni^re, Cdlcio, Giocdre, Gonfiatoio ; Cotgrave, 
in V. Baton, Brassal; Ordinances and Regula- 
tions, p. 328. 
B ALLOW. (1) Bony; thin. Drayton. 

(2) To select or bespeak. It is used by boys at 
play, when they select a goal or a companion 
of their game. North. 

(3) A pole ; a stick ; a cudgel. North. It is 
found in King Lear, iv. 6, ed. 1623, p. 304. 

BALL'S-BULL. A person who has no ear for 
music is sometimes compared to Ball's bull, 
who had so Uttle that he kicked the fiddler 
over the bridge. East. 

BALL-STELL. A geometrical quadrant. See 
the Nomenclator, p. 303. In MS. Addit. 5008, 
a story is told of a boy who had been for some 
time very attentively watching his father take 
the altitude of a star with his balla-stella, when 
suddenly he observed the star shoot, and testi- 
fied his delight by exclaiming, " Ye have hyt 
hir, father ; she is fawln, she is fawln !" 

BALL-STONE. A measure of iron-stone which 
lies near the surface ; a kind of limestone found 
near Wenlock. Salop. 

BALL-THISTLE. A species of thistle, men- 
tioned by Gerard, p. 990. 

BALLU. Mischief; sorrow. (A.-S.) 

BALLUP. The front or flap of smallclothes. 
Northumb. The term is found in Ritson's 
Robin Hood, ii. 154, left unexplained by the 
editor. 

BALLY. (1) A Utter of pigs. North. 

(2) To grow distended. Salop. 

(3) Comfortable. West. 

BALLYS. Bellows. Salop. The form balyws 
occurs in Tundale, p. 34. 

BALLYVE. A bailiff. 

BALMER. Apparently some kind of coloured 
cloth. " Barrones in balmer and byse." Ches- 
ter Plays, i. 172. The Bodl. MS. reads bannier. 

BALNEAL. Refreshing. Howell. 

B ALNY. A bath. This seems to be the mean- 
ing of the word in Ashmole's Theat. Chem. 
Brit. p. 143. 

BALO. A beam in buildings ; any piece of 
squared timber. East. 

BALON. In justs of peace, the swords were 
pointless and rendered blunt, being often of 
baton, as it was termed, which seems to have 
been of whalebone, covered with leather, and 
silvered over. Meyrick. 

BALOTADE. An attempt made by a horse to 
kick. Diet. Husb. 

BALOURGLY. A kind of broth. The method 
of making it is described in Warner's Antiq. 
Culin. p. 49. 

BAL0U3T. About. {A.-S.) 

BALOW. (1) A nursery term, forming part of 
the burthen of a lullaby. North. 

(2) A spirit ; properly, an evil spirit. {A.-S.) 
With many aungels and arkaungels, 
And other balows, als the buke telles. 

MS. Bibl. Coll. Sion. xviii. 6. 

BALOW-BROTH. An ancient dish in cookery, 
described in MS. Sloane 1201, f. 45. It may 



be the same as ballock-broth previously men- 
tioned, in V. Ballocks, 
BALOYNGE. 

Eyther arm an elne long, 
Baloynge mengeth al by-mong, 
Ase baum ys hire bleo. • 

Wrighfs Lyric Poetry, p. 35. 

BALSAM- APPLE. A herb mentioned by Florio 

in V. Cardnza. 
BALSAMUM. Balsam. Shak. Florio has bal~ 

samint, in v. Eupatoria. 
BALSOMATE. Embalmed. 

He made his ymage of laton full clene. 
In whiche he put his body balsomate. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 93. 

BALSTAFF. Same as balk-staff, q. v. Chaucer 
has this form of the word, which is also given 
by Ray. It means a large pole or staff. 

BALTER. To cohere together. Warw. See 
Blood-boltered. The word occurs in the Morte 
Arthure, MS. Lincoln, A. i. 17, f. 61, in the 
sense of to caper, to dance about. 

BALTHAZAR. One of the kings of Coleyn, the 
three magi who came from the East to worship 
the new-born Saviour. Mr. Wright has printed 
the early English legend of these kings in his 
edition of the Chester Plays. Howell, p. 5, 
has the proverb, " Brave man at arms, but 
weak to Balthasar." 

BALUSTER. A bannister. 

B AL WE. (1) Mischief; sorrow. {A.-S.) 

(2) Plain ; smooth. Prompt. Parv. 

BALY. (1) Evil; sorrow. 

Bot thei schryve them of ther glotony. 

In hell schall be ther baly. MS. Jahmole 61, f. fl6. 

(2) A belly. Balyd, bellied, occurs in the Hunt- 
tyng of the Hare, 187. 

(3) A bailiff. See Wright's Monastic Letters, 
p. 174 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 22. 

(4) Dominion ; government. {A.-N.) 
If thou be pareld most of price, 

And ridis here in thi balye. MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48. 
BALYSCHEPE. The office of a bailiff. Prompt. 

Parv. 
BALZAN. A horse vdth white feet. Howell. 
BAL3E. Ample ; swelhng. Gaw. 
BAM. A false tale, or jeer. Yorksh. Also a 

verb, to make fun of a person. 
B AMBLE. To walk unsteadily. East. 
BAMBOOZLE. To threaten; to deceive; to 
make fun of a person. A very piquant use is 
made of this word in Gibber's comedy of " She 
Would and She Would Not." 
BAMBY. By and by. Devon. 
B AMCHICHE S. A kind of chiches, mentioned 

by Florio, in v. Arietini. 
BAME. To anoint with balm. 

And bade me bame me welle aboute, 
Whenne hit wolde other water or wese. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 46. 

BAMMEL. To beat ; to pommel. Salop. 
BAN. (1) A curse. Shak. 

(2) To curse. 

And summe banne the, and some blesse. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii- 38. f. i«. 

(3) A kind of dumpling. Lanc» 



BAN 



138 



BAN 



(4) To shut out ; to stop. Somerset. 

(5) Command, precept, summons, edict, pro- 
clamation, ordinance. So explained by Hearne. 
See an instance of it in Rob. Glouc. p. 188. 

BANBURY. Howell gives two proverbs con- 
cerning this town — 1. Like Banbury tinkers, 
who in stopping one hole make two ; 2. As 
wise as the mayor of Banbury, who would 
prove that Henry III. was before Henry II. 
According to Grose, a nonsensical tale is called 
a " Banbury story of a cock and bull ;" so 
from these evidences it would not appear that 
the Banburians were remarkable for sagacity. 
Banbury, at the commencement of the seven- 
teenth century, was celebrated for its number 
of puritans, and Ben Jonson calls a puritan a 
Banbury man. It is now principally known 
for its cakes. Bardolf, in the Merry Wives 
of Windsor, compares Slender to Banbury 
cheese, which seems to have been remarkably 
thin, for the older Tom Heywood observes 
that he " never saw Banbury cheese thick 
enough." There is a receipt for making this 
cheese in MS. Sloane 1201, f. 3. 

BANCKEROWTE. Bankrupt. Huloet. 

BANCO. A bank of money. An Italian word 
introduced in Marlowe's Jew of Malta, iv. 1. 

BAND. (1) A bond; a covenant; an engage- 
ment. See Percy's Reliques, p. 13; State 
Papers, i. 11. 

Here i-gyf I 50W be band 

An c. pownd worth of land. Sir Degrevant, 869. 

(2) A hyphen. The word is used in this sense 
in the French Alphabet, 1615, p. 68. 

^3) A string of any kind. North. 

Have thys rope yn thyn hande. 
And holde the faste by the bande. 

MS. Cantab. Ff, ii. 38, f. 130. 

(4) Imprisonment. 

His moder dame Alienore, and the barons of this land, 

For him travailed sore, and brouht him out of band. 

LangtofCs Chronicle, p. 201. 

(5) A space of ground, containing twenty yards 
square. North. 

(6) As an article of ornament for the neck, was 
the common wear of gentlemen. The clergy 
and lawyers, who now exclusively retain them, 
formerly wore ruffs. See the description of a 
gentleman in Thynne's Debate, p. 19 ; Nares 
and Minsheu, in v. 

(7) The neck feathers of a cock. Holme. 
BANDE. Bound. Cf. Colher's Old Ballads, 

p. 15 ; Ywaine and Gawin, 1776. 
A mawnger ther he fandc. 
Come therin lyggande, 
Therto his mere he bande 

With the withy. Sir Perceval, 443. 

BANDED-MAIL. A kind of armour, which 

consisted of alternate rows of leather or cotton, 

and single chain-mail. 
BANDEL. Florio translates handelle, " side 

corners in a house ; also any handels." See 

also the same lexicographer, in v. Bendelldre, 

Fidda. 
BANDELET. Florio has " Cidrpa, any kind of 

scarfc or bandelet." Sec also Strutt's Dress 

and Habits, ii. 124. 



BANDERS. Associators ; conspirators ; men 
bound to each other by the mutual ties of a 
party. Boucher. 

BANDISH. A bandage. North. 

BAND-KIT. A kind of great can with a cover. 
North. 

BAN DO. A proclamation. Shirley. 

BANDOG. According to Nares, a dog always 
kept tied up on account of his fierceness, and 
with a view to increase that quality in him, 
which it certainly would do. Bewick describes 
it as a species of mastiff, produced by a mix- 
ture with the bull-dog. See Withals' Dic- 
tionarie, p. 77 ; Ford's Works, ii. 526; Robin 
Hood, ii. 64. 

BANDOLEERS. Little wooden cases covered 
with leather, each of them containing the 
charge of powder for a musket, and fastened 
to a broad band of leather, which the person 
who was to use them put round his neck. 
The band itself is also frequently termed a 
bandoleer. See Middleton's Works, v. 517; 
Unton Inventories, p. 3 ; Songs of the London 
Prentices, p. 68. 

BANDON. Dominion; subjection; disposal. 
{A.-N.) See Gij of Warwike, p. 136 ; Robson's 
Met. Rom., p. 11 ; Ritson's Songs, i. 56 ; Lang- 
toft, p. 141 ; Rom. of the Rose, 1163 ; Kyng 
Ahsaunder, 3180, 5505, 7720; Le Bone Flo- 
rence of Rome, 695. 

Mercl, queth, ich me yelde 
Recreaunt to the in this felde. 
So harde the smitest upon me krown, 
Ich do me alle in the bartdoun, 

Bevea of Hamtoun, p. 42. 
As thou art knyght of renowne, 
I do me all yn thy bandowne. 

3IS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 102. 
But he me put out of his bandome. 
And yef to me no maner audience. 

Lydgate, MS. Aahm. 39, f. 20. 

BANDORE. A musical instrument, somewhat 
similar to a guitar. According to Boucher, 
bass-viols are often called bandores in Glouces- 
tershire; and Grose apphes the term to " a 
widow's mourning peak," where I suspect an 
error for Fr. bandeau. The bandore is said to 
have been invented by one John Rose, in the 
reign of Elizabeth ; but it is more probable 
that he merely introduced a variation of the 
Italian pandura, an instrument very similar 
both in form and name. 

BANDORE. A penon banner. Holme. 

BANDROLL. A little streamer, banner, or pen- 
non, usually fixed near the point of a lauce. 
{Fr.) See Drayton's Poems, p. 11; Percy's 
Reliques, p. 271 ; Florio, in v. Banderella. 

BANDS. The hinges of a door. North. 

BANDSTERS. Those who, in reaping, during 
harvest, bind the sheaves. North. 

BANDSTRINGS. Translated by Miege, glands 
de rahat. Cf. Strutt, ii. 99, 222. They were 
prohibited to be imported by 14 Car. II. See 
Book of Rates, p. 179. According to Jamio- 
son, they were strings going across the breast 
for tying in an ornamental way. 



BAN 



1^9 



BAN 



BANDSTROT. A charm. 

BANDY. (1) A game played with sticks called 
bandies, bent and round at one end, and a 
small wooden ball, which each party endea- 
vours to drive to opposite fixed points. North- 
brooke, in 1577, mentions it as a favourite game 
in Devonshire. It is sometimes called bandy- 
ball, and an early drawing of the game is co- 
pied in Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, p. 102. 

[T) A hare. East. 

(3) To toss a ball, a term at tennis. See Dray- 
ton's Poems, p. 10 ; Malone's Shakespeare, x. 
52 ; Hawkins' Eng. Dram. iii. 171. 

(4) To join in a faction. Minsheu. 

(5) Flexible; without substance. A term ap- 
plied to bad cloth in the Stat. 43 Eliz. c. 10. 
Skinner. 

BANDY-HEWIT. A little bandy-legged dog ; 
a turnspit. Otherwise explained, " a name 
given to any dog, when persons intend to use 
it in making sport of its master." Lane. 

BANDY-HOSHOE. A game at ball, common 
in Norfolk, and played in a similar manner to 
bandy, q. v. 

BANDYLAN. A bad woman. North, 

BANDYN. Bound. {A.-S.) 

BANDY-WICKET. The game of cricket, played 
with a bandy instead of a bat. East. 

BANE. (1) A bone. North. 

Agayne he wode that water onane, 
Nerehand for-nomene on ilke a bane. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 125. 

(2) To afflict with a bad disease. West. This 
term is not applied exclusively to animals. 

(3) A murderer. {A.-S.) 

(4) Kind ; courteous ; friendly. North. This is 
Kennett's explanation of the word in MS. 
Lansd. 1033. 

(5) Destruction. Chaucer. 

(6) Near ; convenient. North. 

BANE BERRY. The herb Christopher. Skinner. 

BANED. Age-stricken. Park. 

BANEHOUND. To make beheve ; to intend ; 
to purpose ; to suspect. Somerset. 

BANERER. The bearer of a banner. Clifton. 

BANES. The banns of matrimony. Somerset. 
See Webster's Works, i. 47, and the authori- 
ties there quoted. The proclamations of the 
old mysteries were called banes, as in the 
Chester Plays, 1. 1. Ban is a French word, 
and signifies a proclamation by sound of 
trumpet. 

BANEWORT. The nightshade. Skinner. 

BANG. (1) To go with rapidity. Cumb. 

(2) To strike ; to shut with violence. Var. dial. 
Hence, to surpass, to beat. 

^^3) A blow. Var. dial. 

(4) A stick ; a club. North. 

(5) A hard cheese made of milk several times 
skimmed. Suffolk. 

(6) " In a bang," in a hurry. North. 
BANG-A-BONK. To he lazily on a bank. 

Staffordsh. 
BANG-BEGGAR. A beadle. Derbijsh, Also 
a term of reproach, a vagabond. 



BANGE. Light fine rain. Essex. 
BANGER. (1) A large person. Var. dial 

(2) A hard blow. Salop. 

(3) A great falsehood. Warw. 
BANGING. Great ; large. Var. dial. 
BANGLE. (1) To spend one's money foolishly. 

Lane. 

(2) A large rough stick. Ash. 

BANGLED. Corn or young shoots are said to 
be bangled when beaten about by the rain or 
wind. A bangledhat means one bent down or 
slouched. East. 

BANGLE-EARED. Having loose and hanging 
ears, aures flaccidcB et pendulce, as Upton de- 
fines it in his MS. additions to Junius in the 
Bodleian Library. Miege translates it, " qui 
a les oreilles pendantes." 

BANGSTRAW. \ nick-name for a thresher, 
but applied to at the servants of a farmer. 
Grose. 

BANG-UP. A substitute for yeast. Staffordsh, 

BANIS. Destruction. Ritson. 

BANJY. Dull ; gloomy. Essex. 

BANK. (1) To beat. Exmoor. 

(2) A term at the game of bowls, mentioned by 
Cotgrave, in v. Bricoler ; and also at truck, as 
in Holme's Academy, iii. 263. 

(3) To coast along a bank. This seems to be the 
sense of the word in King John, v. 2. See also 
Florio, in v. Corriudre. 

(4) A piece of unslit fir-wood, from four to ten 
inches square, and of any length. Bailey. 

BANKAFALET. An old game at cards men- 
tioned in a little work called " Games most in 
Use," 12mo. Lond. 1701. The whole packis 
parcelled out into as many parts as there are 
players. 

BANKAGE. Is mentioned by Harrison among 
ihepradia of Otto, in his Description of Eng- 
land, p. 158. 

BANKER. (1) A cloth, carpet, or covering of 
tapestry for a form, bench, or seat. In an in- 
ventory *' off clothys" in MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, 
f. 58, mention is made of '' iij. bankkers." 
Any kind of small coverlet was afterwards 
called a banker, as in Brit. Bibl. ii. 398 ; Book 
of Rates, p. 25. 

(2) An excavator, employed inter alia in making 
embankments. Line. 

BANKETT. A banquet. See HaUe's Expostu- 
lation, p. 14 ; Arch. xxii. 232. 

BANK-HOOK. A large fish-hook, which derives 
its name from being laid baited in brooks or 
running water, and attached by a line to the 
bank. Salop. 

BANKROUT. A bankrupt. Still in use in the 
North. Often spelt bankerout, as in Wright's 
Passions of the Minde, 1621, p. 246, or ban- 
kers-out , J)vi Bartas, p. 365. It is also a verb, 
to become bankrupt ; and Nares gives an ex- 
ample of it in the sense of bankruptcy. Sir 
James Harrington mentions a game at cards 
called bankerout. See Arch. viii. 149. 

BANKS. The seats on which the rowers of a 
boat sit ; also, the sides of a vessel. Marston, 



BAN 



140 



BAP 



BANKS'-HORSE. A learned horse, kept by a 
person named Banks in the time of Ehzaheth, 
and constantly alluded to by writers of the 
time under his name of Morocco. One of his 
exploits is said to have been the ascent of St. 
Paul's steeple. The author of the Life and 
Death of Mrs. Mary Frith, 1662, p. 75, says, 
" I shall never forget my fellow humourist 
Banks the vintner in Cheapside, who taught 
his horse to dance and shooed him with silver." 
In MS. Ashm. 826, f. 179, is a curious satiri- 
cal piece entitled, *' A bill of fare sent to 
Bankes the vintner in Cheape-side, in May 
1637 ;" and an unnoticed anecdote respecting 
his horse occurs in Jests to make you Merie, 
1607, p. 12. 

BANKSIDE. Part of the borough of Southwark, 
famous in Shakespeare's time for its theatres, 
and as the residence of a certain class of 
ladies. See further particulars in Nares, p. 26. 

BANKSMAN. One who superintends the busi- 
ness of the coal pit. Derbysh, 

BANK-UP. To heap up. " It is banking up," 
spoken of a cloud gathering before a shower. 
Devon. 

BANKY. A banJcy piece, a field with banks in 
it. Herefordsh. 

BANLES. Without bones. 

BANNE. To ban; to curse; to banish. (y^.-iV.) 
See Piers Ploughman, pp. 18, 143, 167, 310. 
Bannee occurs apparently in a similar sense 
in the Exmoor Scolding, p. 11. 

BANNER. A body of armed men, varying from 
twenty to eighty. See the State Papers, 
ii. 46. 

BANNERELL. A little streamer or flag. See 
Florio, in v. Bandaruola ; Arch. xii. 350. 

BANNERERE. A standard-bearer. Weber. 

BANNERET. A knight made in the field with 
the ceremony of cutting off the point of his 
standard, and making it a banner. 

Thane the banerettez of Bretayne broghte thame 
to tentes. Morte Arthure, MS. Line. A. i. 17, f. 78- 

BANNERING. An annual custom of perambu- 
lating the bounds of a parish, for the purpose 
of maintaining the local jurisdiction and 
privileges. Salop. 

BANNET-HAY. A rick-yard. Wilts. 

BANNEY. St. Barnabas. /. Wight. 

BANNICK. To beat ; to thrash. Sussex. 

BANNIKIN. A small drinking cup. 

But since it is resolved otherwise, I pray you bid 
the butler bring up his bannikins, and I'll make 
you all lords like myself. 

Account of Grocers' Company, p. 25. 

BANNIN. That which is used for shutting or 
stopping. Somerset. 

BANNIS. A stickleback. Wilts. 

BANNISTERS. A term which is supposed to 
mean travellers in distress. It occurs in the 
ancient accounts of the parish of Chudleigh, 
CO. Devon. See Carlisle on Charities, p. 288. 

BANNOCK. A thick round cake of bread, not 
a loaf. At Worsley, co. Lane, it is thus 
made — oatmeal and water two parts, treacle 
one part, baked about one fourth of an inch 



thick in cakes of a few inches in diameter, 
Ray explains it, " an oat-cake kneaded with 
water only, and baked in the embers." A 
kind of hard ship biscuit sometimes goes 
under this name. 
BANNUT. A walnut. West. The growing 
tree is called a bannut tree, but the converted 
timber walnut. The term occurs as early as 
1697 in MS. Lansd. 1033, f. 2. 
BANNYD. Banished. {A.-N.) 
Mede and Falseheed assocyed are, 

Trowthe hannyd ys, the blynde may »">♦ ae ; 
Manye a mon they make fuUe bare, 

A strange compleynt ther ys of every degiv, 

MS. Cantab. Ff . i. 6, f. 135. 

BANQUET. (1) Generally means a dessert in 
the works of our early writers. According to 
Gilford the banquet was usually placed in a 
separate room, to which the guests removed 
when they had dined. This was called the 
banquetting room. See Beaumont and 
Fletcher, iii. 437; Ford's Works, i. 231; 
Middleton's Works, iii. 252 ; Malone's Shake- 
speare, V. 510. 

(2) Part of the branch of a horse's bit. See the 
Diet. Rust, in v. 

BANQUETER. A banker. Huloet. 

BANRENT. A banneret ; a noble. Gaw. 

BANRET. Same as banneret, q. v. According 
to Stanihurst, Des. of Ireland, p. 39, " he is 
properlie called a banret, whose father was no 
carpet knight, but dubbed in the field under 
the banner or ensigne." Cf. Sir Degrevant 
458. 

BANSCHYN. To banish. Prompt. Parv. 

BANSEL. To beat ; to punish. Staffordsh. 

BANSTICKLE. The stickleback. Huloet. The 
term is still in use in Wiltshire, pronounced 
banticle. 

BANT. A string. Lane. 

BANTAMWORK. A very showy kind of painted 
or carved work. Ash. 

BANWORT. A violet. Dunelm. According 
to Cooper, bellis is "the whyte daysy, called of 
some the margarite, in the North banwoort." 
See BibL Ehot«, ed. 1559, in v. Our first 
explanation is given on Kennett's authority, 
MS. Lansd. 1033. {A.-S. Bamvyrt.) 

BANY. Bony ; having large bones. North. 

BANYAN-DAY. A sea term for those days on 
which no meat is allowed to the sailors. 

BANYER. A standard-bearer. (^.-A^.) 

BANYNGE. A kind of bird. "A sparlynge 
or a banynge" is mentioned in MS. Arund. 
249, f. 90. See also the Archajologia, xiii. 
341. The sparling is described by Randal 
Holme, p. 293 ; but it is also the name of the 
smelt, which may be here intended. 

BANZELL. A long lazy fellow. North. 

BAON. The enclosed space between the ex- 
ternal walls and the body of a fortress. See 
the State Papers, ii. 441. 

BAP. A piece of baker's bread, varying from 
one penny to twopence in value, generally in 
the shape of an elongated rhombus, but some^ 
times circular. Nortlu 



BAR 



141 



liiAR 



BAPTEME. Baptism. 

BAPTISM. A ceremony perfoimed in merchant 
vessels which pass the line for the first time, 
both upon the ships and men. The custom 
is fully described in Bailey's Dictionary, fol. 
ed. in v. 

BAPTYSTE. Baptism. Ritson. 

BAR. (1) A baron. Rob. Glouc. 

(2) To shut ; to close. North. 

(3) A jofke. North. 

(4) A horseway up a hill. Derbysh. 

(5) To lay claim or make choice of; a term used 
by boys at play when they select a particular 
situation or place. 

(6) A feather in a hawk's wing. Berners. 

(7) Bare; naked. North. 

(8) A boar. {J.-S.) 

(9) Bore. (A.-S.) Also, to bear, as in Percy's 
Reliques, p. 4. 

(10.) Throwing or pitching the bar was a com- 
mon amusement with our ancestors, and is 
said to have been a favourite pastime wdth 
Heniy VIII. 

Scarse from these mad foike had he gone so farre 
As a strong man will eas'ly pitch a harre, 

Drayton's Poems, p. 241. 

(11.) To bar a die was a phrase used amongst 
gamblers. See Mr. Collier's notes to the 
Ghost of Richard III., p. 75. 

BARA-PICKLET. Bread made of fine flour, 
leavened, and made into small round cakes. 
Diet. Rust. Cf. Holme's Academy, iii. 86. 

BARATHRUM. An abyss. {Lat.) Our poets 
frequently apply the word to an insatiate 
eater. See Shirley's Works, i. 390 ; Fairholt's 
Pageants, ii. 183. 

BARATOUR. A quarrelsome person. Cf. 
Prompt. Parv., p. 23 ; Florio, in v. Imburias- 
sone ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 239 ; Hardyng's Chroni- 
cle, f. 215. 

One was Ewayne fytz Asoure, 
Another was Gawayne with honour. 
And Kay the bolde baratour. 

Sir Perceval, 263. 

BARATOWS. Contentious. S/celton. 

BARAYNE. Barren, applied to hinds not 
gravid. Baraynes used substantively. Gaw. 
Cf. Morte D'Arthur, ii. 355. 

BARA3E. Bore away. 

The ryng and the gloven of the sexteyn he nom 
And bara^e ; and this lordynges al that sothe tolde. 
MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57. 

BARB. (1) To shave. See Measure for Measure, 
iv. 2, ed. 1685. Hence, to mow a field, as in 
Webster's Works, iv. 78. Ben Jonson, iv. 
19, has barbing money, for chpping it; and 
according to Bailey, to barb a lobster is to 
cut it up. 

(2) Florio has " Barbonceiti, the barbes or httle 
teates in the mouth of some horses." 

(3) A Barbary horse. See Blome's Gent. Rec. 
ii. 1. 

BARBALOT. A puffin. Holme. It is also the 

name of a fish, the barbel. 
BARBARYN. The barberry. Prompt. Parv. 
BARBASON The supposed name of a fiend. 



mentioned in Merry W. of "W indsor, ii. 2 ; 
Henry V., ii. 1. 

BARBE. A hood, or muffler, which covered 
the lower part of the face. According to 
Strutt, it was a piece of white plaited linen 
and belonged properly to mourning, being 
generally worn under the chin. The feathers 
under the beak of a hawk were called the 
barbe feders, so that there may possibly be 
some connexion between the terms ; and in 
the Dial. Great. Moral, p. 223, mention is 
made of an animal with " a barbydde chynne.'" 
In Syr Gawayne the word is applied to the 
edge of an axe, and the points of arrows are 
called barbez. 

BARBED. An epithet formerly applied to war- 
horses, when caparisoned with military trap- 
pings and armour. Perhaps the more correct 
form is barded, q. v. 

BARBED-CATTE. A warlike engine, described 
in the following passage : 

For to make a werrely holde, that men calle a 
barbed catte, and a bewfray that shal have ix. fadome 
of lengthe and two fadome of brede, and the said 
catte six fadome of lengthe and two of brede, shal 
be ordeyned all squarre wode for the same aboute 
foure hondred fadom, a thousand of borde, xxiiij. 
rolles, and a grete quantyt^ of smalle wode. 

Caxton's Vegeeius, Sig. I. 6. 

BARBEL. A small piece of armom* which pro- 
tects part of the bassinet. 

His barbel first adoun he deth, 
Withouten colour his neb he seth. 

Gij of Warwike, p. 160. 

BARBENY. Same as Rilts, q. v. 

BARBER. To shave or trim the beard. Shak. 
The term barber-monger in King Lear, is ap- 
parently applied to a person dressed out by a 
barber, a finical fop. The phrase barber's for- 
feits does not seem to be satisfactorily ex- 
plained by the commentators, nor can we sup- 
ply more certain information. It is supposed 
to have some reference to their double trade of 
barber and physician. In MS. Sloane 776, is 
a medical treatise, *' compylyd by me Charlys 
Whytte, cittezen and barboure-cirurgyon of 
London ;" and it is commonly stated that the 
spiral lines still seen on the barber's pole re • 
present the fillets bound round the arm when 
a person is bled. 

BARBICAN. A kind of watch-tower. The 
term is also applied to an advanced work be- 
fore the gate of a castle or fortified town, or 
any outwork at a short distance from the main 
works; and it occurs in Kyng Ahsaunder, 
1591, explained by Weber " a parapet or 
strong high wall, with turrets to defend the 
gate and drawbridge." 

BARBLE. The Bible. North. 

BARBLES. Small vesicular tingling pimples, 
such as are caused by the stinging of nettles, 
or of some minute insects. East. The term 
is also applied to knots in the mouth of a 
horse. See Topsell's History of Foure-footed 
Beasts, p. 363. 

BARBONES. A receipt to make " tarte bar^ 
bones" is given in Wyl Bucke's Test. p. 33- 



BAR 



142 



BAR 



BATIBORANNE. The barberry. Gaw. 
BARBORERY. A barber's shop. Prompt. 

Parv. 
BARBS. (1) Military trappings. Spenser. 
(2) The barbies. '• Barbs under calves tongues" 

are mentioned in Markham's Countrey Farme, 

p. 63. 
BARCARY. A sheep-cote ; a sheep-walk. 

Bailey. 
BARGE. A stickleback. Yorksh. 
BARCELETT. A species of bow. Gaw. 
BARD. (1) A trapping for a horse, generally 

the breast-plate. 

(2) Tough. Rob. Glouc. 

(3) Barred ; fastened. Towneley Myst. 
BARDASH. An unnatural paramour. Florio 

has it as the translation of caramita. 
BAR'D-CATER-TRA. The name for a kind of 
false dice, so constructed that the quatre and 
trois shall very seldom come up. 
He hath a stocke whereon his living stayea. 
And they are fullams and hardquarter-trayes. 

Rowlands' Humors Ordinarie, n. d. 

BARDE. Barred. See Friar Bacon's Prophecie, 
p. 13 ; Brit. Bibl. ii. 621. 

BARDE D. Equipped with military trappings or 
ornaments, appUed to horses. See Hall, 
Henry VIII. f. 45. Bardie used as a substan- 
tive by the same writer, Henry IV. f. 12, and 
it often has reference to horses' armour. 

BARDELLO. The quilted saddle wherewith 
colts are backed. Hoivell. 

BARDOLF. An ancient dish in cookery. The 
manner of making it is described in Warner's 
Antiq. Culin. p. 84. 

BARDOUS. Simple ; foolish. {Lat.) 

BARDS. Strips of bacon used in larding. Ash. 

BARE. (1) Mere. In this sense it occurs in 
Coriolanus. In Syr Gawayne, mere, uncondi- 
tional, and is also applied to the blasts of a 
horn, apparently meaning short, or without 
rechate. It is also used adverbially. 

(2) To shave, Shak. 

(3) Bareheaded. Jonson. 

(4) A mixture of molten iron and sand, which 
lies at the bottom of a furnace. Salop. 

(5) A piece of wood which a labourer is some- 
times allowed to carry home. Suffolk. 

(6) A boar. (^.-5'.) See Sir Degrevant, 43. 

(7) A bier. It is the translation of libitina in a 
vocabulary in MS. Lansd. 560, f. 45, written 
in Lancashire in the fifteenth century. 

(8) Apparently a piece of cloth. " Two hares 
of raynes," Ordinances and Regulations, p. 125. 

(9) A place without grass, made smooth for 
bowling. Kersey. 

BAREAHOND. to assist. North. 

BARE-BARLEY. A Staffordshire term thus de- 
scribed in MS. Lansd. 1033, " naked barley, 
whose ear is shaped like barley, but its grain 
like wheat without any husk, which therefore 
some call wheat-barley, and others Frencli- 
barley, because not much differing from that 
bought in the shops under such name." 

BARE-BUBS. A term used by boys to denote 
the unfledged young of birds. Line. 



BAREHEVEDYS. Boars' heads. 

There come in at the fyrste course, befor the kyng 

selvene, 
Barehevedys that ware bryghte burnyste with sylver. 
MorteArthure, MS. Lincoln K. i. 17, f. 55. 

BAREHIDES. A kind of covering for carts. 
See Arch. xxvi. 401 ; Florio, in v. Spazza- 
coverta ; Ordinances and Regulations, p. 394 ; 
Privy Purse Expences of Elizabeth of York, 
pp. 15, 16, 37. 

BARELLE. A bundle. 

Thentendours of suche a purpose would rather 
have had their harneies on their backes, then to have 
bound them up in barelles, yet muche part of the 
common people were therewith ryght wel satisfyed. 

Hall, Edward V. f. 7. 

BARELY. Unconditionally ; certainly. 

BAREN. (1) They bore, pi. Chaucer. 

(2) To bark. Coles. 

BARENHOND. To intimate. Somerset. 

BARE -PUMP. A httle piece of hollow wood or 
metal to pump beer or water out of a cask. 
Kersey. 

BARES. Those parts of an image which repre- 
sent the bare flesh. 

BARET. (1) Strife ; contest. Cf. Maundevile's 
Travels, p. 272 ; Cocaygne, 27 ; Rehq. Antiq. 
ii. 91. 

That haret rede I not je brewe. 
That je for ever aftir rewe. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 26. 

(2) Grief; sorrow. Cf.GestaRomanorum, p. 183; 
Tundale's Visions, p. 55. 
Mykille barette and bale to Bretan schalle bring. 

Robson'a Romances, p. 11. 

BAREYNTE. Barrenness. Prompt. Parv. 

BARF. A hill. Yorksh. 

BARFHAME. A horse's neck-collar. Durham, 

BARFRAY. A tower. Gaw. 

BARFUL. Full of impediments. Shak. 

BARGAIN. An indefinite number or quantity 
of anything, not necessarily conveying the idea 
of purchase or sale. A load of a waggon is so 
called. East. In Lincolnshire we have the 
phrase, " It's a bargains," it's no conse- 
quence. 

BARGAINE. Contention; strife. Chaucer. 

BARGANDER. A brant-goose. Baret. 

BARGANY. A bargain. Prompt. Parv. 

BARGARET. A kind of song or ballad, perhaps 
accompanied with a dance. Chaucer. The 
word barginet seems used in a similar sense in 
Brit. Bibl. iii. 29. 

BARGE. A fat heavy person ; a term of con- 
tempt. Exmoor. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, 
has barge, " a highway up a steep hill." This 
may be another form of barf, q. v. 

BARGE-BOARD. The front or facing of a 
barge-course, to conceal the barge couples, 
laths, tiles, &c. 

BARGE-COUPLE. One beam framed into an- 
other to strengthen the building. 

BARGE-COURSE. Apart of the tihng or thatch- 
ing of a roof, projecting over the gable. 

BARGE-DAY. Ascension-day. Newcastle. 

BARGET. A barge. This term is used several 
times by Malory, Morte d' Arthur, ii. 351 -2. 



BAR 



143 



BAR 



BARGH. (1) A horseway up a hill. North. 

(2) A barrow hog. Ortus. 
BARGOOD. Yeast. Var. dial. 

B ARGUE ST. A frightful goblin, armed with 
teeth and claws, a suppositious object of ter- 
ror in the North of England. According to 
Ritson, Fairy Tales, p. 58, the barguest, be- 
sides its many other pranks, would sometimes 
in the dead of night, in passing through the 
different streets, set up the most horrid and 
continuous shrieks, in order to scare the poor 
girls who might happen to be out of bed. It 
was generally believed that the faculty of see- 
ing this goblin was peculiar to certain indivi- 
duals, but that the gift could be imparted to 
another at the time of the ghost's appearance, 
by the mere action of touching. 

BARIAN. A rampart. {A.-N^ 

BARIDE. Made bare. 

Hys hauberk brak with denies baride, 
That men moht se hys naked hide. 

Gu!/ of Warwick, Middlehill MS. 

BAR-IRE. A crow-bar. Devon. 

BARK. (I) The tartar deposited by bottled wine 
or other liquor encrusting the bottle. East. 

(2; A cylindrical receptacle for candles ; a candle- 
box. North. At first it was only a piece of 
bark nailed up against the wall. 

(3) " Between the bark and the wood," a well- 
adjusted bargain, where neither party has the 
advantage. Suffolk . 

(4) A cough. Var. dial. 

(5) To bark a person's shins, is to knock the 
skin off the legs by kicking or bruising them. 
Salop. 

BARKARY. A tan-house. Jacobs. 

BARKED. Encrusted with dirt. North. Some- 
times pronounced barkened. 

BARKEN. The yard of a house ; a farm-yard. 
South. 

BARKER. (1) A tanner. Ritson. 

(2) A fault-finder. Hollyband. 

(3) A whetstone ; a rubber. Devonsh. 

(4) Ray, in the preface to his Collection of Eng- 
hsh Words, mentions the barker, " a marsh 
bird with a long bill, to which there was no 
Latine name added." 

(5) " Barkers of redd worsted" are mentioned in 
the Ordinances and Regulations, p. 127. 

BARKFAT. A tanner's vat. Chaucer. 
BARK-GALLING is when trees are galled by 

being bound to stakes. Bailey. 
BARKHAM. A horse's collar. North. 
BARKLED. Baked or encrusted with dirt, more 

particularly appUed to the human skin. North. 

Grose has barkit, dirt hardened on hair. 
BARKMAN. A boatman. Kersey. 
BARKSET E. Same as barsale, q. v. 
BARKWATER. Foul water in which hides have 

been tanned. Prompt. Parv. 
BARK-WAX. Bark occasionally found in the 

body of a tree, arising from some accident 

when young. East. 
BARLAY. Apparently a corruption of the French 
par loi. See gloss, to Syr Gawayne, in v. 



BARLEEG. An ancient dish in cookery, com- 
posed of almonds and rice. See Warner's An- 
tiq. Cuhn. p. 83. 

BARLEP. A basket for keeping barley in. 
Prompt. Parv. 

BARLET. So the first folio reads in Macbeth, 
i. 6, where modern editors have substituted 
martlet. See the edit. 1623, p. 134. 

BARLEY. To bespeak ; to claim. It is an ex- 
clamation frequently used by children in their 
games when they wish to obtain a short ex- 
emption from the laws of the amusement in 
which they are occupied. North. 

BARLEY-BIG. A particular kind of barley, 
mostly cultivated in the fenny districts of Nor- 
folk and the Isle of Ely. 

I have never known any malt made of rye, perhaps 
because yielding very little bran, it is found more fitt 
for bread-corn, nor of that grain which we call barlei/- 
big, yet I hear that of late it is ofte malted in other 
places. Aubrey's Wilts, MS. Soc. Reg. p. 304. 

BARLEY-BIRD. The nightingale, which comes 
in the season of sowing barley. East. The 
green-finch is sometimes so called, and the 
name is still more frequently apphed to the 
siskin. 

BARLEY-BOTTLES. Little bundles of barley 
in the straw, given to farm-horses. This waste- 
ful method of giving feeds of corn was for- 
merly in vogue in Norfolk, but is now disused. 
BARLEY-BREAK. An ancient rural game, thus 
described by Gifford. It was played by six 
people, three of each sex, who were coupled by 
lot. A piece of ground was then chosen, and 
divided into three compartments, of which the 
middle one was called hell. It was the object 
of the couple condemned to this division to 
catch the others, who advanced from the two 
extremities ; in which case a change of situa- 
tion took place, and hell was filled by the 
couple who were excluded by pre-occupation 
from the other places ; in this " catohing," 
however, there was some difficulty, as, by the 
regulations of the game, the middle couple 
were not to separate before they had succeeded, 
while the others might break hands whenever 
they found themselves hard pressed. When 
all had been taken in turn, the last couple were 
said to be in hell, and the game ended. There 
is a description of the game in a httle tract, 
called '' Barley-breake, or a Warning for Wan- 
tons," 4to. Lond. 1607. Some extracts from 
it will be found in the Brit. Bibl. i. 66. See 
also Florio, in v. Pdme; Brand's Pop. Antiq. 
ii. 236. ^ ^ 

BARLEY-BREE. Ale. North. 

BARLEY-BUN. A " barley bunne gentleman" 
is, according to Minsheu, " a gent, (although 
rich) yet hves with barley bread, and other- 
wise barely and hardly." 

BARLEY-CORN. Ale or beer. Var dial 

BARLEY-HAILES. The spears of barley. South. 

BARLEY-MUNG. Barley meal, mixed with 
water or mdk, to fatten fowls or pigs. East 

BARLEY-PLUM. A kind of dark purple plum. 
West. 



BAR 



144 



BAR 



BaRLEY-SEED-BIRD. The yellow water- wag- 
tail. Yorksh. 

BARLEY-SELE. The season of sowing barley. 
East. The term is found in the Prompt. Parv. 
p. 25. 

BARLICHE. Barley. 

They were constreyned to resceive barliche for here 
jeres rewarde. MS. Douce 291, f. 16. 

BARLICHOOD. The state of being ill-tem- 
pered after the use of intoxicating liquors. 
North. Skeltonhas barlyhood, i. 107, though 
not, I think, in the same sense. See barly- 
hate in Nugse Poet. p. 9. 

BARLING. A lamprev. North. 

BARLINGS. Firepoles. In Blomefield's Nor- 
folk, iii. 769, mention is made of " sixteen 
acres and a rood of heath, with the barlings, 
valued at 19s. Id." Boucher erroneously con- 
siders it to be a dialectical pronunciation of 
hare or barren lands. The term again occurs 
in the Book of Rates, p. 25. 

BARM. (1) The lap or bosom. {A.-S.) 
To her he profreth his service. 
And layt.h his heed upon hir barme. 

Gower, ed, 1532, f. 139. 

(2) Yeast. West. The term is found in Shake- 
speare, Lilly, Beaumont and Fletcher, and 
other early writers. 

BARMASTER. A chief officer among the miners, 
who measures the oar obtained, receives the 
lot and cope, lays out and measures meers of 
ground to the miners, and anpoints barmote 
courts. Derbysh. 

BARME-CLOTH. An apron. Chaucer. The 
term barm-fellys occurs in a curious poem in 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 240, meaning the leathern 
aprons worn by blacksmiths ; and barmhatres, 
garments, for the bosom, in the same work, 
ii. 176. 

BARMOTE. A bergmote. Derbysh. 

BARMSKIN. A leather apron, generally one 
made of the skin of sheep. North. In Lin- 
colnshire holds the elegant simile, " as dirty 
and greasy as a barmskin." The word occurs 
in the Prompt, Parv. p. 25. 

BARN. (1) A child. {A.-S.) The word is com- 
mon both as an archaism and provincialism. 
Harrison, in his Description of England, p. 157, 
says " the common sort doo call their male 
children barnes here in England, especialUe in 
the North countrie, where that word is yet ac- 
customablie in use ; and it is also growne into 
a proverbe in the South, when anie man sus- 
teineth a great hinderance, to saie, I am beg- 
gered and all my barnes." 

(2) A man. 

(3) To lay up in a barn. East. Shakespeare 
uses the word in this sense in the Rape of Lu- 
crece, xx. 155. 

(4) A garner. WicJcliffe. 

(5) Going. Yorksh. 

BARNABAS. A kind of thistle, mentioned by 

Florio, in v. Calcatrippa. 
BARNABEE. The lady-bird. Suffolk. 
BARNABY-BRIGHT. The provincial name for 

St. Barnabas' day, June 11th, which has been 



celebrated in proverbs and nursery-rhymes 
under this name. 

BARNACLES. It was formerly thought that 
this species of shell-fish, which is found on 
timber exposed to the action of the sea, be- 
came, when broken off, a kind of geese. These 
geese are called barnacles by many of our old 
writers. The term is also often applied to spec- 
tacles. 

BARNAGE. The baronage. {Fr.) See Chron. 
Vilodun. p. 31 ; Gij of Warwicke, p. 205 ; 
Ywaine and Gawin, 1258. 

The king com with his barnage. 
And founes brent in grete rage. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 90. 

BARNDE. Burnt. Rob. Glouc, 
BARN-DOOR-SAVAGE. A clodhopper. Salop. 
BARNE. (1) A kind of flower, mentioned in 

Hollyband's Dictionarie, 1593. 
(2) A baron. See Const. Freemas. p. 14 ; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 139 ; Su: Degrevant, 1844 ; Thorn- 
ton Rom. p. 260. 
EARNED. Closed ; shut up. Oxon. 
BARNEHED. Childhood. 

Also mene chaungez thurghe dyverse ages ; for 
barnehed rejoyse it in sympilnesse, jouthehede in pre- 
sumptuosnes, and grete elde in stabilnes, 

^5". Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 36. 
Thar sal je find sumkyn dedis. 
That Jhesus did in hys bam-hedi*. 

MS. Cott. Fespas. A. iii. f. 3. 

BARNE KIN. The outermost ward of a castle, 
within which the barns, stables, cow-houses, 
&c. were placed. Hall spells it barnkyn, Henry 
VIII. f. 101 ; and the unusual form barnekynch 
occurs in Sir Degrevant, 375. 
BARNE-LAYKAYNES. Children's playthings. 
In that also that thou sent us a hande-balle and 
o-ther barne-laykaynes, thou prophicyed ri3te, and bi- 
takend bifore thyngez that we trowe thurghe Goddez 
helpe salle falle untille us. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 8. 
BARNGUN. An eruption on the skin. Devon. 
BARNISH. (1) Childish. North. 
(2) To increase in strength or vigour ; to fatten ; 
look ruddy and sleek. The word is in con- 
stant use in the Southern and Western coun- 
ties, and is also an archaism. ** Barnish you," 
an imprecation found in the Devonshire dialect. 
BARN-MOUSE. A bat. '' Bit by a barn-mouse," 

a common phrase for being tipsy. 
BARN-SCOOP. A wooden shovel used in 

barns. Var. dial. 
BARN-TEME. (1) A brood of children. See 
Towneley Myst. pp. 46, 212; Chester Plays, 
ii. 53. 

He and his eldest brother Seem, 
Blessedest of that bame-teem. 

Cursor Muudi, MS. Col. Trin. Cantab, f. 13. 

The firste ther of this foule bame-tj/me highte 

Envye, the tother highte Pride, the thirde highte 

Gruchynge. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 275. 

(2) A child. 

His dame nowe maye dreame 
For her owine barne-teame. Chester Plays, ji. 55., 
BARNWORT. See Banwort. 
BARNYARD. A straw-yard. East. 
BARN-YOU. An imprecation. Devon. 
BARNYSKYN. A leather apron. Pr. Part. 



BAR 



145 



BAR 



BARON, (1) Sometimes used for bmm, a child, 
as in Gov. Myst. p. 182 ; Chester Plays, i. 192. 

(2) The back part of a cow. Var. dial. 

BARONADY. The dignity of a baron. 

BARONAGE. Anassembly of barons. The same 
with barnage, q. v. 

BARONER. A baron. 

BxiROWE. An ancient vehicle, whence perhaps 
the modern term barrow is derived. It is 
translated by cenovectorium in the Prompt. 
Parv. p. 25. 

BARR. (1) To choose ; to debar. Salop. 

(2) Part of a stag's horn, mentioned in the ap- 
pendix to Howell, sect. 3. 

(3) The gate of a city. 
BARRA. A gelt pig. Exmoor. 
BARRACAN. A sort of stuff. Miege. 
BARRA-HORSE. A Barbary horse. See the 

Privy Purse Expences of Henry VIII. p. 204. 
BARRATING. Quarrelling. See the 2d Part of 

Promos and Cassandra, ii. 4. 
BARRE. (1) The ornament of a girdle. See 

Prompt. Parv. p. 24 ; Notes to Chaucer, p. 150 

Florio mentions the barres of a helmet, in v 

Forchette. 
(2) To move violently. 



In myddis the streme when that thay ware. 
The vvawes with wynde by5ane to barrc. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 125. 

BARRED, striped. Shirley, ii. 380, speaks of a 
" barr'd gown," and the term occurs also in Syr 
Gawayne. Drayton has barred for barbed, ap- 
plied to horses. 

BARREINE. Barren. Chaucer. 

BARREL. A bucket. Elyot mentions ''the 
barrel of a well," in v. Sucula. Florio, in v. 
Doga, mentions barrel-boards, boards of which 
barrels are made. 

BARREL-FEVER. Aviolent sickness occasioned 
by intemperance. North. 

BARREN. (1) A hind not gravid. In Sussex, a 
barren cow or ewe is so called. 

(2) A company of mules. Berners. 

(3) The vagina of an animal. Line. 

(4) Stupid ; ignorant. Shak. 

BARRE NER. A barren cow or ewe. South 
BARREN-IVY. Creeping ivy. Bailey. 
BARREN-SPRINGS. Springs impregnated with 
T> /^'Jit'".!^^"'^ considered injurious to the land. 
BARRESSE. A bar; a gate. Cf. Plumpton 
Correspondence, p. 142. 

At the barresse he habade. 
And bawndonly downe lyghte. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 131 

S^SKS^^'^- A child's coat. Northumb. 
BAKRIE. Fit; convenient. Durham. 

R A 55J5?' ^^^ P^^^"^ ^" ^ tournament. 

BARRIERS. To fight at barriers, to fight within 
lists This kind of contest is sometimes called 
simply barriers. See Cunningham's Revels 
Accounts, p. X. ; Morio, in v. Bagorddre. 

BARRIHAM. A horse's collar. North 

BARRIKET. A small firldn. See Cotgrave 
in V. Barrof, FiUette. The term barrilet 
seems used in the same sense. It occurs in 



Florio, m\. Bariletto, Botdllo; Cotgrave. b 
V. Hambour. 

BARRING. Except. Var. dial. 

BARRING-OUT. An ancient custom at schools, 
said to be still prevalent in some parts of the 
North of England, when the boys, a few days 
before the holidays, ban-icade the school-room 
from the master, and stipulate for the disci- 
pline of the next half year. According to 
Dr. Johnson, Addison, in 1683, was theleader 
m an affair of this kind at Litchfield. 

BARRO. A borough. " Bethlem that barro." 
See the Chester Plays, i. 179 

BARROW. (1) A hillock; an ancient tumu- 
lus. It would appear from Lambarde, Peram- 
bulation of Kent, 1596, p. 435, that the term 
in his time was pecuhar to the West of 
England. Cf. Elyot's Dictionarie, in v. Gru- 
mus. Tumulus. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, 
gives it as a Durham word for a grove. 

(2) A child's flannel clout. Sotnerset. 

(3) A way up a hill. North. 

(4) At Nantwich and Droitwich, the conical 

baskets wherein they put the salt to let the 

water drain from it are called barrows. A 

barrow contained about six pecks. Kennett 

MS. Lansd. 1033. ' 

(5) A castrated boar. 

With brestez of barowes that bryghte ware to schewe. 
Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln A, i 17, f. 55. 

BARRS. The upper parts of the gums of a 

horse. Diet. Rust. 
BARRY. To thrash corn. Northumh. 
BARR YD. Paled round, in preparation for a 
tournament. 

And sythen to the felde they farde. 
The place was barryd and dyghte. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 79. 

BARS. The game of prisoner's-base. 

Went he on a day to plawe. 
As children don atte bar3. 

Legend of Pope Gregory, p. 25. 
BARSALE. The time of stripping bark. East. 
BARSE. A perch. Westmor. 
BARSH. Shelter. Kennett. 
BARSLETYS. Hounds. 

Ther come barownce to that bay with larsletys bolde. 

MS. Douce 302, f. 34 

BARSON. A horse's coUar. Yorksh. 

BARST. Burst ; broke. Lane. The word oc- 
curs in Robert of Gloucester, and other earlv 
writers. 

BARTE. To beat with the fists. Warw. 

BARTH. A shelter for cattle. East. Ray and 
Pegge explain it, " a warm place or pasture 
for calves or lambs," and add that it is used 
in the South in this sense. See also Tusser's 
Husbandry, p. 92. Barthless, houseless, oc 
curs m the Devonshire dialect. 

BARTHOLOMEW-PIG. Roasted pigs were for- 
merly among the chief attractions of Bartho- 
lomew Fair ; they were sold piping hot, in 
booths and stalls, and ostentatiously displayed 
to excite the appetite of passengers. Hence 
a Bartholomew-pig became a common subject 
of aUusion. Nares. 

10 



Bx\S 



146 



BARTHU-DA^. St. Bartholomew's day. 
BARTIZAN. The small overhanging turrets 
which project from the angles on the top of 
a tower, or from the parapet or other parts of 
a huilding. Oxf. Gloss. Arch. 
BARTLE. (1) According to Kennett, MS. Lansd. 
1033, " at nine-pins or ten-banes they have 
one larger bone set about a yard before the 
rest call'd the bartle, and to knock down the 
bartle gives for five in the game." Westmor. 
(2) St. Bartholomew. North. 
BARTON. The demesne lands of a manor ; the 
manor-house itself; and sometimes, the out- 
houses and yards. Miege says " a coop for 
poultry," and Cooper translates cohors, " a 
barton or place inclosed wherin all kinde of 
pultne was kept." In the Unton Inventories, 
p. 9, pigs are mentioned as being kept in a 
bai'ton. 
BARTRAM. The pellitory. 
BARTYNIT. Struck ; battered. Gaw. Sharp, 
in his MS. Warwickshire glossary, has barte, 
to beat with the fists, which may be connected 
with this term. 
BARU. A gelt boar. In Rob. Glouc. p. 207, a 
giant is described as running a spit through a 
" vatte baru" for his meal. 
BAR-UP. To shut up. Kennett, 
BARVEL. A short leathern apron worn by 

washerwomen ; a slabbering bib. Kent. 
BARVOT. Bare-foot. Rob. Glouc. 
BARW. Protected. {A.-S.) 
BARWAY. The passage into a field composed 
of bars or rails made to take out of the posts. 

BARYS. The beryl. 

Hir garthis of nobuUe silke thei were, 
Hir boculs thei were of barys stone. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48. 

BAS. To kiss. Skelton. 

BASAM. The red heath broom. Devon. 

BASCHED. Abashed; put down. 

Sithe the bore was beten and bnsclied no mor. 
But the hurt that he had hele shuld thor. 

Roland, MS. Lansd. 388, f. 385. 

BASCLES. A kind of robbers or highwaymen 
so called. See the Gloss, to Langtoft, and the 
Clironicle, p. 242. _ 

BASCON. A kind of lace, consistmg ot five 
bows. See Strutt's Dress and Habits, ii. 98. 

BASCONUS. A dish in ancient cookery. The 
manner of making it is described in MS. Sloane 
1201, f. 68. , ^ 

BASE. (1) To sing or play the baso part m 
music. Shak. 

(2) Baret has " a base, or prop, a shore or pyle 
to underset with." 

sZ) Low. Harrison speaks of the " base Wence- 
land," in his Description of Britaine," p. 74. 

(4) The game of prisoner's-bars, a particular ac- 
count of which is given by Strutt, p. 78. See 
also Cotton's Works, 1734, p. 80; Harring- 
ton's Nuga; Antique, ii. 261. To " bid a base, 
means to run fast, challenging another to 

pursue. 

Doe but stand here, Tie run a little course 
At base, or barley-breake, or some such toye. 

Trasedy of Huffman, 1C31. 



(5) Matting. East. 

(6) A perch. Cumb. 

(7) The drapery thrown over a horse, and some- 
times drawn tight over the armour which he 
wore. Meyrick. 

(8) A small piece of ordnance. 5ae*sys are men- 
tioned in the Arch. vi. 216. It occurs in 
Galfrido and Bernardo, 1570, and Arch. xiii. 
177, '' boats shall be so well appointed with 
basses, and other shot besides." 

BASE-BALL. A country game mentioned in 

Moor's Suffolk Words, p. 238. 
BASE BROOM. The herb woodwax. Florio. 
BASE-COURT. The first or outer court of a 

castle or large mansion. 

My lord, in the base-court he doth attend 

To speak with you ; may't please you to come down ? 

Richard 11. iii.3. 

BASE-DANCE. A grave, sober, and solemn 
mode of dancing, something, it is probable, in 
the minuet style ; and so called, perhaps, in 
contradistinction to the vaulting kind of dances, 
in which there was a greater display of agility. 
Boucher. An old dance, called baselema, is 
mentioned in MS. Sloane 3501, f. 2. 
BASEL. A coin abolished by Henry II. in 1158. 

Blount's Glossographia, p. 78. 
BASELARD. See Bastard. 
BASELER, A person who takes care of neat 

cattle. North. 
BASEN. Extended. Spenser. 
BASE-RING. The ring of a cannon next be- 
hind the touch-hole. 
BASES. Defined by Nares to be, " a kind of 
embroidered mantle which hung down from 
the middle to about the knees or lower, worn 
by knights on horseback." Writers of the 
seventeenth century seem occasionally to ap- 
ply the term to any kind of skirts, and some- 
times even to the hose. See Douce's Illustra- 
tions, ii. 126 ; Hall, Henry VIII. f. 4 ; Dyce's 
Remarks, p. 263 ; Strutt, ii. 243. 
BASE-SON. A bastard. 

BASE-TAB"LE. A projecting moulding or band 
of mouldings near the bottom of a wall. Oaf. 
Gloss. Arch. 
BASH. (1) The mass of the roots of a tree 
before they separate ; the front of a bull's or 
pig's head, Herefordsh. 

(2) To beat fruit down from the trees with a 
pole. Beds. 

(3) To be bashful. See an instance of this verb 
in Euphues Golden Legacie, ap. CoUier's 
Shak. Lib. p. 82. 

BASHMENT. Abashment. 

And as I stode in this bashment, I remembred your 
incomparable clemencie, the whiche, as I have my- 
selfe sometyme sene, moste graciously accepteth the 
sklender giftes of small value which your highnet 
perceived wereoffred with great and lovinge affection. 

Gower, ed. 1554, ded. 

BASIIRONE. A kettle. Taylor, 

BASIIY. Fat; swollen. North. 

BASIL. When the edge of a joiner's tool is 

ground away to an angle, it is called a basil. 

Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033. 



BAS 



147 



BAS 



BASILEZ. A low bow. Becker. 
BASIL-HAMPERS. A person who, being short 
of stature, takes short steps, and does not 
proceed very quickly ; a girl whose clothes fall 
awkwardly about her feet. Line. 
BASILIARD. A baslard, q. v. Stowe, 
BASILICOK. A basilisk. Chaucer. 
BASILINDA. The play called Questions and 
Commands ; the choosing of King and Queen, 
as on Twelfth Night. Phillips. 
BASILTSCO. A braggadocia character in an 
old play called " Soliman and Perseda," so 
popular that his name became proverbial. See 
Douce's Illustrations, i. 401 ; King John, i. 1. 
riorio has basilisco, for basilisk, a species of 
ordnance, in v. Bavalisso. 
BASILISK. A kind of cannon, not necessarily 
II small," as stated in Middleton's Works, 
iii. 214, for Coryat mentions that he saw in 
the citadel of Milan " an exceeding huge ba- 
siHske, which was so great, that it would 
easily contayne the body of a very corpulent 
man;" and Harrison, in his Description of 
England, p. 198, includes the basiUsk in " the 
names of our greatest ordinance." A minute 
account of the shot required for it is contained 
in the same work, p. 199. 
BASINET. The herb crowfoot. 
BASING. The rind of cheese. Staff. 
BASK. Sharp, hard, acid. Westmor. 
BASKEFYSYKE. Fututio. See a curious pas- 
sage in the Cokwolds Daunce, 116. 
BASKET. An exclamation frequently made use 
of in cockpits, where persons, unable to pay 
then- losings, are adjudged to be put into a 
basket suspended over the pit, there to re- 
main till the sport is concluded. Grose. 
BASKET-SWORD. A sword with a hilt formed 
to protect the hand from injury. 

Sword beare armes? Hees a base companion. 
Alas, I have knowne you beare a hasktt-sword . 

Worke for Cutlers, 1615. 

BASKING. (1) A sound thrashing. East. 
(2) A drenching in a shower. East. 
BASLARD. A long dagger, generally worn 
suspended from the girdle. It was not con- 
sidered proper for priests to wear this wea- 
pon, and a curious poem in MS. Greaves 57, 
cautions them against doing so ; but still the 
practice was not uncommon, as appears from 
Audelay's Poems, p. 16. Hall, Henry VI, 
f. 101, mentions " a southerne byl to conter 
vayle a northren baslard," so that perhaps in 
his time the weapon was more generally used 
in the North of England. In 1403 it was 
ordained that no person should use a baslard 
decorated with silver, unless he be possessed 
of the yearly income of 20/. It is spelt 
baselred in some of the old dictionaries 

BASNET. (1) A cap. Skelton. 

(2) Same as bassenet, q. v. 

BASON. A badger. Cotgrave. 

BASONING-FURNACE. A furnace used in 
the manufacture of hats. Holme 

BASS. (1) A kind of perch. 



(2) To kiss. More. 

(3) A church hassock. North. According to 
Kennett, the term is also applied to " a collar 
for cart-horses made of flags." In Cumber- 
land the word is apphed generally to diied 
rushes. 

(4) The inner rind of a tree. North. 

(5) A slaty piece of coal. Salop. 

(6) A twopenny loaf. North. 

(7) A thing to wind about grafted trees before 
they be clayed, and after. Holme. 

BASSA. A bashaw. Marlowe. We have bas- 

sado in the Archasologia, xxviii. 104; and 

bassate, Hall, Henry VIIJ. f. 192 
BASSAM. Heath. Devon. 
BASSCHE. To be ashamed. Cf. Sharp's Cov. 

Myst. p. 103 ; Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln A. 

1. 17, f. 75. 
BASSE. (1) A kiss. Also a verb, as in Anc 

Poet. Tracts, p. 26. 

Then of my mouth come take a basse. 
Fore Oder goodes have I none. 

(2) A hollow place. Hollyband. 

(3) Apparently a term for " the elder swine " 
See Topsell's Foure Footed Beasts, p. 661. ' 

(4) To be ornamented with bases, q. v Hall 
Henry VIIL f. 50, mentions -howe the Duke 
ot Burbones bende was apparelled and bassed 
in tawny velvet." 

^'^?^^^.^'^" ^^'''" ^^*^e^" is mentioned in 
the Bnt. Bibl. ii. 399. 

BASSENET. A light helmet worn sometimes 
with a moveable front. They were often 
very magnificently adorned. Cf. Strutt, ii. 
60 ; Bnt Bibl. i. 146 ; Percy's Reliques, p. 3 , 
Kyng Ahsaunder, 2234 ; Hall, Henry VIII. 

Hys ventayle and hys hasenett, 
Hys helme on hys hedd sett. 

M8. Cantab. Ff. ii, 38. f. 88. 
On his bacenett thay bett, 
Thay bryssed it in twa. 

BASSET. (1) An earth-dog. Markham. 

(2) A mineral term where the strata rise upwards. 
Berbysh. The direction is termed ^«Me/.mrf, 
orbasseting, as Kennett has it, MS. Lansd. 

BASSETT. A game at cards, said to have been 
invented at Venice. It was a fashionable game 
here m the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Bedford, Evil and Danger of Stase 
Plays, 1706, p. 127, mentions a drama on the 
subject. 

BASSEYNYS. Basons. Tundale d 54 

BASSINATE. A kind of fish,'^qik^e-unt men 
in shape, mentioned in Hohnshed, Hist 
Scotland, p. 139. See also Jamieson supp* 
in V. Bassmat. ' ^^ 

BASSING. Kissing. Baret 

BASSOCK, A hassock. Bailey 

BAST (1) Matting; straw. North. "Baste 
or straw hattes" are mentioned in the Rates! 
1545, Bnt. Bibl. ii. 399. Cf. Harrison's 
Description of Britaine, p. 3. "^^"son s 



BAS 



148 



BAT 



(2) Boast 



Sir Gii seyd, than thou it hast 
Than make therof thi bast. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 355. 

See Ellis's Met. Rom., ed. 1811, 
Glouc. p. 425 ; Uttersou's Pop. 



(Z) A bastard. 

^ i. 301 ; Rob 

Poet. ii. 67. 

(4) Assured. 

(5) To pack up. North. 
BASTA. Properly an Italian word, signifying 

it is enough, or let it suffice, but not uncommon 
in the works of our ancient dramatists. 

BASTARD. (1) A kind of sweet Spanish wine, 
of which there were two sorts, white and 
brown. Ritson calls it a wine of Corsica. It 
approached the muscadel wine in flavour, and 
was perhaps made from a bastard species of 
muscadine grape ; but the term, in more 
ancient times, seems to have been appUed to 
all mixed and sweetened wines. See Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, ii. 427; Robin Goodfellow, 
p. 7 ; Harrison's Desc. of England, p. 222 ; 
Squyr of Lowe Degre, 757 ; Ordinances and 
Regulations, p. 473. ^ 

(2) " Basterdwier" is mentioned in Cunningham s 
Revels' Account, p. 180. The term was ap- 
plied to different kinds of several articles. 
Bastard cloths, Strutt, ii. 94 ; Bastard sword, 
Harrison's Description of Britaine, p. 2. 

(3) A gelding. Pegye. 

(4) To render illegitimate. Hall has this verb, 
Richard III. f. 32. The term bastard is still 
a term of reproach for a worthless or mis- 
chievous boy. 

BAST AT. A bat. North. 
BASTE. (1) To mark sheep. North. 

(2) To sew shghtly. 

(3) A blow. North. Also a verb, to beat, 
Strutt mentions a game called Baste the Bear, 
p. 387. 

(4) Bastardy. 

This man was sonne to Jhon of Gaunte, Duke of 
Lancaster, discended on an honorable lignage, but 
borne in haste, more noble of bloud then notable in 
learnyng.— H'/ZZ, Henry VI. f. 70. 

(5) A rope. {A. S.) 

Bot 36 salle take a stalworthe baste. 
And bynde my handes byhynd me faste. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f- 127- 

BASTE LER. A person who bastes meat. In 
the accounts of the churchwardens of Hey- 
bridge, 1532, is the following entry: "Item 
to the basteler 4t?.' 
BASTEL-RO VES. Turreted or castellated roofs. 
So explained in Glossary to Syr Gawayne, in 
v. See, however, Boucher, in v. Bastelle. 
BASTE R. A heavy blow. North. 
BASTERLY-GULLION. A bastard's bastard. 

Lane. [Fr. Couillon.] 
BASTIAN. St. Sebastian. 
BASTICK. A basket. West. 
BASTII.E. A temporary wooden tower, used 
formerly in military and naval warfare. Some- 
times the term is appUed to any tower or for- 
tification. 



They hadde also toures of tymber goyng on whelc*. 
that we clepen bastilcs, or somer casiell. 

Vegtcius, MS. Douce 291, f. 48. 
He gerte make a grete bastelle oi tree, and sett It 
apone schippes in the see, evene forgaynes the cet^, 
so that ther myghte no schippez come nere the ha- 
yene. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17> f- *• 

And in thi bastel fuUe of blisfulnesse, 
In lusti age than schalle the wel betide. 

Boetiiis, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134. f. 294. 

BASTING. Bourne, in his Inventions or De- 
vises, 1578, speaking of " ordinance of leade," 
mentions " the basting thereof, that is to say, 
to put in the more substance of the met- 
tall." 

BASTON. (1) A cudgel. {A.-N.) 

(2) A peculiar species of verse so called. A spe- 
cimen of it is printed in the Reliq. Antiq. ii. 
174. See also the same work, ii. 8 ; Langtoft, .: 
pref. p. 99. 

(3) A servant of the Warden of the Fleet, whose 
duty it is to attend the king's courts, with a 
red staff, for the purpose of taking into cus- 
tody such persons as were committed by the 

court. 1 . V • 

(4) A kind of lace, the manufacture of which is 
detailed in MS. Haii. 2320, quoted by Steven- 
son. See Bascon. 

BASTONE. A bastinado. Marlowe. 
BAT. (1) A stick; a club ; a cudgel. North. In 
Herefordshire a wooden tool used for breaking 
clods of earth is so called. See Malone's 
Shakespeare, x. 237; Utterson's Pop. Poet. 
i. 110; Kyng Alisaunder, 78, 5832; Percy's 
Reliques, p. 254 ; Thynne's Debate, p. 75. 
He nemeth is bat and forth a goth, 
Swithe sori and wel wroth. 

Beves of Hamtoun, p. 17- 

(2) A blow ; a stroke. North. Sometimes a 
verb, to strike or beat ; to beat cotton. 
That xal be asayd be this batte ! 
What, thou Jhesus ? ho zafF the th:it ? 

Coventry Mysteiiet;, p. 296. 



tied to- 



(3) Debate. Cov. Mgsf. 

(4) To wink. Derby sh. 

(5) The straw of two wheat sheaves 
gether. YorJcsh. 

(6) State ; condition. North. 

(7) Speed. Line. 

(8) A leaping-post. Somerset. 
''9^ A low-laced boot. Somerset. 

(10) The root end of a tree after it has been 
thrown. Somerset. 

(11) A spade at cards. Somerset. 

(12) At Wednesbury, in Staffordshire, the last 
parting that lies between the upper and the 
nether coal is called a bat. Kennett, MS. Lansd: 

BATABLE. (1) Fertile in nutrition, apphed to 
land. Harrison frequently uses the word, De- 
scription of England, pp. 37, 40, 109, 223. 

(2) Certain land between England and Scot- 
land was formerly called the fjatable ground, 
" landes dependyng in variance betweue the 
realmes." See Hall, Edward IV. f. 5G. 

BATAILED. Embattled. {A.-N.) See Rom. of 
the Rose, 4162. 



BAT 



149 



BAT 



I se casters, T se eke high towres, 
Walles of stane crcstyd and bataylled. 

IIS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 13. 

BATAILOUS. Ready for battle. Chaucer. 

BATAILS. Provisions. 

BATAIWYNG. Embattling. This form occurs 

in the Forme of Cury, p. 85. 
BATALE. To join in battle. 
BATALLE. An army. 

Than thir twa butalles mett samene, and faughte 

togedir, and thare was Sampsone slaene, 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 5, 
BATAND. Going hastily. Lanytoft. 
BAT ANT. The piece of wood that runs all along 

upon the edge of a lockside of a door, gate, or 

window. Cotgrave. 
BATARDIER. A nursery for trees. {Fr.) 
BATAUNTLICHE. Hastily. {A.-N.) See Piers 

Ploughman, p. 286. 
BATAYLYNGE. A battlement. 

How this temple with his wallis wyde, 
With his crestes and bataylynge ryalle. 

Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 15, 

BATCH. (1) Properly a quantity of bread baked 
at once, but generally applied to a bout or lot 
of anything. It also implies the whole of the 
wheat flour which is used for making common 
household bread, after the bran alone has been 
separated from it. Coarse flour is sometimes 

. called batch flour. 

(2) A kind of hound. North. 

(3) An open space by the road-side ; a sand- 
bank, or patch of ground lying near a river ; 
a mound. West. 

BATE. (1) Contention; debate; conflict. Cf. 
Chron. Vilodun. p. 83; Boke of Curtasye, p. 8 ; 
Acolastus, 1540 ; 2 Hen. IV. ii. 4. 

(2) To abate; to diminish. North. 

Whereof his luste began to hate, 
And that was love is thanne hate. 

iiower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 66. 
Hys cowntynance dyde he never bate. 
But kept hym sty lie in on state. 

Arch'i ologia, xxi. 74. 

(3) To flutter, a terra generally applied to hawks. 
See Depos. Ric. II. p. 13 ; Brit. Bibl. ii. 345 ; 
Cotgrave, in v. Debatis ; Holinshed, Hist. Ire- 
land, p. 21. 

(4) Bit. {A..S.) 

Thare was na qwike thyngez that they bate that 
ne also sone it dyed, hot harme did thay nana to the 
oste. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 28. 

^5) Lower.'' 

To a townc thei toke the gate, 
Men clepe hit Betany the bate. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 15. 

(6) "Without ; except. Lane. 

(7) In Craven, when the fil)res of wood are 
twisted and crooked, they are said to be cross- 
bated. 

(8) To go with rapidity. Also, to fall suddenly, 
" lete his burlvche blonke baite on the flores.*' 
MS. Morte Arthure, f. 81. 

(9) A boat. (J.-S.) 

Ther men vy tayled by bate 
That castel with cornes. Sir Degievant, 919. 
(IC) The old proverb, " bate me an ace, quoth 
Bolton " implies an alleged assertion is too 



strong, or, sometimes, according to Nares, 
" excuse me there." See Sir Thomas More, 
p. 18 ; Steevens' Old Plays, i. 45. 
A pamphlet was of proverbs pen'd by Polton, 

Wherein he thought all sorts included were ; 

Untill one told him, Bate m' an ace, quoth Bolton. 

Indeed, said he, that proverbe is not there. 

The Maative, quoted by Nares. 

(11) Did beat. Spenser. 

BATE-BREEDING. Apt to cause strife. ShaL 

BATED. A fish, when plump and full-rowed, is 
said to be well bated. Sussea;. 

BATELLE. A little boat. Langtoft,p. 241. 

BATE-MAKER. A causer of strife. 

BATEMENT. That part of wood which is cut 
off by a carpenter to make it fit for his purpose. 
Var. dial. 

BATEMENT-LIGHTS. The upper openings 
between the muUions of a window. 

BATER. Stanihurst, Description of Ireland, 
p. 11, says, '* As for the word bater, that in 
English purporteth a lane bearing to an high 
waie, I take it for a meere Irish word that 
crept unwares into the English, through the 
dailie intercourse of the English and Irish in- 
habitants." 

BATEYLED. Embattled. 

A hundreth tyretes he saw full stout. 

So godly thei wer bateyled aboute. MS. Aahmole 61. 

BATFOWLING. A method of taking birds in 
the night-time, fully described in the Diet. 
Rust, in V. See Tempest, ii. 1 ; Cotgrave, in 
v. Breller ; Harrison's Description of England, 
p. 240 ; Blome's Gent. Rec. ii. 143. 

BATFUL. Fruitful. Drayton. 

BATH. (1) Both. North. 

(2) A sow. Herefordsh. 

(3) To dry any ointment or liquid into the skin. 
Kennetfs MS. Gloss. 

BATHER. (1) To scratch and rub in the dust, 

as birds do. Warw. 
(2) Of both. {A.-S.) Gen. pi. 

And one a day thlr twa kynges with thairc bather 
ostes mett togedir apone a faire felde, and faughte 
togedir wonder egerly. MS. Lincoln A. 1. 17, f. 16. 
The sevend sacrament es matrymoyne, that es 
lawefulle festynnynge betwyx manne and womane at 
thaire bathere assente. lbid.i..2\Q. 

BATHING. See Beating. 

BATHING-TUB. A kind of bath, formerly used 
by persons afflicted with a certain disease. 
Ben Jonson mentions it in Cynthia's Revels, 
ii. 254. 

BATIGE. A pearl. 

BATILBABY. A certain ofiice in forests, men- 
tioned in MS. Harl. 433, quoted in Stevenson's 
additions to Boucher. 

BATILLAGE. Boat hire. 

BATING. Breeding. North. 

BAT-IN VVATER. Water mint. 

BATLER. The instrument with which washers 
beat their coarse clothes. Often spelt ballet. 
See Collier's Shakespeare, iii. 34. It is also 
called a batliny-staff, or a batstaff, and some- 
times a batting-staff, as in Cotgrave, in v. Ba^ 
cule. Mr. Hartshorne gives battlelon as tne 
Shropshire form of the same word. 



BAT 



150 



BAU 



BAILING. A kind of fish. See a curious enu- 
meration in Brit. Bibl. ii. 490. 

BATLINS. Loppings of trees, tied up into fag- 
gots. Suffolk. 

BATNER. An ox. Ash. 

BATOLLIT. Embattled. 

BATOON. A cudgel. Shirley. In the Wan- 
dering Jew, 1640, a roarer is called a battoon 
gallant. 

BATOUR. Batter. Warner. 

BATS. (1) The short furrows of an irregularly- 
shaped field. South. 

(2) Cricket. Devon. 

(3) A beating. Yorksh. 
BAT-SWAIN. A sailor. {A.-S.) 
BATT. (1) To beat gently. Salop. 

(2) To wink or move the eyehds up and down. 

Chesh. 
BATTEN. (1) To thrive; to grow fat. North. 

This word occurs in Shakespeare, Marlowe, 

and other early writers. 

(2) A rail from three to six inches in breadth, 
one or more in thickness, and of indefinite 
length. A fence made of these is called a 
batten-fence. 

(3) To batten in dung, is to lie upon it and beat 
it close together. Kennetfs MS. Glossary. 

(4) The straw of two sheaves folded together. 
North. A thatcher's tool for beating down 
thatch is called a batten-board. 

BATTER. (1) An abatement. A wall which 
diminishes upwards is said to batter. 

(2) Dirt. North. 

(3) To fight one's way. Midland C. 

(4) To wear out. South. A horse with tender 
feet is said to be battered. 

BATTERO. A bat ; a stick. This word occurs 
in one of the quarto editions of King Lear, 
1608, iv. 6, in the place of bat in another 
quarto, and ballow in the folio. See Collier's 
Shakespeare, vii. 465. Kersey explains bat- 
tery, " a violent beating or striking of any 
person." 

BATTID. Covered with strips of wood, as waUs 
are previously to their being plastered. 

BATTING-STOCK. A beating stock. Kennett. 

BATTLE. (1) To dry in ointment or moisture 
upon the flesh by rubbing and putting that 
part of the body by the fire. Kennetfs MS. 
Glossary. 

(2) Fruitful, fertile, applied to land. Also to 
render ground fertile by preparation. In the 
index to Markham's Countrey Farme, 1616, 
is '* to battle ground, and with what manner 
of dung." The term is occasionally applied to 
the fattening of animals. " Battleage of wheat" 
is mentioned in the Ordinances and Regu- 
lations, p. 195. 

(3) A word peculiar to Oxford for taking provi- 
sions from the buttery, &c. 

(4 ) To bespatter with mud. Northampt. 
BATTLED. Embattled. Arch. v. 431. 
BATTLEDORE. According to Miege, this was 

formerly a term for a hornbook, aivd hence 
no doubt arose the phrase to " know A. B. 
from a battledore." Seep. 128. 



BATTLEDORE -BARLEY. A kind of barley 
mentioned by Aubrey, MS. Hist. Wilts, p. 304 
and said by him to be so ca41ed " from the 
flatness of the ear." 

BATTLEMENT. A notched or indented parapet 
originally used only on fortifications, but after- 
wards employed on ecclesiastical and other 
edifices. Oxf. Gloss. Arch. 

BATTLER. (1) A small bat to play at baU with. 
See Howell, sect, xxviii. 

(2) An Oxford student. See Middleton's Works, 
V. 544. The term is used in contradistinction 
to gentleman commoner. 

BATTLE-ROYAL. A fight between several 
cocks, where the one that stands longest is 
the victor. The term is often more generally 
applied. 

BATTLE-TWIG. An earwig. North. 

BATTLING. See Battlement. 

BATTLING-STONE. A large smooth-faced 
stone, set in a sloping position by the side of 
a stream, on which washerwomen beat their 
linen to clean it. North. 

BATTOM. A board, generally of narrow dimen- 
sions, but the full breadth of the tree it is 
sawn from. North. 

BATTRIL. A bathing-staflr. Lane. 

BATTRY. (1) A tea-kettle. Suffolk. 

(2) In the Rates of the Custome House, 1545, 
mention is made of " battry the c. pounde." 
See the Brit. Bibl. ii. 399. 

BATTS. (1) Low flat grounds adjoining rivers, 
and sometimes islands in rivers. North. 

(2) Short ridges. /. Wight. 

BATURD. Battered. 

And toke liys staffe grete and longe. 
And on the hed he hym baturd. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 246. 

BATYLDOURE. A beetle or wooden bat used 
in washing and beating clothes. Prompt. 
Parv. 

BATYN. To make debate. Prompt. Parv. 

BAUBEE. A copper coin, of about the value 
of a halfpenny. The halfpenny itself is some- 
times so called, 

BAUBERY. A squabble ; a brawl. Var. dial. 

BAUBLE. A fool's bauble was a short stick, 
with a head ornamented with asses ears fan- 
tastically carved upon it. An old proverb 
says, ** if eveiy fool should wear a bauble, 
fewel would be dear." See also Babulle. 

BAUBYN. A baboon. 

BAUD. (1) This word was formerly applied in 
a very general sense. A procurer, procuress, 
a keeper of a brothel, or any one employed in 
bad services in this line, whether male or fe- 
male, was called a baud. Verstegan, Resti- 
tution, ed. 1634, p. 333, calls it a name 
" now given in our language to such as 
are the makers or furtherers of dishonest 
matches." This definition was in use earlier, 
as appears from a curious passage in the 
Gesta Romanorum, p. 432. See also the cha- 
racter of bawde phisicke in the Fraternitye of 
Vacabondcs, 1575. 

(2) A badger. Blome, 



BAY 



151 



BAW 



(3) Bold. Percy. 
BAUDE. Joyous. {A.-N.) 
BAUDERIE. Pimping. Chaucer. 
BAUD KIN. A rich and precious species of 
stuff, introduced into England in the thir- 
teenth centm-y. It is said to have been com- 
posed of silk, interwoven with threads of gold 
in a most sumptuous manner. Notices of it 
are very common. We may refer to Kyng 
Alisaunder, 202, 759 ; Richard Coer de Lion, 
2778, 3349 ; Sevyn Sages, 2744 ; Dugdale's 
Monast. iii. 325 ; Ellis's Met. Rom. iii. 287 ; 
Strutt, ii. 6 ; Planche, p. 93 ; Gy of Warwike, 
p. 421 ; Test. Vetust. p. 228. According to 
Douce, " it means tissue of gold, and some- 
times a canopy, probably frcrm being orna- 
mented with the tissue." 

BAUDRICK, See BaldricJc. The word is some- 
times spelt baudry, as in Kyng Alisaunder, 
4698. 

BAUDRY. Bad language. Skelton. 

BAUDS. Fine clothes? Toone. 

BAUDY. Dirty. {A.-N.) See Skelton's Works, 
ii. 161; Chaucer, Cant. T. 16103; Piers 
Ploughman, p. 88 ; Morte d'Arthur, i. 192, 
196 ; Palsgrave, adj. f. 83 ; Ashmole's Theat. 
Chem. Brit. p. 190. 

BAUDY-BASKET. A cant term for a bad 
woman, mentioned in Harrison's Description 
of England, p. 184. Dr. Bliss defines it " a 
woman who cohabits with an upright man, 
and professes to sell thread, &c." See Earle's 
Microcosmography, notes, p. 249 ; Holme's 
Academy of Armory, iii. 167. 

BAUFFE. To belch. Coles. 

BAUFREY. A beam. Skinner. 

BAUGER. Barbarous ; bad. Bale. 

BAUGH. A pudding made with milk and flour 
only. Chesh. 

BAUGHLING. Wrangling. Cumb. 

BAULCHIN. An unfledged bird. Warw. 

BAULK. To overlook or pass by a hare in her 
form without seeing her. Var. dial. 

BAULKY. A term applied to earths when it 
digs up in clots. North. 

BAULMEMINT. Water mint. Florio. 

BAUN-COCK. A game cock. Durham. 

BAUNSEY. A badger. Prompt. Parv. 

BAURGHWAN. A horse-collar. Yorksh. 

BAUSE. To kiss. Marston. 

BAUSON. (1) A badger. In the Prompt. Parv. 
p. 27, we have the forms bawstone, bawsone, 
and bauston. See also Brit. Bibl. i. 20; 
Percy's Reliques, p. 80 ; Cotgrave, in v. Gri- 
sard, spelt bouson. 

(2) Swelled ; pendant. Salop. 

BAUTERT. Encrusted with dirt. North. 

BAUTTE. This word occurs in an early poem 
printed in Todd's Illustrations, p. 264. I sus- 
pect a misreading of the MS. for " in vanite." 

BAUX-HOUND. A kind of hunting dog, men- 
tioned in Holme's Academy of Armory, p. 184. 

BAVEN. (1) A brush faggot, properly bound 
with only one withe. Var. dial. A faggot is 
bound with two. This distinction seems al- 



luded to in Dr. Dee's Diary, p. 38. See als 
Euphues Golden Legacie, ap. Collier, p. 11. 

(2) A cake. Howell. 

BAVERE. Bavaria. Minot. 

BAVIAN. A baboon, or monkey ; an occasional, 
but not a regular character in the old Morris 
dance. He appears in the Two Noble Kins- 
men, where his office is to bark, to tumble, to 
play antics, and exhibit a long tail with what 
decency he could. Nares. 

BAVIER. The beaver of a helmet. See Mey- 
rick, ii. 257 ; Hall, Henry IV. f. 12 ; Excerpt. 
Hist. p. 208 ; Planche, p. 159. 

BAVIN. Impure limestone. 

BAVISENESSE. Mockery. (A.-N.) 

BAVISH. To drive away. East. 

BAW. (1) An interjection of contempt. See 
Piers Ploughman, pp. 210, 419. In the East 
of England, boys and girls are addressed as 
baws. 

(2) Alvum levare. Lane. 

(3) A ball. Nort/i. 

(4) A dumpling. Lane. 

(5) To bark. Topsell. 
BAWATY. Lindsey-wolsey. North. 
BAWCOCK. A burlesque term of endearment. 

Shak. 
BAWD. (1) The outer covering of a walnut. 
Somerset. 

(2) Bawled. Yorksh. 

(3) A hare. A Scottish term for this animal, 
according to Jamicson, and apparently em- 
ployed by Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, ii, 4. 

BAWDER. To scold grumblingly. Su^olk. 

BAWDERIKWARD. Next to the belt. 

And also that it be as gret and holow dryven as 
hit may to the lengthe, and that it be shortere at 
the syde to the bauderikuard than at the nether 
syde. MS. Bodl. 546. 

BAWE. (1) The bow of a saddle ? Gaw. 

(2) A species of worm formerly used as a bait 
for fishing. Stevenson. 

BAWEL. Bawels are mentioned by the ton and 
the thousand in the Rates of the Custome 
House, 1545, in Brit. Bibl. ii. 398. 

BAWE-LINE. The bowling of a sail ; that rope 
which is fastened to the middle part of the 
outside of a sail. Stevenson. 

BAWER. A maker of balls. Staffordsh. 

BAWKER. A kind of sand-stone used for whet- 
ting scythes. Somerset. 

BAWKS. A hay-loft. Cumb. 

BAWL. Hounds, when too busy before they 
find the scent, are said to bawl. Blome. 

BAWLIN. Big ; large. Coles. 

BAWMAN. A bow man ; an archer. Gaw. 

BAWME. (1) Balm. Also a verb, to embalm, 
in which sense it occurs in the Lincoln MS. of 
Morte Arthure; Malory, i. 179. " Bawme 
glasses" are mentioned in Brit, Bibl. ii. 399, 
which may refer to the place of their manu- 
facture. 

(2) To address ; to adorn. North. 

BAWMYN. Balsam, Prompt. Parv. 

BAWN, (1) Any kind of edifice. See Richard 
son, in v. 



BAY 



152 



BAY 



(2) Ready, going. North. 

BAWND. Swollen. East. 

B4WMD0NLY. Cheerfully. (^.-iV.) Seethe 

exaiiiple quoted under barresse. 
15AWRELL. A kind of hawk. Phillips. The 

maie bird was called the bawret. See Blome's 

Gent. Rec. ii. 28. 
BxVWSE. To scream. Skinner. Supposed to be 

a form of bay. 
BAWSEN. Burst. Derbysh. Bawsen-ballid, 

ruptured. 
BAWSHERE. Supposed to be a corruption of 

beau-sire. See the Towneley Mysteries, p. 69. 
BAWSIN. (1) An imperious noisy fellow. North. 

(2) Great ; large ; unwieldy ; swelled. Chest. 
Ben Jonson, vi. 278, has the word in this 
sense. See also Urry's Chaucer, p. 558. 

(3) A badger. See Ellis's Met. Rom. ii. 358, 
wrongly explained by the editor. 

BAWSONT. Having a white stripe down the 

face, applied to an animal. North. 
BAWSTONE. A badger. Prompt. Parv. 
BAWT. (1) Without. Yor/csh. 
(2) To roar ; to cry. North. 
BAWTERE. Some bird of prey, mentioned by 

Berners. 
B AWY. A boy. This unusual form occurs in the 

Frere and the Boy, st. xv. 
BAXTER. (1) A baker. North. 

The haxtere mette another, 
Nas hit noujt so god. MS. Bndl.G^-l, f. 6. 
(2) An implement used for baking cakes upon, 

common in old houses. North. 
BAY. (1) A berry. Prompt. Parv. 

Tak the hayes of yvene, and stamp thame wele, 
and temper thame with whit wyae, and drynk 
therof fastande ilk a day a porcione. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f. 298. 

(2) A principal compartment or division in the 
architectural arrangement of a building, 
marked either by the buttresses on the walls, 
by the disposition of the main ribs of the 
vaulting of the interior, by the main arches 
and pillars, the principals of the roof, or by 
any other leading features that separate it into 
corresponding portions. The word is some- 
times used for the space between the mullions 
of a window. Oxf. Gloss. Arch. In the pro- 
vinces the term is even applied to the divisions 
of a barn, or in fact to any building possess- 
ing marks of division. Sometimes a single 
apartment in a rustic house, or the space be- 
tween two gables, is so called, which may be 
the meaning of the term in Measure for Mea- 
sure, ii. 1, unless we might propose to read 
day. A compartment of a vault is also termed 
a bay, according to Willis's Nomenclature, 
p. 43. Cf. Florio, in v. Am/ra; Arch. x. 441 ; 
Hall's Satires, v. 1; Nidiols' Royal Wills, 
p. 295 ; Holme's Academy of Armory, p. 450. 

(3) A pond-head made up of a great height to 
keep in store of water, so that the wheels of 
the furnace or hammer belonging to an iron 
mill may be driven by the water coming 
thence through a floodgate. Blount. The word 
occurs in I'rompt. Tarv. p. 21, translated by 



ohstaculum, for which see Ducange, in v. In 
Dorsetshire, any bank across a stream is called 
a bay, and Cotgrave, in v. Baye, mentions " a 
bay of land." 

(4) A pole ; a stake. Skinner. 

(5) To bathe. Spenser. 
(6^ A boy. IVeber. 

(7) To bend. Westmor. 

(8) Round. Gaw. 

(9) Bay, or baiting of an animal, when attacked 
by dogs. According to Blome, hounds are said 
to bay, when they make the animal " turn 
head." To bay, to bark. Miege. 

(10) To open the mouth entreatingly for food, 
as a young child does. Hollyband. 

(11) The nest of a squirrel. East. 

(12) A hole in a breast-work to receive the 
mouth of a cannon. Hersey. 

(13) To bark. Blome. 

(14) To unlodge a martern. Blome. 

BAYARD. Properly a bay horse, but often ap- 
plied to a horse in general. According to 
Grose, to ride bayard of ten toes is to walk on 
foot, a phrase which can have no modern ori- 
gin. A very old proverb, " as bold as blind 
bayard," seems to be applied to those who do 
not look before they leap. Cf. Piers Plough- 
man, pp. 68, 72, 128 ; Skelton, ii. 186 ; Tarl- 
ton's Jests, p. 51 ; Halle's Expostulation, p. 5 ; 
Turnament of Tottenham, xi. ; Cotgrave, in v. 
Bay art ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 16881 ; Kennett's 
Glossary, p. 23 ; MS. Douce 302, f. 7 ; Aude- 
lay's Poems, p. 84 ; Dent's Pathway to Heaven, 
p. 247 ; Manners and Household Expences of 
England, p. 184 ; Langtoft, p. 272 ; MS. Cott. 
Cleop. B. ii. f. 61; Sir Gawayne, p. 301. 
Skelton mentions bayardys bun, a sort of 
loaf formerly given to horses. 

Ther is no God, ther is no lawe 
Of whom that he taketh eny hede, 
But as Bayarde the blynde stede, 
Tille he falle in the diche amidde, 
He goth ther no man wol hirn bidde. 

Gouer, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 18.5 

BAY-DUCK. A shell-ditck. East. 
BAYE. Both. {A.-S.) 

Til thai com into a valaye, 
And ther thai gun to rest baye 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 58. 
Into the chaumber go we baye. 
Among the maidens for to playe. 

Gy of VVarwike, p. 108. 

BAYEN. To bay ; to bark ; to bait. 

BAYES. Baize. 

BAYET. Baited. Robson. 

BAYLE. (1) A bailiff. See Reynard the Foxe, 

p. 162; Audelay's Poems, p. 33; Towneley 

Mysteries, p. 17. In both senses. 
(2) A bucket. See the Privy Purse Expences of 

Henry VIII. p. 11, "to the same watermen 

for fowre bayles for the saied barge." 
BAYLLISHIP. The office of a bailiff. 
BAYLY. Authority. Cf. Sir Eglamour, 755, a 

district given in charge to a bailiff or guard. 
Y kni'ghe hym here yn grete bayly, 
He loved veiijaunce withoute mercy. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 10. 



BE 



153 



BEA 



BAYLYD. Boiled. Weber. 

BAYN. A murderer. (J.-S.) 

BAYNES. Bones. See Sharp's Gov. Mysteries, 

p. 225. 
B AYN YD. Shelled, prepared for table, as beans, 

&c. Prompt. Parv. 
BAYRE. Fit ; convenient. Durham. 
BAYS SENT. Reconciled ? 

To ceasse the warre, the peace to be encreassed 
Betwene hym and kyng John bayssent. 

Rardyng's Chronicle, f. 150. 

BAYTE. (1) To avail ; to be useful. Also, to 
apply to any use. 

Bot with hir tuke a tryppe of gayte. 
With mylke of thame for to bayte 

To hir lyves fode. Sir Perceval 186. 

(2) Explained by Hearne, " baited, fastened, in- 
vaded," in his glossary to Langtoft ; but see 
p. 276. 
BAYTHE. To grant. Gaw. 
BAYTYNGES. Chastisements. 

He shal hem chastyse with smert speche, 
With siaalle baytynges and nat with wreche. 

MS. Harl. I7OI, f. 72. 

BAY-WINDOW. A large window^ ; probably so 
called, because it occupied the whole bay, q. v. 
It projected outwards, occasionally in a semi- 
circular form, and hence arose the corrupted 
expression bow-window. The bay-window, 
however, was oftener in a rectangular or poly- 
gonal form. The term also appears to have 
been applied to a balcony, or gallery ; at least, 
Coles gives it as the translation of menianum. 

BAYYD. Of a bay colour. Prompt. Parv. 

BAYZE. Prisoner's base. Skinner. 

BAZANS. A kind of leather boots, mentioned 
by Matthew Paris. 

BAZE. To alarm. North. 

BE. (1) By. (A.-S.) Occasionally time is un- 
derstood. " Be we part," by the time that 
we part. This proposition is common in early 
writers, and is still in use in the north country 
dialects. 

(2) Been. The part. pa. occurring in this form 
in Chaucer and Robert of Gloucester. 

(3) The verb to be is unchanged in all its tenses 
in most of the provincial dialects. " I be very 
hungry," &c. 

(4) A common prefix to verbs, generally con- 
veying an intensative power, as be-bath'd, 
Brit. Bibl. iii. 207 ; beblubbered, Holinshed, 
Chron. Ireland, p. 91 ; becharme, Ford's Line 
of Life, p. 57 ; bedare, Hawkins' Eng. Dram, 
ii. 188 ; bedyed, Topsell's History of Serpents, 
p. 309 ; befann'd, Fairfax of the Bulk and 
Selvedge of the World, ded. 1674 ; befogged, 
Dent's Pathway to Heaven, p. 323 ; befool, 
Brome's Songs, 1661, p. 200 ; Tarlton's Jests, 
p. 37 ; beknave, Brit. Bibl. i. 38 ; beleft, Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 330 ; belome, Florio, in v. 
Appiastriccidre ; belulled. Two Lancashire 
Lovers, 1640, p. 162 ; bepinch, Brit. Bibl. 
i. 550/ bepowdered, Deloney's Strange His- 
tories, 1607 ; bequite, Stanihurst's Desc. of 
Ireland, pref. p. 1 ; berogue, Songs of the 
London Prentices, t,. 91 ; bescratched, Gif- 



ford's Dialogue on Witches, 1603 ; htshake. 
Cotton's Works, 1734, p. 13; bespanjledf 
Barnefield's Affectionate Shepherd, p. 5 ; be- 
tear'd, Brit. Bibl. iv. 125. 
(5) A jewel, ring, or bracelet. (A.-S.) 

Thereon he satte rychely crownyd. 
With many a besaunte, broche and be. 

MS. Harl. 2252, f. 125. 

BEACE. (1) Cattle. North. 

(2) A cow-stall. Yorksh. 

BEAD-CUFFS. Small ruffles. Miege. 

BEAD-FARING. Going on pilgrimage. Fer- 
stegan. 

BEAD-HOUSE. A dwelling-place for poor re- 
ligious persons, raised near the church in 
which the founder was interred, and for w*-ose 
soul they were required to pray. Britton. 
Almshouses are still termed beadhouses in 
some parts of the country ; and Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, has, " bed-house, an hospital. 
Dunelm." 

BEADLE. A crier or messenger of a court, the 
keeper of a prison or house of correction, an 
under-bailiff of a manor. Blount. 

BEADROLL. A list of persons to be prayed 
for ; a roll of prayers or hymns ; hence, any 
list. They were prohibited in England in 
1550. See Croft's Excerpta Antiqua, p. 13 ; 
Test. Vetust. p. 388; Topsell's Four-footed 
Beasts, p. 171 ; Florio, in v. Chidppole. 

BEADSMAN. One who offers up prayers to 
Heaven for the welfare of another. In later 
times the term meant little more than servant^ 
as we now conclude letters. Many of the 
ancient petitions and letters to great men 
were addressed to them by their " poor daily 
orators and beadsmen." See Donee's IJius- 
trations, i. 31 ; Ford's Works, ii. 72. 

BEAK. (1) To bask in the heat. North. 

(2) An iron over the fire, in which boilers are 
hung. Yorksh. 

(3) To vnpe the beak, a hawking term. Cocks 
that peck each other are said to beak ; and it 
is also a term in cockfighting. 

(4) The nose of a horse. Topsell. 

(5) The points of ancient shoes were called 
beaks. See Strutt's Dress and Habits, ii. 110. 

BEAKER. A large drinking vessel, usually of 
glass, a rummer or tumbler-glass. The term 
is also used figuratively for any thing of larg > 
size. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, defines ic 
" a round silver cup deep and narrow." 
Fill him his beaker, he will never fliDch 
To give a full quart pot the empty pinch. 

Roivlandu' Humors Ordiiiarie, n. d, 

BEAKIRON. An iron tool used by black- 
smiths. Holme. 

BEAKMENT. A measure of about the quarter 
of a peck. Newcastle. 

BEAL. (1) To roar out. North. 

(2) To suppurate. Durham. 

(3) A boil ; a hot inflamed tumour. North. 
Cotgrave has beating, matter, in v. Boue. 

(4) To beat. Apparently used in this sense, or 
perhaps an error, in Robson's Romances, 
p. 108. 



BEA 



154 



BEA 



BEALING. Big with child. Kennett, MS. 

jMiiad. 1033. 
BlvVLTE. Beauty. Ritson. 
BEAM. (1) Misfortune. {A.-S.) 
{2) Boliemia. See Berne. 

(3) To beam a tub is to put water into it, to stop 
the leaking by sweUing the wood. North. 

(4) A band of straw. Devon. 

(5) This word is apparently used for the shaft of 
a chariot in Holinshed, Hist. of England, p. 26. 

(6) A kind of wax-candle. 

(7) The third and fourth branches of a stag's 
horn are called the beams, or beam-antlers. 
See Blome's Gent. Rec. p. 77 ; Howard's Duell 
of the Stags, 1668, p. 8. 

(8) A trumpet. {A.-S.) 

And nowe bene heare in hell fier, 

Tell the daye of dome, tell beames blowe. 

Chester Plays, i. 17. 

BEAMELINGS. Small rays of hght. See the 
Two Lancashire Lovers, 1640, p. 7. 

BEAM-FEATHERS. The long feathers in the 
wings of a hawk. According to some, the large 
top feathers of a hawk's tail. 

BEAM-FILLING. Masonry, or brickwork, em- 
ployed to flush, or fill up a wall between joists 
or beams. Britton. 

BEAMFUL. Luminous. Drayton. 

BEAMING-KNIFE. A tanner's instrument, 
mentioned by Palsgrave, but without the cor- 
responding word in French ; subst. f. 19. 

BEAMY. Built with beams. Topsell. 

BEAN. The old method of choosing king and 
queen on Twelfth Day, was by having a bean 
and a pea mixed up in the composition of the 
cake, and they who found them in their por- 
tions were considered the sovereigns for the 
evening. Herrick alludes to this custom, 
as quoted by Nares, in v. A bean was for- 
merly a generic term for any thing worthless, 
which was said to be " not worth a bene." 
Nares mentions a curious phrase, " three l)lue 
beans in a blue bladder," still in use in Suf- 
folk, according to Moor, but the meaning of 
which is not very intelligible, unless we sup- 
pose it to create a difliculty of repeating the 
alliteration distinctly ; and Cotgrave, in v. Fe- 
bue, gives another phrase, " like a beane in a 
monkes hood." 

BEAN-COD. A small fishing vessel. 

BEANE. (1) Obedient. {A. S.) 

(2) A bone. Topsell. 

BEANED. A beaned horse, one that has a peb- 
ble put under its lame foot, to make it appear 
sound and firm. 

BEANIIELM. The stalks of beans. West. 

BEAR. (1) A kind of barley. North. See Flo- 
rio, in v. Fdrro, Zta ; Cooper, in v. Achilleias, 
Zea. 

(2) To " bear a bob," to make one among many, 
to lend a helping hand. East. 

(3) A message. Such at least appears to be the 
meaning of beare in Chester Plays, i. 1 73. 

(4) To " bear in hand," to amuse with frivolous 
pretences, to keep in expectation, to persuade, 



to accuse. This phrase is veiy common In 
early works, and is fully illustrated in Pals- 
grave, verbs, f. 162. 

(5) To " bear a brain," to exert attention, in- 
genuity, or memory ; a phrase occurring in 
Shakespeare, Marston, and other early dra- 
matists. 

(6) A noise. See Bere. 

(7) A tool used to cut sedge and rushes in the 
fens. Norf. 

BEARBIND. Bindweed. North. 
BEARD. (1) To oppose face to face in a daring 
and hostile manner. Shak. 

(2) To make one's beard ; to deceive a person. 
Chaucer. See Wright's Anec. Lit. p. 30; 
Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, iv. 210. 

(3) To trim a hedge. Salop. 

(4) An ear of corn. Huloet. 

(5) The following proverb, although well known, 
deserves a place in this collection. Cf. Kyng 
Alisaunder, 1164. 

Mery it is in thehalle, 

When berdes wagg alle, MS. Laud. 622, f. 65, 

(6) The coarser parts of a joint of meat. The 
bad portions of a fleece of wool are also called 
the beard. 

BEARD-HEDGE. The bushes which are stuck 
into the bank of a new-made hedge, to pro- 
tect the fresh planted thorns, thesh. Also 
called beardinc/s. See Kennett's Glossary, 
M3. Lansd. 1033. 

BEARD-TREE. The hazel. Voucher. 

BEARER. A farthingale. 

BEARERS. The persons who hear or carry a 
corpse to the grave. In Kent tl^e bier is some- 
times called a bearer. 

BEAR-GARDEN. A favourite place of amuse- 
ment in the time of Elizabeth, and frequently 
alluded to in works of that period. A common 
phrase, " to make as much noise as a bear- 
garden," may hence have its origin. A high 
sounding drum there used is alluded to in the 
Meeting of Gallants at an Ordinarie, 1604. 

BEAR-HERD. The keeper of a bear. Sha/c. 

BEARING. (1) A term at the games of Irish and 
backgammon. See Two Angry Women of 
Abingdon, p. 12 ; Middleton's Works, ii. 529. 

(2) In coursing, giving the hare the go-by was 
called a bearing. See Blome's Gent. Rec. ii. 93. 

BEARING-ARROW. An arrow that carries well. 
Percy. 

BEARING-CLAWS. The foremost toes of a 
cock. Diet. Rust. 

BEARING-CLOTH. The fine mantle or cloth 
with which a child is usually covered when it 
is carried to church to be baptized. Shak. 

BEARING-DISHES. Solid, substantial dishes ; 
portly viands. Massinr/er. 

BEARING-OF-THE-B6oK. A technical term 
among the old players for the duties of the 
prompter. In the accounts of the church- 
wardens of Ileybridge, 1532, we have, " Item, 
for baryiig of the boke, vj. d.," being among 
the cxpeMse!4 of a miracle-play represented at 
Whitsimtidc. 



BEA 



15 



^K 



BEA 



BEAR-LEAP. According to Kennett,MS. Lansd. 

1033, " a large osier basket to carry chaif out 

of a barn, born between two men." See 

Barlep. 
BEAR-MOUTHS. Subterraneous passages by 

which men and horses descend to the coal 

mines. North. 
BEARN. (1) A barn. East. 

(2) A child. North. 

(3) Wood. Coles. 
BEARS'-COLLEGE. A jocular term used by 

Ben Jonson for the bear garden, or Paris gar- 
den, as it was more frequently called. 

BEAR'S-EAR. The early red auricula. East. 

BEAR'S-FOOT. A species of hellebore. See 
Florio, in v. Branca Ursina, Consiligone, 
Eleboro nero. We have bearsbreech and 
bearswort, names of herbs. 

BEAR'S-MASQUE. A kind of dance men- 
tioned in an old play in MS. Bodl. 30. 

BEAR-STONE. A large stone mortar, formerly 
used for unhusking barley. Brockett. 

BEARWARD. The keeper of a bear. 

BEAR-WORM. The palmer-worm. SeeTopsell's 
History of Serpents, p, 105. 

BEAS. Cows ; cattle. North. 

BEASEL, That part of a ring in which the 
stone is set. Minsheu. Howeil calls it beazil- 
head, in his Lexicon, app. Sect, xxxiv. See 
also Florio, in v. Piantzza. 

BEASSH. To defile. Palsgrave. 

BEAST. (1) An old gapie at cards, similar to 
the modern game of loo. 

(2) Apparently a measure containing a single 
fur. See Wardrobe Accounts of Edw. IV. 
p. 129. 

(3) An animal of the beeve kind in a fatting 
state. East. 

BEASTING. A beating ; a flogging. Lane. 

BEASTLE. To defile. Somerset. 

BEASTLINGS. The first milk drawn after a 
cow has calved, in some places considered un- 
fit for the calf. A pudding made from this 
milk, called beastling-pudding, is well known 
for its pecuhar richness. Sometimes called 
beest, or beastings ; and formerly applied to 
woman's milk, or of any animal. The word is 
common as an archaism, and also in the pro- 
vinces. See Cotgrave, in v. Beton, Calleboute, 
Laict, Tetine ; Florio, in v. Colostra. 

BEAT. (1) Hares and rabbits are said to beat, 
when they make a noise at rutting time. See 
Blome's Gent. Rec. ii. 76. As a sporting term, 
to search. 

(2) To repair ; to mend. East. {A.-S.) 

(3) To abate. Hollyband. 

(4) Peat. Devon. 

(5) To hammer with one's thoughts on any par- 
ticular subject. Shak. 

(6) A term in grinding corn. See Arch. xi. 201. 

(7) " Brewer's beaf^ is mentioned in the Songs 
of the London Prentices, p. 132. Qu. beet 
root ? 

(8) A blow. "We get but years and beats,'^ 
Beaumont and Fletcher, v. 239. 



BEAT-AWAY. To excavate. North. 
BEAT-BURNING. Denshering, q. v. 
BEATEM. A conqueror. Yorksh. 
BEATEN. (1) Trite. Middleton. 

(2) Stamped on metal. " Beton on the molde," 
Sir Eglamour, 1031. 

(3) Stationed as upon a beat. See the Leycester 
Correspondence, p. 163. 

BEATER. A wooden mallet, used for various 
purposes. Cotgrave mentions " a thatcher's 
beater," in v. Esckandole. The boards pro- 
jecting from the inside circumference of a 
churn to beat the milk, are called beaters. 

BEATH. To heat unseasoned wood by fire for 
the purpose of straightening it. East. Tusser 
has the word, and also Spenser. Meat im- 
properly roasted is said in the Midland 
Counties to be beathed. See Beethy. 

BEATILLES. Giblets. 

BEATING. (1) Walking about ; hurrying. West. 

(2 A row of corn in the straw laid along the 
barn-floor for thrashing. Norf. 

BEATMENT. A measure. North. 

BEATOUR. Roundabout. {A.-N) 

BEAT-OUT. Puzzled. Essex. 

BEATWORLD. Beyond controul. East. 

BEAU. Fair; good. {A.-N.) 

BEAUCHAMP. " As bold as Beauchamp," a 
proverbial expression, said to have originated 
in the valour of one of the Earls of Warwick 
of that name. See Nares, p. 48 ; Middleton's 
Works, ii. 411 ; Brit. Bibl. i. 533. 

BEAUFET. A cupboard or niche, with a canopy, 
at the end of a hall. Britton, 

BEAU-PERE. A friar, or priest. {A.-N.) See 
Piers Ploughpian, pp. 383, 533. Roquefort 
has, " Beau-pere, titre que Ton donnoit aux 
religieux." Spenser has the word in the sense 
of companion. See also Utterson's Pop. Poet, 
ii. 25 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 31. 

BEAUPERS. Apparently some kind of cloth, 
mentioned in the Book of Rates, p. 26. 

BEAUPLEADER. A writ that hes where the 
sheriff or bailiff takes a fine of a party that 
he may not plead fairly, or a fitting to the 
purpose. Kersey. 

BEAUTIFIED. Beautiful. Shak. 

BEAUTIFUL. Delicious. Var. dial. 

BEAU-TRAPS. Loose-pavements in the foot- 
way, under which dirt and water collects, 
liable to splash any one that treads on them. 
Norf. 

BEAUTY-WATER. Water used by ladies to 
restore their complexions. Miege. 

BEAVER. (1) That part of the helmet which 
is moved up and down to enable the wearer 
to drink, leaving part of the face exposed 
when up. Perhaps more correctly speaking, 
the shade over the eyes ; and the word is 
even applied to the helmet itself. See a dis* 
sertation on the subject in Douce's Illustra- 
tions, i. 438. 

(2) The bushes or underwood growing out on 
the ditchless side of a single hedge. Dorset, 

BE AVERAGE. Water cider. Devon. 



BEC 



150 



BED 



BE AVE RET. A half-beaver hat. Rennet t' a 

Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033. 
I5EAWTE. ^Vithollt; except. Lane. 
l^EAZLED. Fatigued. Sussex. 
BE 13. To sip; to drink. North. Also a heb- 

ber, an immoderate drinker. 
BEBAST. To beat. See Euphues Golden Le- 

gacie, ap. Collier's Shak. Lib. p. 5. 
BE-BERED. Buried. See MS. Arund. 57, 

quoted in Reliq. Antiq. i. 42. Verstegan gives 

bebiriged in the same sense. 
BEBLAST. Blasted. Gascoigne. 
BE-BLED. Covered with blood. {A.-S.) See 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 2004 ; Morte d' Arthur, i. 

102, 148, ii. 57 ;Maundevile's Travels, p. 3. 
The knave he slewe in the bedd, 
The ryche clothys were alle be-bledd. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 83. 

BEBLIND. To make bhnd. Gascoigne. 
BEBLOTTE. To stain. {{J.-S.) 
BEBOB. To bob. 

Have you seene a dawe bebob two crowes so ? 

Steevens' Old Plays, i. 78. 

BE BODE. Commanded. Verstegan. 
BE-CALLE. (1) To accuse ; to challenge. See 

Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 257; "Ywaine and 

Gawin, 491. 

(2) To require. Gaw. 

(3) To abuse ; to censure. West. 
BECASSE. A woodcock. {Fr.) See the Rut- 
land Papers, p. 27. 

BECCHE. Made of iron. 

BECCO. A cuckold. (Ital.) A favourite word 
with our early dramatists. Drayton makes 
becco the Italian for a cuckoo, a bird often as- 
similated with human beccos. 

BECEGYN. To besiege. Prompt. Parv. 

BECEKYN. To beseech. Prompt. Parv. 

BECETTYN. To set in order. Prompt. Parv. 

BECIIATTED. Bewitched. Line. 

BECHE. A beech tree. {A.-S.) 

BECHER. A betrayer. {A.-S.) 
Love is becher and les. 
And lef for to tele. MS. Digb;/ 86. 

BECK. (1) A small stream. Var. dial. See 
Plumpton Corr. p. 248 ; Harrison's Descrip- 
tion of Britaine, p. 50. 

The tung, the br.iine, the paunch and the neck, 
When they washed be well with the water of the beck. 
Buoke of Hunting, 1586. 

(2) A constable. Harman. 

(3) To nod ; to l)eckon. Also a substantive, a 
bow, a salutation. SeeOrd. and Reg. p. Ill ; 
King and a Poore Northern Man, 1640; 
Decker's Knights Conjuring, p. 17; Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 12330, 17295 ; Skelton, ii. 280 ; Pals- 
grave, verb, f. 158. A beek was a bend of the 
knee as well as a nod of the head. 

(4) The l)eak of a bird. Hence the protecting 
tongue of an anvil is called the beek-iron. 
Sometimes the nose is called a beck. Harrison, 
p. 172, talks of a person being "wesell 
becked." 

BECKER. A wooden dish. Northumb. 
BECKET. A kind of spade used in digging 
turf. East. 



BECKETS. A kind of fastening ; a place of se- 

curitv for any kind of tackle on board a ship. 

BECK-STANS. The strand of a rapid river. 

North. 
BECLAPPE. To catch. {A.-S.) 
BECLARTED. Besmeared ; bedaubed. North. 
BECLIPPE. To curdle. Maimdevile. 
BE-COME. Togo. (A.-S.) The participle 6e- 

com is found in Syr Gawayne. 
BECOMES. Best clothes. East. 
BECOUGHT. Seized. (,^.-5-.) 

Swete Mahoun, what is the red? 
Love-longing me hath becought. 

Beves of Hamtoun, p. 37 

BECRIKE. A kind of oath. North. 

BECURL. To curve ; to bend. Richardson. 

BECYDYN. Besides ; near. Prompt. Parv. 

BED. (1) Abed of snakes is a knot of young 
ones ; and a roe is said to bed when she 
lodges in a particular place. Diet. Rust. 

(2) A horizontal vein of ore in a mine. Derbysh, 

(3) To go to bed with. See Jonson's Conversa- 
tions, p. 19 ; Hardyng Suppt. p. 96. 

(4) Offered. {A.-S.) 

Lord, he myght fulle wylle sped, 

A knyghtes dowghtiyr wase hyme bed. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 3*. 

(5) Prayed. (A.-S.) See Warton's Hist. Engl. 
Poet. i. 12. 

(6) Commanded. Langtoft. 

(7) The horizontal base of stone inserted in a 
wall. Yorksh. 

(8) A fleshy piece of beef cut from the upper 
part of the leg and bottom of the belly. East. 
Sometimes the uterus of an animal is so called. 

(9) The phrase of getting out the wrong side of 
the bed is applied to a person who is peevish 
and illtempered. Var. dial. 

BEDAFFE. To make a fool of. {A.-S.) 
BE-DAGHE. To dawn upon. {A.-S.) 
BEDAGLED. Dirtied. Hollyband. 
BED-ALE. Groaning ale, brewed for a christ- 
ening. Devon. 
BEDAND. Offering. {A.-S.) 

So long he wente forth in hys wey, 
His bedes bedand nyght and (ley. 

3IS. Ashmnle 61 , f. 3. 

BEDASSHED. Covered; adorned. This is ap- 
parently the meaning of the word in Morte 
d'Arthur, ii. 366. 

BEDAWYD. Ridiculed. Skelton. 

BED-BOARD. " Bedde horde" is translated by 
sponde in Palsgrave, subst. f. 19. 

BEDD. The body of a cart. Kennetfs Glossary f 
MS. Lansd. 1033. 

BEDDE. A husband or wife. {A.-S.) 
BEDDEN. To bed ; to imt to bed. {A.-S.) 
BEDDER. (1) The under-stone of an oil-mill. 

Llowell. 
(2) An upholsterer. West. In some counties, 

beddiner. 
BEDDERN. A refectory. {A.-S.) 
BEDDY. Greedy; officious. North. 

BEDE. (1) To proffer; to offer. North. See 
Minot's Poems, p. 19; Langtoft, p. 29; 
Prompt. Parv. p. 28. 



BED 



157 



BEE 



(2) A prayer. {A.-S.) 

(3) To order ; to bid. (J.-S.) Also, commanded, 
as in Rob. Glouc. p. 166. See the various 
meanings of bede given by Hearne. 

(4) To pray. (^--S'.) 

(5) Prohibition. (A.-S.) 

(6) Placed. Skinner. 

(7) Dwelt; continued. Skinner. 

(8) A commandment. (A.-S.) 
BEDEADED. Slain ; made dead. 
BEDEET. Dirtied. North. 

BEDELL. A servitor ; perhaps, bailiff. SkeUon. 
The MS. Bodl. 175 reads ^»<?^e/, Chester Plays, 
i. 95, in place of keydell in Mr. Wright's MS. 
BEDEN. Prayers. {A.-S.) Bedes, petitions, 
occurs in the list of old words prefixed to Bat- 
man uppon Bartholome, 1582. 
BEDENE. Immediately ; moreover ; collec- 
tively ; continuously ; forthwith. This word is 
used in a variety of senses, sometimes appa- 
rently as a mere expletive. All the above 
meanings are conjectural, and derived from the 
context of passages in which the word occurs. 
BEDERED. Bed-ridden. Prompt. Parv. 
BEDERKID. Darkened. 

But whanne the blake wynter nyjte, 
"Withoute mone and sterre ly3te, 
Bedcrkid hath the water stronde, 
Alle prively they gone to londe. 

Guwer, MS. Soc. Jntiq. 134, f. 46. 

BEDEVIL. To spoil anything. South. A per- 
son who is frequently convicted of vile con- 
duct, is said to be bedeviled. 

BEDEWITH. Wetteth. Chaucer. 

BED-FAGGOT. A contemptuous term for a 
bedfellow. East. 

BEDFELLOW. It was formerly customary for 
men even of the highest rank to sleep toge- 
ther ; and the term bedfellow impHed great in- 
timacy. Dr. Forman, in his MS. Autobiogra- 
phy, mentions one Gird as having been his 
bedfellow, MS. Ash. 208. Cromwell is said to 
have obtained much of his intelhgence during 
the civil wars from the common men with 
whom he slept. 

BEDFERE. A bedfellow. Ben Jonson has 
bed-pheere, as quoted by Nares. 

That je schuUe ben his owen dere. 
And he schalle be 30wre bedfere. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 189. 

BEDGATT. Command ? 

Thre balefiiUe birdez his brochez they turne. 
That byddez his bedgatt, his byddyng to wyrche. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincnhi, f. 64. 

BEDIZENED. Dressed out. Var. dial. 

BED-JOINTS. Joints of stone that lie in the 
beds of rocks. Derby sh. 

BEDLAM-BEGGARS. A class of vagrants, 
more fully noticed under their other appella- 
tion, Toms of Bedlam, q. v. See several notices 
in Malone's Shakespeare, x. 104. They were 
also called bedlams, bedlamers, and bedlamites, 
which came to be generic terms for fools of all 
classes. " Bedlem madnesse" is the transla- 
tion of furor in the Nomenclator, p. 424, 
which may serve to illustrate a passage in 
2 Henry VI. iii. 1. 



BEDLAWYR. A bed-ridden person. Prompts 

Parv. 
BEDLEM. Bethlehem. 
BEDMATE. A bedfellow. 
BED-MINION. A bardash. See Florio, in v. 

Caramita, Concubino. 
BEDOLED. Stupified with pain. Devon. 
BEDOLVEN. Digged. Skitiner. 
BEDOM. Craved; demanded. Rob. Glouc. 

p. 143. 
BEDONE. Wrought ; made up. Percy. 
BEDOTE. To make to dote; to deceive. 

Chaucer. 
BEDOUTE. Redoubted. 

Above all men he was there moste hedoute. 

Hurdyug's Chronicle, f. 159. 

BEDPRESSER. A dull heavy fellow. 

BE-DRABYLYD. Dirtied ; wetted. It is trans- 
lated by paludosus in Prompt. Parv. pp. 28, 
283. Carr has drabble-tail, a woman whose 
petticoats are wet and dirty. 

BEDRADDE. Dreaded. Chaucer. 

BEDRAULED. Defiled. Skinner. 

BEDREDE. Bedridden. Chaucer. 

BEDREINTE. Drenched. Chaucer. 

BEDREPES. Days of work performed in 
harvest time by the customary tenants, at the 
bidding of their lords. See Cullum's Hawsted, 
1784, p. 189. 

BEDS. The game of hop-scotch. North. 

BEDS-FOOT. The plant mastic. Skinner. 

BED-STEDDLE. A bedstead. Essex. 

BED-SUSTER. One who shares the bed of the 
husband; the concubine of a married man in 
relation to the legitimate wife. See Rob. 
Glouc. p. 27, quoted by Stevenson. 

BEDSWERVER. An adultress. Shak. 

BED-TYE. Bed-tick. West. 

BEDUELE. To deceive. {A.-S.) 

BEDWARD. Towards bed. Nares. 

BEDWEN. A birch tree. West. 

BEDYNER. An otficer. {Dut.) 
Lyare wes mi latymer, 
Sleuthe ant slep mi bedyner. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 49. 

BEE. A jewel. See Cooper, in v. Monile ; 

Morte d' Arthur, i. 243. 
BEE-BAND. A hoop of iron which encircles 

the hole in the beam of a plough where the 

coulter is fixed. North. 
BEE-BEE. A nursery song. Yorksh. 
BEE-BIKE. A nest of wild bees. North. 
BEE-BIRD. The willow wren. Var. dial. 
BEE-BREAD. A brown acid substance with 

which some of the cells in a honeycomb are 

filled. Var. dial. See Bee-glue. 
BEE-BUT. A bee-hive. Somerset. 
BEECH-COAL. A peculiar kind of coal used 

by alchemists. See Ben Jonson, iv. 52. 
BEECHGALL. A hard knot on the leaf of the 

beech containing the maggot of some insect. 
BEE-DROVE. A great crowd of men, or any 

other creatm"es. East. 
BEEDY. A chicken. Var. dial. 
BEEDY'S-EYES. The pansy. Somerset. 
BEEF. A.n ox. {Fr.) So beefet, a young ox, as 

in HolJnshed, Desc. Scotland, p. 20. 



BEE 



158 



BEG 



BEEF-EATERS. The yeomen of the guard. 

The name is said to be corrupted from beauf- 

fetiers. See Boucher, in v. 
BEEFING. A builock fit for slaughter. Suffolk. 
BEE-GLUE. According to Florio, in v. Pro- 

polio, " a solide matter, and yet not perfect 

wax, wherewith bees fence the entrance of 

their hives to keepe out the winde or cold." 
BEE-HIVE. A wattled straw-chair, common 

among cottagers. West. 
BEEK. A rivulet. North. 
BEEKED. Covered with dirt. North. 
BEEKNE. A beacon. Prompt. Parv. 
BEELD. (1) Shelter. North. Sometimes a 

shed for cattle is called a beelding, and is said 

to be beeldy. This is merely a later form of 

held, q. v. 
(2) To build. North. " Beeldynge" occurs in 

Prompt. Parv. p. 35. 
BEELE. A kind of pick-axe used in separating 

the ore from the rock. 
BEE-LIPPEN. A bee-hive. Somerset. 
BEEM. See Beam. 
BEEN. (1) Bees. [A.-S.) See Chaucer, Cant. 

T. 10518 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 493. 

(2) Property ; wealth. Tusser. 

(3) The plural of the present tense of the verb 
to be. Sometimes, have been. In some 
dialects, it is equivalent to because; and it 
also occurs as a contracted form of by him. 

(4) Nimble ; clever. Lane. Grose has bienly, 
excellently. 

(5) A withy band. Devon. 
BEENDE. Bondage. 
BEENSHIP. Worship; goodness. 

BEER. Force ; might. Chesh. More, MS. ad- 
ditions to Ray, has, *' to take beer, to goe 
back that you may leape farther." See also 
Kennett's Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033. 

BEERE. A bier. Prompt. Parv. 

BEER-GOOD. Yeast. East. 

BEERNESS. A beer-cellar. North. 

BEERY. Intoxicated. Warw. 

BEES. (1) " To have bees in the head," a 
phrase meaning, according to Nares, to be 
choleric. " To have a bee in the bonnet," is 
a phrase of similar import, or sometimes 
means to be a little crazy. Toone gives a 
Leicestershire proverb, " as busy as bees in a 
bason." See also Jamieson's Suppl. in v. 
Bee. 

(2) The third person sing, and all the pi. future 
tense of the verb to be. North. The ten- 
dency of this dialect is to change th {A.-S.) 
into s. 

(4) Flies. Line. 

(5) Cows. North. 

BEESEN. Bhnd. Line. A common expres- 
sion, " as drunk as a beesen." " Wullo beezen 
the vine zight," will you be blind to the fine 
sight, Fairholt's Pageants, ii. 101. Spelt bee- 
some in the early editions of Coriolanus, ii. 1. 

BEE SKIP. A bce-hive. West. 

BEES-NEST. A kind of flax. Skinner. 

BEESNUM. Be they not. West. 



BEESTAILE. Cattle. 

Beestaile thei had ynouje I wot. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Trin. Coll. Cantab, f. 16. 

BEET. A beet of flax, translated by linifrangi- 
bnla in Skinner. For other meanings see Bete. 

BEET-AXE. The instrument used in beeting 
ground in denshering. Devon. 

BEETHY. Soft, sticky ; in a perspiration. Un- 
derdone meat is called beethy. Duncumb ex- 
plains it " withered." Herefordsh. 

BEETLE. A heavy wooden mallet, used for 
various purposes. A " three man beetle," 
says Nares, was one so heavy that it reqiiired 
three men to manage it, two at the long han- 
dles and one at the head. Hollyband, in his 
Dictionarie, 1593, mentions " a beetle which 
laundrers do use to wash their buck and 
clothes." 

BEETLE-BROWED. Having brows that hang 
over. Shakespeare uses the verb beetle, Ham- 
let, i. 4. Cf. Piers' Ploughman, p. 88 ; Du 
Bartas, p. 652 ; Howell, sect. 21 ; Rom. and 
Juliet, i. 4. 

BEETLE-HEADED. Dull ; stupid. Shak. In 
Dorsetshire, the miller's thumb is called a 
beetlehead. 

BEETLE-STON. The cantharides. Florio. 

BEETNEED. Assistance in the hour of distress. 
North. 

BEFAWN. To surround ; to seize. {A.-S.) 
And yf [56] see a schyppe of palme. 
Then sylle to them befawn. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 98. 

BEFET. A buffet ; a blow. {A.-N.) 

BEFFING. (1) Barking. Line. 

(2) Burning land after it is pared. North. 

BEFIGHT. To contend. Surrey. 

BEFILIN. To defile. 

BE FILL. Befell. {A.-S.) 

BEFLAYNE. Flayed. 

Oute of his skyn he was beflayne 
AUe quik, and in that wise slayne. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 212. 

BEFLECKE. To streak ; to spot. 

Why blush you, and why with vermilion taint 
Beflecke your cheeks ? Turbevile's Ovid,\5G7, f. 134. 
BEFON. To befall ? Toivneley Myst. 
BEFORE. To take before one. " Shall I take 
that before me ?" that is, " shall I take it with 
me when I go there V Kent. 
BE FORE N. Before. {A.-S.) Beforn is com- 
mon in early works, and in the dialects of the 
present day. 
BE-FOTE. On foot. Prompt. Parv. 
BEFROSE. Frozen. 

Over Daunby thilke flood, 
Whiche alle befrose than stood. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 73. 

BEFT. Struck ; beaten. Gaw. 
BEFYCE. Beau fils. See Prompt. Parv. p. 28, 
pidcher filius ; and Ritson's Met. Rom. iii. 256. 
This generic name is often adopted in the old 
romances. 
BEFYLDE. Dirtied. 

I praye you therfore hertyly. 
That you wyll take it pacicntly. 

For I am all befylde. The Unluckie Firmentie, 



BEG 



159 



BEH 



BEG. To beg a person for a fool, was to apply 
to be liis guardian, under a writ de idiota in- 
quirendo, by which, if a man was legally 
proved an idiot, the profits of his land and the 
custody of his person might be granted by the 
king to any subject. Nares. The custom is 
frequently alluded to by our old dramatists. 
BEGAB. To mock ; to deceive. 
BEGALOWE. To out-gallop. 

That was a wyjt as any swalowe, 
Ther myjt no hors hym begalotve. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 124 

BEGARED. Adorned. Skelton. 

BEGAY. To make gay. Beaumont. 

BEGAYGED. Bewitched. Devon. 

BEGCHIS. Bitches. Cov. Myst. 

BEGE. Big. Gaw, 

BEGECK. A trick. Ritson. 

BEGENELD. A mendicant. Piers Plovghman. 

BEGETARE. A begetter. Prompt. Paw. 

BEGGAR. " Set a beggar on horseback, and he 
will ride to the jakes," a common proverb ap- 
plied to those who have suddenly tisen in 
wealth, and are too proud even to walk there. 
So that dyvers of our saylors were much offended, 
and sayd, set a begger on horsbacke and he wyl 
ryde unreasonablye. MS. Addit. 5008. 

BEGGAR-MY-NEIGHBOUR.Achildren'sgame 
at cards. The players throw a card alter- 
nately, till one throws a court card, the ad- 
versary giving one card for a knave, two for a 
queen, three for a king, and four for an ace, 
this proceeding being interrupted in the same 
manner if the other turns up a court card or 
an ace, which generally makes the game an 
unreasonable length. 

BEGGAR'S-BUSH. According to Miege, a 
rendezvous for beggars. " To go by beggar's 
bush," to go on the road to ruin. Beggar's 
bush was also the name of a tree near London. 
Cleaveland, in his Midsummer Moon, p. 188, 
says, " if a man be a tree invers'd, bee's beg- 
gar's bush." See also the Two Angrie Women 
of Abingdon, p. 80. A similar phrase, " we 
are brought to begger staffe," occurs in the 
Plumpton Correspondence, p. 199. 

BEGGARS-BUTTONS. The burson on the 
burdock. Devon. 

BEGGARS-NEEDLE. The shepherd's needle. 
Midland C. 

BEGGARS-VELVET. The Hght particles of 
down shaken from a feather-bed, and left by 
a sluttish housemaid to collect under it. East. 
The term beggars' -bolts, stones, is of a similar 
formation. 

BEGGAR-WEED. The corn spurry. Beds. 

BEGGARY. FuU of weeds. East. 

BEGHE. A crown ; a garland. {A.-S.) 

BEGILED. Beguiled. (A.-N.) 

BEGINNYNGE. A principle. Chaucer. 

BEGIRDGE. To grudge. Somerset. 

BEGKOT. Foolish. (^.-A^.) 

Begkot an bride. 
Rede him at ride 
In the d ism ale:. 

fViight'i Political Songs, p. 303. 



BEGLE. Boldly.' 

The Sarasyns were swythe stronge. 
And helde fyght begle and longe. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 106. 
BEGLUED. Overcome. Lydgate. 
BE GO. To do ; to perform. {A.-S.) In the 
following passages, used for begon, part. pa. 
And tolde him how hit was bego. 
Of is wele and of is wo. 

Betes of Harntoun, p. 77- 
The erthe it is, whiche evermo 
With mannis laboure is bego. 

Gower, MS. Sot: Antiq. 134, f. 59. 
BEGON. Adorned. Frequently used in this 
sense. See Reliq. Antiq. ii. 19 ; Illustrations 
of Fairy Mythology, p. 59 ; Rom. of the Rose, 
943. Then we have, wel begon, in a good way ; 
wo begon, far gone in woe ; worse begon, in a 
worse way, &c. 
BEGONE. Decayed ; worn out. East. 
BEGONNE. Begun. (^.-^.) 
BEGORZ. A vulgar oath. Somerset. Perhaps 
more generally pronounced begosh. '* Begum- 
mers" is another oath of similar formation. 
BEGRAVE. Buried. {A.-S.) 

Into the grounde, where alle gone, 
This ded lady was begrave. 

Goiver, MS. Sac. Antiq. 134, f. 67. 

BEGREDE. To cry out against. {A.-S.) Be- 
grad occurs in Ellis's Met. Rom. iii. 51. 
Launcelot of tresson they be-gredde, 
Callyd hym fals and kyngys traytoure. 

3IS. Harl. 2252, f. 108. 

BEGRUMPLED. Displeased. Somerset. 

BEGUILED. Covered with guile. Shak. 

BEGUINES. A sort of nuns. Skimmer. 

BE-GYFTE. Gave. 

Thefe, where haste thou my oxen done 

That y the be-gi/fte. MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 86. 

BEGYN. A biggin. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 74. 

BEGYNGGE. Careful. {A.-S.) 

A begyngge gome, gameliche gay. Reliq, Antiq. ii. 8. 
BEH. Bent ; inclined. {A.-S.) 
BEHALT. Beheld. Weber. 
BEHALVE. Half; side, or part. {A.-S.) 
BEHAPPEN. Perhaps. Salop. 
BE HATED. Hated; exceedingly hated. The 
term occurs in the Morte d' Arthur, ii. 82 ; 
Stanihurst's Description of Ireland, pp. 34, 44 j 
Palsgrave's Acolastus, 1540. It is the syno- 
nyme of haly, and translated by exosus in 
Prompt. Parv. p. 222, the former of which has 
no connexion wdth A.-S. healic. See Haly. 
BEHAVE. To manage; to govern, generally in 
point of behaviour. The substantive behaviour 
seems used in a collateral sense in King John, 
i. 1. 
BEHEARD. Heard. See Percy's Reliques^ 
p. 23 ; Robin Hood, i. 123. 

Ful wel beherd now schall it be. 
And also beloved in many contre. 

MS. C. C. C. C. 80. 

BE-HELIED. Covered. {A.-S.) See Ellis's 

Met. Rom. ii. 258 ; Richard Coer de Lion, 5586. 

BE-HERTE. By heart ; with memory. Promjit. 

Parv. 
BEHEST. (1) A promise. {A.-S.) See Chaucer, 



BEJ 



160 



BEL 



Cant. T. 4461 ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 1 ; 

Harrowing of Hell, p. 27, spelt byhihstes. 
(2) An order ; a command. 
BEKETE. To promise. {A.-S.) See Chaucer, 

Cant. T. 1856; Chester Plays, i. 31. 

The emperowrs modur let calle a knave. 
And hyra behett grete mede to have. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 83. 
He had a quene that hyghte Margaret, 
Trewe as steie, y yow behett. Ibid. f. 71- 

BEHEWE. Coloured. {A.-S.) 

BEHIGHTE. To promise. (^.--S".) Behighten, 
pa. t, pi., Chaucer, Cant. T. 11639; Maunde- 
vile's Travels, p. 3. 

BE HINT. Behind. North. 

BE HITHER. On this side. Sussex. It is 
also an archaism. See Nares, in v. Somerset- 
shire carters say bether to their horses, when 
they wish them to move towards their 
side. 

BEHOLDINGNESS. Obligation. Webster. 

BE-HONGYD. Hung with tapestry. Weber. 

BEHOOVEFULL. Useful ; profitable. See Hey- 
wood's Apology for Actors, 1612 ; Brit. Bibl. 
1. 20. Ash gives the form behoovable. 

BEHOTYN. To promise. Prompt. Parv. 

BEHOTYNGE. Promising. Maundevile. 

BEHOUNCED. Finely dressed; smart with 
finery. Essex. Kennett says " ironically ap- 
plied," MS. Lansd. 1033. 

BEHOVE. Behoof; advantage. {A.-S.) 
Her beginneth the Prikke of Love 
That profitable is to soule behove. 

Vernon MS. f. 265. 

BEHOVELY. Profitable. {A.-S.) See Troilus 
and Creseide, ii. 261. 

It is behovely for to here. 

MS. Sac. Antiq. 134, f. 53. 

BEHUNG. Hung about, as a horse with bells. 

Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033. 
BEIE. Both. {A.-S.) 

Agein to bataille thei wente, 
And foughten harde togidere beie. 
Never on of other ne stod eie. Otuel, p. 47. 
BEIGH. A jewel ; an ornament. {A.-S.) This 
word, which occurs under various forms, 
sometimes has the signification of a ring, a 
bracelet, or a collar for the neck. 
BEIGHT. Anything bent, but generally applied 

to the bend of the elbow. North. 
BEILD. (1) SeeBetd. 

Land o live, o ro and rest. 
Wit blis and beild broiden best. 

MS. Cott. Veapas. A. iii. f. 7. 

(2) A handle. YorJcsh. 
BEILDIT. Imaged ; formed. Gaw. 
BEING. (1) Because. Var. dial. 
(2) An abode ; a lodging. East. 
BEINGE. Condition. Weber. 
BEIRE. (1) Of both. Rob. Glouc. 
(2) Bare. Ibid. 

BE JADE. To weary ; to tire. Milton. 
BE J APE. To ridicule, make game of. {A.-S.) 
See Chaucer, Cant. T. 16853; Troilus and 
Creseide,!. 532 ; v. 1119. 

But covertly ye of your dewbilnes 

Jiijnpen hem thus, al day ben men blyndyd. 

MS. fair fax 16. 



He was lest worth in lovis ye. 
And most bejapid in his vvitte. 

Gower, MS. Sue. Antiq. 134, f. 5i 

BEK. To beckon. {A.-S.) 

That he fele on his hors nek, 
Him to heveden thai gan to bek. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 193. 

BEKE. The brim of a hat or hood ; anything 
standing out firm at the bottom of a covering 
for the head. The term has not yet been 
explained. The above is conjectural from the 
passages in which the word occurs in Strutt, 
ii. 212; Planche, p. 231; Rutland Papers, 
p. 6 ; Brit. Bibl iv. 27. 

BEKEANDE. Warming; sweating. Ritson. See 
Ywaine and Gawin, 1459 ; bekynge, Morte 
d' Arthur, i. 139. 

BEKENE. A beacon. {A.-S.) 

BEKENEDEN. Beckoned. Wickliffe. 

BE-KENNE. To commit to. {A.-S.) 

This lettre be-kende Alexander to the knyghtig of 
Darius, and the peper also, and bad thame bere 
thame to the emperour ; and he gaffe thame grete 
gyftes and riche, and sent th.me furthe. 

MS. Lineoln A. i. 17, f, 9. 
And thou, his derlyng. 
His modir in kepyng 

To the he be-kende. Ibid. f. 231. 

BEKERE. To skirmish ; to fight. Spelt bekire 
in Syr Gawayne, another form of bicker. See 
also Prompt. Parv. p. 36. 
BEKINS. Because. Dorset. 
BEKKYS. Begs. Towneley Mt/st. 
BEKNE. A beacon. Prompt. Parv. 
BEKNOWE. To acknowledge; to confess. 
{A.S.) See Catalogue of Douce MSS. p. 7 ; 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 1558, 5306 ; Richard Coer 
de Lion, 1700; Amis and Amiloun, 1279; 
Octovian, 1810. See Bi-knowen. 
And thanne, yf y be for to wite, 
I wolle bekhowen what it is. 

Gower, MS. Sac. Antiq. 134, f. 42. 

BEKNYNGE. A beckoning. Prompt. Parv. 
BEKUR. Fight ; hattle ; skirmish. 

And yf he myght of hym be sekure, 
Odur in batell or in bekur. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 217. 
And 5yf y fle that yche bekyr, 
Y hope than y may be sekyr. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 52. 

BEL. Beautiful. {A.-N.) 

BELACOIL. A friendly reception. Spenser . 

Chaucer has bialacoil, q. v. 
BELAFTE. Left ; remained. 

As hyt was Goddys ownc wylle, 
Thelyenas belafte the chykle styllc. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 311, f. 84. 
Whan he for luste his God refuscth, 
And took him to the develis crafte, 
Lo what profit him is belafte. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. IDl. 

BELAGGED. Tired. 

BE-LAGGYD. Dirtied; wetted. Prompt. Parv. 
BELAM. To beat. See Cotgrave in v. Cha- 
peron; Famous Victories, p. 320. • 

A country lad had slept aside with a wench, and 
done I know not what; but his father mahily be- 
luriib'd him for the fact, the wench prooving after- 
ward with child. 

Wits, Fittes, and Fancies, 16.95, p. 146. 



BEL 



161 



BEL 



BELAMOUR. A fair lover. Spenser. 

BEL-AMY. Fair friend. {A.-N.) See Harts- 
home's Met. Tales, p. 107 ; Chester Plays, 
i. 151; Wright's Poh Songs, p. 200; Towne- 
ley Mysteries, p. 70 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 
12252 ; Ywaine and Gawin, 278 ; SirTristrem, 
p. 161 ; Roh. Glouc. p. 390. 

Belftmy, he seyde, how longe 
Shel thy folye y-laste ? 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57- 
Belamye, and thou cowdyst hyt layne, 
A cownselle y wolde to the sayne. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f, 63. 

BELAPPED. Surrounded, 

Owte of the wode they came anon. 
And belapped us everychon. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 195. 

BELAST. Bound. 

The seid James Skidmore is belast and withholden 

toward the seid Sir James for an hole yeer to do him 

service of werre in the perties of France and of 

Normandie. 'Arch. xvii. 214. 

BELATED. Benighted. Milton. Generally 

retarded. See Miege, in v. 
BEL AVE. To remain. (A.-S.) 

For nought Beves nolde belwe, 
The beter hors a wolde have. 

Beves of Hamtoun, p. 70. 

BELAY. (1) To fasten. A sea term. 

The master shewyng us that by nef^lygens of some 
to belay the haykrs, the mayn yerd had fawin down 
and lyke to have kyld three or four. MS. Addit. 6008. 

(2) To flog. Northampt. 

BELAYE. To surround. Rob. Glouc. 

BELAYED. Covered. Spenser. 

BELCH. (1) Small beer. Yorksh. 

(2) To remove the indurated dung from sheep's 
tails. Somerset. 

BEL-CHOS. Pudendum feminae. (A.-N.) See 
a curious account in MS. Addit. 12195, f. 
158 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 6029, 6092. 

BELCHYN. To decorate. Prompt. Parv. 

BELCONE. A balcony. 

BELDAME. A grandmother. Formerly a terra 
of respect. Spenser uses it in its original 
French signification, fair lady. Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, " an old woman that lives to see 
a sixth generation descended from her." 

BELDE. (1) Protection; shelter; refuge. {A-S.) 
See Le Bone Florence of Rome, 1721 ; Sir 
Perceval, 1412, 1413, 1921; Minot's Poems, 
p. 27. Still in use in the North. 
For thou myghte in thaiie bale 
Beste be thaire helde. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 233. 

(2) To protect ; to defend. See Ywaine and 
Gawin, 1220; Lay le Freine, 231. Perhaps 
in the last instance to encourage. Sometimes 
spelt hylde, as in Sir Eglamour, 3. 

(3) Bold. ^A.-S.) See Lybeaus Disconus,2123; 
Kyng Alisaunder, 5004. 

(4) Build ; natural strength. " Stronge of 
belde," strongly built, as we say of persons 
strongly formed by nature. Mr. Utterson's 
explanation, i. 164, is quite right, although 
questioned in the new edition of Boucher. 
** To belde," to increase in size and strength. 



Bi a childe of litil belde 
Overcomen I am in myn elde. 
Cursor Mutidi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 76» 
rhys maycle wax and bygan to belde 
Weyl ynto womans elde. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 64, 

(5) To build ; hence, to inhabit. 

Whenne oure saules schalle parte, and sundyre ffra 

tne Doay 
Ewyre to belde and to byde in blysse wyth hymeselvene. 
Morte Arthur e, MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 53. 
In Sedoyne in that riche contree, 
Thare dare na mane belde nor be» 
For dowt of a bare. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 140. 

(6) Formed ? 

But cowardly, with royall hoste hym beld. 
Upon hym came all sodeinly to fight. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 147. 

BELDER. To roar; to bellow. North. Bel- 
derer, a roarer. 

BELDYNG. Building. (A.-S.) 

BELE.(l) Fair; good. {A.-N.) See the Archae- 
ologia, xxiii. 342. 

(2) Bad conduct. Line. 

BELEAKINS. By the Lady kin ! North, 

BELEAWD. Betrayed. Verstegan. 

BELE-CHERE. Good company. {A.-N.) 

BELEDDY. By our Lady ! Leic. 

BELEE. To shelter. Shak. 

BELEF. A badge? Gaw. 

BELEVAND. Remaining, i. e. alive. See Tor- 
rent of Portugal, 359. {A.-S.) 

BELEVE. Behef. {A.-S.) See Chaucer, Cant. 
T. 3456 ; Dodsley, xii. 335. 

BELEVED. Left. Chaucer. 

BELEVENESSE. Faith. Prompt. Parv. 

BELEWYNGE. The belling of the hart. 

And thei syngeth in thaire langage that yn 
Englonde hunters calle beleivynge, as men that 
loveth paramoures. MS. Bodl. 546. 

BELEYN. Besieged. 

Whan nobille Troy was beleyn 
And overcome, and home a^en 
The Grekis tumid fro the sege. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 96. 
Aboute Thebes, where he lay, 
Whanne it of siege was beleyn. Ibid. f. 51. 
BELFRY. (1) A temporary shed for a cart or 
waggon in the fields or by the road side, hav- 
ing an upright post at each of the four corn- 
ers, and covered at the top with straw, goss, 
&c. Line. This word, which is curious for its 
connexion with berfrei/, was given me by the 
Rev. James Adcock of Lincoln. 
(2) Apparently part of a woman's dress, men- 
tioned in Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 201. 
BELG. To bellow. Somerset. 
BELGARDS. Beautiful looks. Spenser. 
BELGRANDFATHER. A great great grand- 
father. 
BELIER. Just now. Somerset. 
BELIKE. Certainly ; likely ; perhaps. Var.dial. 

Bishop Hall has belikelij 
BELIME. To ensnare. Dent. 
BE-LITTER. To bring forth a child. It is trans- 
lated by enfaunter in Reliq. Antiq. ii. 78. 
BELIVE. (1) in the evening. North. This ex- 

11 



BEL 



162 



BEL 



planation is given by Ray, Meritoii, and the 

writer of a letter dated March 13th, 1697, 

in MS. Lansd. 1033. 
(2) Quickly; immediately; presently. A common 

term in early English. 
BELKE. To belch. North. See Towneley M\st. 

p. 314 ; Dent's Pathway, p. 139 ; Elyot, in v. 

Eructo, *' to bealke or breake wynde oute of 

the stomake." 
BELKING. Lounging at length. Line. 
BELL. (1) A roitpie at the tip of the nose. 

Palsgrave. 

(2) The cry of the hart. See Hunter's Hallam- 
shire Glossary, p. 11. It is, properly speak- 
ing, the cry made by that animal at rutting 
time. 

(3) To swell. See a curious charm in Pettigrew 
on Medical Superstitions, p. 80 ; Beves of 
Hamtoun, p. 102 ; Legendai Catholicae, p. 231. 

(4) Bell, book, and candle ; the form of excom- 
munication in the church of Rome, ending by 
closing the book against the offender, extin- 
guishing the candle, and ringing the bell. 
Hence the oath. See Reliq. Antiq. i. 1 ; 
Ywaine and Gawin, 3023. 

(5) " To bear the bell," a common phrase mean- 
ing to carry off the prize. See Gov. Myst. 
p. 189; Troilus and Creseide, iii. 199. 

BELLAKIN. Bellowing. North. 

BELLAND. This word is used in two senses, 

1 . apphed to ore when reduced to powder ; 

2. its pernicious effects on men and animals 
by their imbibing the small particles of ore. 
North. 

BELLARMIN. A burlesque word used amongst 

drinkers to express a stout bottle of strong 

drink. Miege. 
BELLART. A bear-leader. Chest. 
BELL-BIT. The bit of a bridle made in the 

form of a bell. Miege. 
ilLLE. (1) A mantle } See Wright's Seven 

Sages, pp. 78, 84 ; Anecd. Lit. p. 12 ; Awnturs 

of Arthure, xxix. 3. 

(2) To roar. {A.-S.) 

(3) A clock. Cov. Myst. 

(4) A bonfire. Gaw. 

BELLE-BLOME. The daffodil. (^.-A^.) Still 
called the bellftower in some counties. 

BELLE-CHERE. Good cheer. (^.-A^.) 

BELLEN. To swell. See Bell. 

BELLE3ETER. A bell-founder. Prompt. Parv. 

BELLIBONE. A fair maid. Spenser. 

BELLIBORION. A kind of apple. FmsI. 

BELLICAL. Warlike. {Lat.) 

BELLICH. Well. See an old glossary in Rob. 
Glouc. p. 647. Fairly? 

BELLICON. One addicted to the pleasures of 
the table. North. 

BELLICOUS. Warlike. Smith. 

BELLIN. To roar ; to bellow. North. 

BELLITUDE. Fairness. {Lat.) 

BELL-KITE. A ])rotuberant body. North. 

BELLMAN. A watchman. Part of bis office 
was to bless tbc sleepers in the bouses tbat he 
passed, which was often done in verse, and 
hence our bclJinaa's vcrbcs. 



BELLOCK. To bellow, when beaten or fright- 

ened. Var. dial. 
BELLONED. Asthmatic. North. 
BELLOSE. Warlike. {Lat.) 
BELLOWFARMER. A person who had the 

care of organs, regals, &c, 
BELLRAG. To scold. Herefordsh. 
BELLRAGGES. A species of water-cresses, 

mentioned by Elyot, in v. Laver. 
BELLS. " Give her the bells, and let her fly." 

an old proverb taken from hawking, meaning 

that when a hawk is good for nothing, the 

bells are taken off, and it is suffered to escape ; 

applied to the dismissal of any one that the 

owner has no longer occasion for. See Reliq. 

Antiq. i. 27 ; Patient Grissel, p. 16. 
BELL-SOLLER. The loft in a church on which 

ringers stand. North. 
BELL-V/EDDER. A fretful child. North. 
BELLY. (1) The widest part of the vein of a 

mine. North. 

(2) A whale. {Dut.) 

(3) Carr gives the Craven phrase, " belly-go- 
lake thee," take thy fill, indulge thy appetite. 

BELLYATERE. A bellfounder. Prompt. Parv. 

BELLY-BAND. A girth to secure a cart-saddle. 
North. 

BELLYCHE. Fairly. (.^.-A^.) 

BELLYCHEAT. An apron. Ash. 

BELLY-CLAPPER. A dinner bell ? See Flo- 
rio, in v. Battdglio, Battifolle. 

BELLY-FRIEND. An insincere friend ; a per- 
son who pretends friendship for purposes of 
his own. Miege. 

BELLY-GOD. A glutton ; an epicure. 

BELLY-HARM. The cholic. Belly-holding, a 
crying out in labour. Devon. 

BELLT -NAKED. Entirely naked. See the 
Basyn, xix. ; Cotgrave, in v. Fin, Tout ; Frier 
and the Boy, ap. Ritson, p. 49. 

I am all together lefte bare, or I am lefte starke 
hely-naked, or lefte as naked as my nayle, sory 
wretche that I am ! Wyll ye not leave me a lyttell 
garment, or a sory wede, to hyde my tayle withal. 

Acolaatxts, 1540. 

BELLY-PIECE. A thin part of a carcase near 
the belly. North. 

BELLYS. Bellows. 

BELLY-SHOT. A term applied to cattle, ac- 
cording to Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, " when 
cattle in the winter, for want of warmth and 
good feeding, have their guts shrunk up." 

BELLY-TIMBER. Food. Var. dial. Scott 
puts this word into the mouth of a distin- 
guished euphuist. Monastery, ed. 1830, i. 
222. 

BELLY-VENGEANCE. Small beer. Var. dial. 

BELLY-WANT. A bellv-band. Hants. 

BELLY-WARK. The cholic. North. 

BELOKE. Fastened ; locked. {A.-S.) 
And how in grave he was beloke, 
And how that he hath helle broke. 

Goiver, MS. Soc. Aiitiq. 134, f. 83. 

BELOKED. Beheld. Octovian, 1046. 

BEI.ONGINGS. Endowments. Shak. 

BE LOOK. To weep. Beds. 

BELOUKE. To fasten ; to lock up. See Beloke, 



BEM 



163 



BEN 



It occurs in this sense in MS. Cott. Vespas. D, 
vii., but perhaps to perceive in Beves of Ham- 
toun, p. 60. 

BELOWT. To abuse roughly. 

BEL-PEROPIS. Fairjewels. Skinner. 

BELSCHYD. Decorated. Prompt. Parv. 

BELSH. Rubbish ; sad stuff. Line. 

BEL-SHANGLES. A cant term, used by Kemp, 
in his Nine Daies Wonder, 1600, wliere he 
mentions himself as " head-master of Morrice- 
dauncers, high head-borough of heighs, and 
onely tricker of your trill-lilles, and best bel- 
shangles betweene Sion and mount Surrey." 

BELSIRL. A grandfather; an ancestor. (A.-N.) 

BELSIZE. Bulky; large. East. 

BEL-SWAGGER. A swaggerer; a bully. Ac- 
cording to Ash, a whoremaster, who also gives 
the term bellyswagger, " a bully, a hectoring 
fellow." 

BELT. (1) To beat ; to castigate. Salop. 

(2) To shear the buttocks and tails of sheep. 
Midland C. 

(3) Built. YorJcsh. 

(4) An axe. Prompt. Parv. 

(5) A course of stones projecting from a wall. 
Britton. 

BELTAN. The first of May. North. Kennett, 
MS. Lansd. 1033, gives the proverb, " You'l 
have wor bodes ere Belton." The ceremonies 
of the beltan were kept up in Cumberland in 
the last century, but are now discontinued. A 
full account of them will be found in Jamieson. 

BELTER. A prostitute. North. 

BELUTED. Covered with mud. Sterne 

BELVE. (l; To drink greedily. North.' 

(2) To roar ; to bellow. Somerset. In old Eng- 
lish, we have belwe, as in Piers Ploughman, 
p. 222. ^ 

BELWORT. The name of a herb. In MS. Sloane 
5, f. 3, the Latin name given is acandus, and 
in f. 8, pullimonaria, the word being spelt 
hellewort in the latter instance. 

BELWYNGE. A bellowing. {A.-S.) 
It schulde seme as thouje it were 
A belwynge in a mannis ere. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 214. 

BELYES. Bellows. (A.-S.) 

And alle this undir the bynke thay thraste. 
And with thayre belyes thay blewe ful faste. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 128. 

BELYKLYHOD. Probability. 

Thow may her a tale full badly told, 
And of a goodly man helyhlyhud of chere. 
„^, -^S. Laud. 416, f. 39. 

BELYMMED. Disfigured. Skelton. 
BELYNG. Suppuration. See Beat. 
BEM. Abeam; a pillar. 

in hem of cloude ich ladde the, 

BEMANGLE. To mutilate. 
BEMASED. Stunned; astounded. 

He rose up, as I saye nowe. 

And lefte us lyinge I wote nere howe, 

Al bemased in a soune, 

Ai we hade bene slicked swyne. 

Chester Plays, ii. 93. 



BEME. (1) Bohemia. (A.-S.) See Minot's 
Poems, p. 16; Skelton, ii. 340; Planche's 
Costume, p. 163. 
(2) A trumpet. (A.-S.) 
BEMEENE. To mean. 

Lady, they seyde, Hevyn quene, 
"What may all thys sorowe bemeene 9 

r,T.T,TT.>T r,, ^^- <^«'»'«''- Ff. ii. 38. f. 189. 

BEMEN. Trumpets. {A.-S.) 

BEMENE. To lament; to pity. {A.-S.) See 
Ellis's Met. Rom. ii. 14, iii. 123. 

BE-METE. To measure. Shak. 

BEMOIL. To dirty; to soil. Shak. 

BEMOISTEN. To moisten. See the Brit. 
Bibl. iii. ad fin. p. xxxvi. 

BE MOLE. A term in music, B molle, soft or 
flat. The word occurs in Skelton, and also 
in a curious poem on music, in Reliq. Antiq. 
1. 292. Bemy, Reliq. Antiq. i. 83, has appa- 
rently the same meaning. 

BEMONSTER. To make monstrous. Shak. 

BEMOOKED. Dirtied; defiled. Palsgrave. 

BEMOONYD. Pitied. {A.-S.) 

Gye ys moche bemoonyd of all, 
In the erlys cowrte and in the kyngys halle. 
MS. Cantab. Yi. ii. 38, f. 148. 

BE-MOTHERED. Concealed? 
BEMUSED. Dreaming; intoxicated. 
BEN. (1) Prompt; ready. Gaw. 

(2) Oil of Ben, an ointment formerly in great 
repute; benzoin. See Dodsley, xii. 236; 
Nomenclator,p.95; Cotgrave in y.Muscellin; 
Howell, in v. Acorn; Florio, in v. Assa dolce. 

(3) Bees. {A.-S.) 

So faste hii gonne aboute him scheve, 
Ase don ben aboute the heve. 
. Beves of Hamtoun, p. 56. 

(4) To be. {A.-S.) Ben is the pres. pi. and 
part. pa. of this verb. 

(5) Goods. Rob. Glouc. 

(6) Well ; good. Weber. 

(7) In; into. Yorksh. 

(8) The " true ben," the utmost stretch or bend. 
Ewmoor. 

(9) The truth. Devon. 

(10) A figure set on the top of the last load of 
the harvest immediately in front, dressed up 
with ribbons, &c. as a sort of Ceres. Norf. 

BENAR. Better. An old cant term. See 
Dodsley, vi. 109 ; Earle's Microcosmography, 

BENATURE. A vessel containing the holy 
water. Wilham Bruges, Garter King of Arms, 
1449, bequeaths " a gret holv-water scoppe 
of silver, with a staff benature] the said bena- 
ture and staff weyng xx. nobles in plate and 
more." Test. Vetust. p. 266. 

BEN-BAUFE. An old cant term, occurring in 
the Roaring Girl, 1611. 

BENCH. A widow's bench, a share of the 
husband s estate which a woman enjovs be- 
sides her jointure. Sussex. See Kennett's 
Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033. 

«^mpS??- ^^°i«hed with benches. Chancer. 
BENCHER. An idler; a person who spends 
Ins time on ale-house benches. 



\- 



BEN 



164 



BEN 



5ENCH-FL00R. In the coal mines of Wed- 
nesbury in Staff or dshii-e, the sixth parting or 
laming in the body of the coal is called the 
bench-floor, 2| ft. thick. Rennet t, MS. Lansd. 

BENCH-HOLE. The hole in a bench, ad le- 
vandum alvum. See Malone's Shakespeare, 
xii. 353 ; Webster's Works, iii. 254. 

BENCH-TABLE. A low stone seat round the 
inside of the walls of a church. This term is 
found only in the contract for the Fothering- 
gay church, printed by Dugdale. 

BENCH-WHISTLER. A sottish roUicksome 
idler, who spends his time chiefly on the ale- 
house bench. The term occurs in Stanihurst's 
Description of Ireland, p. 24, and also in 
Kemp's Nine Dales Wonder, 1600 ; Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 170. 

BEND. (1) A band of men. Line. It occurs 
in Huloet, 1552; Cooper, in v. Grex ; Arch, 
xxviii. 99. 

(2) A " lace bend" is described as " round of 
eight bowes" in a curious MS. quoted by 
Strutt, ii. 98. 

(3) Strong ox leather, tanned with bark and 
other ingredients, which give it a blue cast. 
North. 

(4) A semicircular piece of iron used as part of 
a horse's harness to hold up the chains when 
ploughing. 

(5) Indurated clay. North. 

(6) The border of a woman's cap. North. It 
is also a term for a handkerchief, and Skinner 
explains it, '' muflier, kercher or cawl." 

(7) A bond; anything which binds. (A.-S.) 
BENDE. (1) A band or bandage; a horizontal 

stripe. (A.-N.) 

(2) Bondage. See Amis and Amiloun, 1233 ; 
Lybeaus Disconus, 252. 

Swete Fader, wath me is wo, 

I may not bringe the out of bende. 

MS. Jddit. 113(/7, f- 109. 

(3) Bent ; put down. Gaiv. 
BENDED. Bound. Maundevile. 
BENDEL. A band ; a stripe. {A.-N.) Steven- 
son, a bendlet. 

BENDING. Striping; making of bands, or 
stripes. Chancer. 

BEND-LEATHER. A leather thong, according 
to Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033. Boucher says, 
" what is elsewhere called sole-leather.'' A 
strong infusion of malt is said to be a neces- 
sary ingredient in the tanning of bend-leather. 

BENDSFULL. Bundles. 

The frere he had bot barly stro, 
Two tliake betidsfuH without no. 

Brit. Bibl. iv. 86. 

BENDWARE. Hardware. Staffordah. 
BENE. (1) To be. {A.-S.) 

(2) Well; fair; good. Gaw. Not quickhj, as 
in the additions to Boucher. See Robson's 
Met. Rom. pp. 3, 14, 25. It is a cant term 
in the same sense, as in Earle's Microc. p. 253. 

(3) A bean. {A.-S.) In the following passage 
allusion is made to a game so called. 

Ilar!ottes falleth to stonde on the florc. 
And pliy bom tyme ate spore. 



At the bene and at the cat, 
A foul play holde y that 

MS. Bodl. 48, f. 174- 

(4) Bane ; destruction. Langtoft. 

(5) A prayer ; a request. {A.-S.) North coun- 
try nurses say to children, " clap bene," 
meaning, join your hands together to ask a 
blessing, to pray. Cf. Rehq. Antiq. i. 113; 
Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 92 ; Ritson's Songs, 
i. 62. 

BENE APED. Left aground by the ebb of the 
spring tides. South. 

BENEDAY. A prayer-day, conjectured to be 
synonymous with A.-S. bentiid, the rogation 
days. 

BENEDICITE. An exclamation, answering to 
our Blesa us ! It was often pronounced as a 
trysillable, Bencite ! (Lat.) Benste occurs in 
the Towneley Mysteries, p. 85. 

BENEDICTION-POSSET. The sack-posset 
which was eaten on the evening of the wed- 
ding day, just before the company retired. 
See Brand's Pop. Antiq. ii. 109. 

BENEFICE. A benefit. Hoccleve. In Ilar- 
rington's Nugse Antiquae, i. 63, we have bene- 
ficiallnes, beneficence. 

BENEFIT. A living ; a benefice. North. Ash 
has beneficial in the same sense. 

BENEME. To take away; to deprive. {A.-S.) 

For thou benemest me thilke jifte, 

Whiche lyeth nou5t in thy myjte to schifte. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 93. 

BENEMERENT. Well deserving. {Lat.) 

BENEMPT. Named ; called. Spenser. 

BENERTH. The service which the tenant owed 
the landlord by plough and cart, so called in 
Kent. See Lambarde's Perambulation, ed. 
1596, p. 212. 

BENET. One of the orders in the Roman Ca- 
tholic church, the exorcist a, who cast out 
evil spirits by imposition of hands and asper- 
sion of holy water. Promijt. Parv. 

BENETHE. To begin. Gov. Myst. 

BENETOIRE. A cavity or small hole in the 
wall of a church, generally made near the 
door, as a receptacle for the vessel that con- 
tained the holy water. Boucher. See also 
Benatiire. 

BENEVOLENCE. A voluntary gratuity given 
bv the subjects to the king. Blount. 

BENEWID. Enjoyed. {A.-S.) 

The presence every day benewid. 
He was with 3iftis alle besnewid. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 186. 

BENEWITH. The woodbine. Prompt. Parv. 

BENEYDE. Conveyed. 

BENGE. To drink deeply. Somrrscf. 

BENGERE. A chest for corn. Prompt. Parv, 

BENGY. Cloudy ; Overcast. Essex. 

BENIGNE. Kind. {A.-N.) 

BENIME. To take away. {A.-S.) 

Kyng Edgare had fro them thcr londes bennme. 

MS. Cmttab. Ff. ii 38, f. 123. 

BENINGNELL Kindly. (^.-A^.) 
iJENISON. A blessing. (^.-A^.) According to 
Tliorcsby, this word was current in Yorkshire 



BEN 



165 



BER 



in 1703. Cf. Piers Ploughman, p. 489 ; Chau- 
cer, Cant. T. 9239 ; Gov. Myst. p. 86 ; Sevyn 
Sages, 3485 ; Sir Tristrem, p. 200 ; Langtoft, 
pp. 115, 143. 

BEN-JOLTRAM. Brown bread soaked in skim- 
med milk; the ploughboy's usual breakfast. 
East. 

BENK. A bench. Also the King's Bench, a 
court of justice. See Langtoft, pp. 58, 246 ; 
Table Book of Traditions, p. 230. 

l^EN-KIT. A large wooden vessel with a cover 
to it. Line. Thoresby describes it, " a small 
wooden vessel with a cover that's loose, and 
fitted with notches to two prominent lags that 
have a string through them to carry it by." 

BEN NET. The bent grass. Somerset. Ac- 
cording to an ancient West country distich — 
" Pigeons never know no woe 
Till they a bennetting do go." 

BENNICK. A minnow. Somerset. 

BENNYS. Beans. See an old will in Test. Ve- 
tust. p. 507. 

BENOME. Taken away. See Benirne. 

BENOTHINGED. Diminished. Fairfax. 

BE NOW. By this time. North. 

BENSE. A cow-stall. North. 

BENSIL. To beat ; to thrash. North. 

BENT. (1) Ready. Weber. 

(2) A plain ; a common ; a field ; a moor ; so 
called from those places being frequently 
covered with the bent grass. Willan says 
bents are " high pastures or shelving com- 
mons." The term is very common in early 
English poetry. 

Appone a bent withowt the borghe. 

With scharpe arowes je schote hysn thurghc. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 128. 

(3) The declivity of a hill. (A.-S.) Perhaps 
this may be the meaning in the Squyr of 
Lowe Degre, 65. 

(4) Subject. Cov. Myst. 

(5) A chimney. North. 

(6) A long coarse grass, which chiefly grows 
upon the moors. Also called bent-grass. A 
blade of coarse hay or grass is called a bent ; 
and Gerard also calls a bundle of it a bent. 
See Salop. Antiq. p. 324 ; Florio, in v. Giun- 
cdta; Drayton's Poems, p. 185 ; Brit. Bibl. i. 
212; Forby, ii. 417. 

(7) " Brows bent," i. e, arched. See Dyce's 
notes to Skelton, p. 146 ; Rom. of the Rose, 
1217. 

(8) Form ; shape. 

My bente whiehe that y now have 
Tille 1 be take into my grave. 

Gower, MS. Sue. Jntiq. 134, f. 50. 

BENTERS. Debentm-es. Steevens. 
BENTLES. Dry sandy pastures near the sea 

covered chiefly wdth bent-grass. East. 
BENVENUE. Half-a-crown, a fee paid by every 

new workman at a printing-house. Holme. 
BENWYTTRE. The woodbine. Promjjt. Parv. 
BENYNGLICHE. Kindly. Rob. Glouc. 
BENZAMYNE. Benzoin, a kind of resin. 

Spelt benzwine in Topsail's Four-footed Beasts, 

p. 240. 



BEO. By. 

BEOCE. Boethius. Chaucer. 

BEODE. (1) To oifer; to proffer; to pray. 
Also to summon, to command. It occurs in 
a dou})tful sense in Kyng Alisaunder, 3606, 
explained by Weber, to carry ; rather per- 
haps, to balance a spear. (^A.-S.) 

(2) A prayer. {A.-S.) 

BEORYNG. (1) Burying; funeral. Weber. 

(2) Bearing; birth, Kyng Alis. 
BEOTH. Be; are; is. {A.-S.) 
BEOUTEN. Without. {A.-S.) 
BE-PLOTMELE. Piecemeal. Prompt. Parv. 
BEQUARRE. B sharp. An old musical term, 

occurring in a curious poem on the compara- 
tive difiiculty of learning secular and chm-cli 
music, printed in Reliq. Antiq. i. 292. 

BER. (1) Beer. Gaw. 

{2) A berry. {Isl.) 

(3) A bier. Ritson. 

(4) Carried. Rob. Glouc. 

(5) The space a person runs in order to leap 
the impetus. North. 

BERAFRYNDE. A curious term introduced 
in the tale of King Edward and the Shepherd, 
ap. Hartshorne, p. 48, &c. It is barely pos- 
sible that it may have some connexion with 
bellarmin, q. v. The manner in which it 
occurs seems to give some ground for the 
conjecture. 

BERALLE. Fine glass. 

The jatys were of clene crystalle, 
And as bryghte as any beralle. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. ?8, f. 49. 

BERAND. Rushing ; roaring. Ps. Cott. 

BERANDE. Bearing. Kyng Ahs. 5109. 

BERAND YLES. The name of a dish in an- 
cient cookery. See the Forme of Cury, p. 99. 

BERASCALLED. Abused like a rascal. Nash. 

BERATE. To scold. Cotgrave gives this as 
one of the meanings of Breteler. 

BERATTLE. To rattle ; to make a great noise. 
Shale. 

BERAYED. (1) Dressed. 

For as they passed along in this array, themaner 
was that someone, berayed like a deviil, should offer 
to invade the company. 

Lambarde's Perambulation, 1596, p. 334. 

(2) Dirtied. 

BERAYNE. To wet wdth rain. Hence gene- 
rally, to moisten. {A.-S.) 

But teares heraynde my cheekes, 
1 retchlesse rent mine heare. 

Turbevile's Ovid, 1567, f. 12. 

BERBER. Barberry, a shrub. Gaw. 

BERBINE. The verbena. Kent. This Saxon 
form is given by Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033. 

BERCEL. A mark to shoot at. It is trans- 
lated by 7neta, and occurs under five different 
forms, bercel, berseel, bertel, bysselle. bersell, 
in the Prompt. Parv. pp. 32, 56. Mr, Steven- 
son, in his additions to Boucher, in v. Berselet, 
has clearly shown the connexion of the word 
with Germ, bersen, to shoot, and has also 
quoted from the Prompt. Parv. MS. Harl. 221. 
Its synonyme is obviously butt, and one is 



BER 



166 



BER 



therefore somewhat surprised to find the editor 
of the Proniptorium, p. 56, confusing the term 
vilh that applied to tlie ridp^es of a ph)iip:hnd 
field. See al^ol/erser and bersaalt in lloijuefort. 

BERCELETTUS. Hounds. This is certainly 
the meaning of the word in Robson's Ro- 
mances, p. 60, and may throw a doubt on the 
interpretation oibarcelett, q. v. See Barsletys. 

BERCEN. The barton of a house. This form 
of the word is given in MS. Gough, Wilts, 5, 
as current in "Wiltshire. 

BERCHE. Made of iron. 

BERD. A beard. {A.-S.) " Maugre his herd," 
in spite of him. ** To run in one's herd," to 
offer opposition to. Langtoft. 

BERDASII. A neck-cloth. The meaning of 
this term is doubtful. It occurs only in the 
Guardian. 

BERDE. (1) Margin ; brink. Prompt. Parv. 

(2) A lady ; a young person. See /iird. 

BERDYD. Bearded. Prompt. Parv. 

BERE. (1) A noise ; a roar ; a cry. (A.-S.) See 
Ilartshorne's Met. Tales, p. 99 ; Const, of Ma- 
sonry, p. 35 ; Gy of Warwike, p. 223 ; Towne- 
ley Myst. p. 109 ; Kyrig Alisaunder, 550. 
Tho, seyde Befyse, heryste thou that y here ? 
I hardenevyr a fowler beere ! 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 114. 

(2) To make a noise. (A.-S.) 

To the pavylown he can hym wynne. 
And brevely can he bere. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 92. 

(3) A bier. (A.-S.) " Broght on bere," dead. 
Minot's Poems, p. 24. 

(4) A pillow-case. Chaucer. 

(5) To bear ; to carry. (A.-S.) 

(6) A beard. Rob. Glouc. 

(7) To bear ; to produce. 

(8) A bear. (A.-S.) 

(9) To bear upon ; to allege ; to accuse. Weber. 
See Gy of Warwike, p. 354. 

BERE. A berry. 

Take the jeuse of rewe, vyneacre, and oyle of 
roses, and berts of lorelle, and laye thame to thi 
hevede. It helpes wonderfully. 

MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 280. 

BERE-BAG. One who bears a bag ; a term of 
contempt applied by Minot to the Scotch. 

BEREDE. To advise. Palsgrave. 

BERE-FRANKE. A wooden cage to keep a 
bear or boar in. See Wright's Monastic Let- 
ters, p. 269. 

BEREING. Birth. 

BE REN. To bear. (A.-S.) 

BERENGER. The name of a bear. 

BERENT. To rent ; to tare. 

What wonder is it then if I bnrent my haires ? 

England's Helicon, p. 52. 

BERETTA. A kind of hood worn by priests. 

See Hall's Satires, iv. 7. 
BERFREY. A moveable tower employed in 
sieges, generally made of wood. See Belfry. 
Alisaundre, and his folk alle, 
Faste asailod heore wallis, 
Myd bcrfirijca, with alio Ryn, 
Oef they myghte the ciKi wynne. 

A'v', Hsuunder, 2/77. 



BERGH. A hill. Yoksh. 

Thanne shaltow blenche at a lergh. 

Pii'rs Pltnifrhman, p. 112. 

BERG MOTE. A court upon a hill, which is held 
in Derbyshire for deciding pleas and contro- 
versies among the miners. 

BERGOMASK. A rustic dance, framed in imi- 
tation of the people of Bergamasco, a province 
in the state of Venice, who are ridiculed as be- 
ing more clownish in their manners and dialect 
than any other people in Italy. Shak. 

BERHEGOR. Beer-aigre. In the Manners 
and Household Expences of England, p. 456, 
mention is made of " vij. galones berheyor,^' 

BERIALLIS. Beryls; precious stones. 

BERIE. A grove; a shady place. Harrington, 
Probably from A.-S- beam, and merely anoth«r 
form of barrow, q. v. In the Prompt. Parv 
p. 33, we have berwe and berowe, a shadow. 

BERIE L. A burial. Also a tomb, a grave. 
See the quotation under ayere(3) ; Diah Great. 
Moral, p. 88 ; Gov. Myst. p. 18 ; Sevyn Sages, 
2598. (A.-S. byrgels.^ 

BERING. (1) Birth. (A.-S) 

(2) Behaviour. (A.-S) 

BERINGE-LEPE. A basket. Prompt. Parv. 

BERISPE. To disturb. See the notes on 
Reynard the Fox, p. 191. 

BERKAR. One who barks. Prompt. Parv. 

BERKYN. To bark. Prompt. Parv. 

BERLIN A. A pillory. Jonson. 

BERLY. Barry, an heraldic term. Holme. 

BERME. Yeast. (A.-S.) See Chaucer, Cant. 
T. 16281 ; Liber Niger Domus Edw. IV. p. 70. 

BERMEN. Bar-men; porters to a kitchen. 
(A.-S.) This term is found in Havelok and 
Layamon. 

BERMOOTHES. The Bermudas. Shak. 

BERMUDAS. A cant term for certain obscure 
and intricate alleys, in which persons lodged 
who had occasion to live cheap or concealed. 
They are supposed to have been the narrow 
passages north of the Strand, near Covent 
Garden. Bermudas also denoted a species of 
tobacco. Nares. 

BERN. (1) A man ; a knight ; a noble. Cf. Sir 

Degrevant, 500; Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 44; 

Amis and Amiloun, 837 ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 176. 

O Brut that bem bald of hand. 

The first conquerour of Inglanc' 

MS Colt. Vespiis. A. iii. f. 2. 

(2) A bairn ; a child. (A.-S.) Cf. Kyng Ali- 
saunder, 7556. 

Tho Havelok micte sei, Weilawei ! 

That evere was I kinges ^e/n/ Havelok , !ij\. 

(3) A barn. (A.-S.) 

BERNACLE. A gag for the mouth of a horse. 

In bernacle and brydell thou constreyne 
The chekys of them that ne3eh the nought. 

MS. Jshmole 61, f. 110, 
BERNAK. (1) The barnacle goose. 

And as the bernak in the harde tree. 

MS. Mhmole 59, f. 158. 

(2) A bernacle, q. v. Prompt. Parv. 
BERNERS. Men who stood with relays in 

luniting. Tliey were properly the men who 

fed the hounds. 



BER 



167 



BES 



And thenne every man that is theire, saf tlie 
hm-ners on foote and the chacechyens, and the 
lymneres, the whiche shulde be with hure houndes, 
and awayte upon hoin yn a feyr grene there as is a 
cold shadewe, sholde stoiiden afront yn aither syile 
the heed with roddes, that, no hound come aboute 
nor on the sydes. MS. Bodl. 546. 
BERNYNDE. Burning. 

Manne that seth his hows bernynde. 
Hath grete peryll to hym commynde. 

MS. Rawlinaon 92, f. 3. 
BEROWE. A shadow. Prompt. Parv. 
BEROWNE. Around ; round about. 

His burliche berde was blody berowne. 

Murte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 94. 
BERRIER. A thrasher. North. 
BERRIN. A burial ; a funeral. Var. dial. A 
person attending a funeral is called a berriner, 
and a grave a herrinhole. 
BERRITHATCH. According to Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, in the court rolls of the manor 
of Cheriton, co. Somerset, this word is used 
for litter for horses. 
BERRY. (1) A gooseberry. North. 

(2) To thrash corn. North. Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, gives an Islandic derivation. 
Berrying-stede, the thrashing floor. 

(3) A herd of conies. A herd of roes in the 
the Two Angrie Women of Abington, p. 65, 
unless we suppose a misreading for bevy. We 
have, however, berry in the Booke of Hunting, 
Lond. 1586. 

(4) Florio has, " Croscia d'dcque, a suddaine 
showre, a storme, a tempest, a blustring, a 
berry or flaw of many windes or stormes to- 
gether, bringing violent showres of water." 

(5) A borough. 

BERSELET. A kind of bow > 
BERST. (1) Bearest. 

(2) Broke. Rob. Glouc. 
(3 Defect. {A.-S.) 

The levedi, sore adrad withalle, 

Ladde Beves into the halle. 

And of everiche sonde. 

That him com to honde, 

A dide hire ete altherferst, 

That she ne dede him no berst ; 

And drinke ferst of the win, 

That no poisoun was therin. 

Beves of Hamtoun, p. 75. 

BERT. (1) To perspire. North. 

(2) A beard. 

He smat aynother al to wounder. 
That hys beit cleve ysonder. 

Gy of Warwike, Middlehill MS. 

(3) Bright. 

BERTHE. Beareth. Lydgate. 
BERTHHINGES. Salvation. Ps. Cott. 
BERUFFIANISED. Abused like a ruffian. A 

term used by Nash, in Have With You to 

Saffron Walden, 1596. 
BERUNGE. A burial. Robson. 
BERWE. (1) A shadow. Prompt. Parv. 
(2) To defend. {A.-S.) 

BERWHAM. A horse-collar. Prompt. Parv. 
BERYD. Buried. 

Therfor I will that ther it berpd be. 

Isu^a Poeticce, p. 5. 



BERYEN. To defend ; to protect. 

BERYLL. Apparently some rope belonging to 
a ship. See Cocke Lorelles Bote, p. 12. 

BERYNE. A child; a bairn. 

Alles a wafulle wedowe that wanttes hir beryne, 
I may werye and wepe, and wrynge myne handys. 
Murte Arthure, Lincoln MS. f. 98. 

BERYNG. The lap. Weber. 

BERYNG-CASE. A portable casket. 

There come foure clerkes to Wyltone from feme lond, 

With a lituU beryng-case full of relekes gode. 

Citron. Vilodun. p. 84. 

BERYNT. To bear. Cov. Myst. 
BERYS. Approaches. 

Tryamowre to hym berys. 

And they alle to-braste ther sperys. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 81. 

BERYSE. Berries. Weber. 
BERY3T. Beareth. 
BER3E. A mount ; a hill. Gaw. 
BES. Be. (A.-S.) 

BE SAGE. A portable bed carried by horses, 
called besage horses. (A.-N.) The term 
occurs in Arch. iii. 157 ; Ordinances and Re- 
gulations, pp. 200, 204. 
BESAGUY. A two-edged axe. (^.-A^.) 
Wambras with wings and rere bras therto, 
And thereon sette were besagnys also. 

Clariodes, ap. Tristrem, p. 375. 

BESANT. A golden coin, so called because 
first coined at Byzantium or Constantinople. 
Its value is dift'erently estimated, and seems 
have varied from ten to twenty sols. 

BESCHADE. To shadow. 

The hyje tre the grounde beschadeth, 
And every mannis herte gladeth. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 187. 
But in silence and in covert 
Desireth for to be beschadid. Ibid. f. 124. 

BESCILDIGED. Accused of a crime. Ver^ 

stegan. 
BE SCORNED. Despised. Chaucer. 
BESCRATCHIN. To scratch. Chaucer. 
BESCRO. To beshrew. 
BESCUMMER. To scatter ordure. BenJonson 

spells it bescumber. 
BE-SE. To see ; to behold. {A.-S.) Hence 
to see to, to take care, as in Const, of Ma- 
sonrv, p. 16. 
BE SEEK. To beseech. {A.-S.) A common 

form in early English. North. 
BESEEME. To seem ; to appear. See Morte 

d'Arthur, ii. 235 ; Ipomydon, 354. 
BESEGIT. Besieged. Chaucer. 
BESENE. Clad; clothed; adorned. See Hall, 
Henry VIII. f. 3 ; Thynne's Debate, p. 50. 
Most dowtyd man, I am lyvyng upon the ground. 
Goodly besene with many a ryche garlement. 

Digby Mysteries, p. 32. 
He cam into a litille playne, 
Alle rounde aboute wel bexeyne 
With buschis grene and cedres hy^o. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Arifiq. 134, f. 40. 
And was with golde and riche stonis 
Besene and bounde for the nonis. Ibid. f. 55 

BESENYS. Business. Arch. xxix. 133. 
BESET. Placed; employed ; bestowed. (^^.-5^ 



BES 



168 



BES 



Now me thynkyth yn my mode, 
Thou haste welle be-aitt my goile. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 88. 
I holde my kyngdome welle besntt. 
Be thou worse or be thou belt. Ibid. f. 247. 
BESETE. See Bei/ete. 

His worldis joye ben so grete, 
Him thenketh of heven no busete. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 34, f. 56. 

BESEY. Beseen. (J.-S.) 
BESHAUP. To make haste. Var. dial. 
BESHET. Shut up. (A.-S.) 

BESHINE. To give hght to. This is found 
among the ohsolete words given at the com- 
mencement of Batman uppon Bartholonie, 
fol. Lond. 1582. 

BESHOTE. Dirtied. Lane. 

BESilRADDE. Cut into shreds. See Percy's 
Ilehques, p. 279. 

BESHREWE. To curse. (A.-S.) Generally 
a milder form of imprecation. Florio derives 
the term from the shrew mouse, to which 
deadly qualities were once ascrihed. Cf. 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 6426; Audeley's Poems, 
p. 32 ; Play of Sir Thomas More, p. 17. 

BESIDE. By the side of. (A.-S.) Later 
writers besides, as in Middleton, i. 255. 

BESIDERY. A kind of haking-pear. Kersey. 

BESIEGED. A planet is besieged when be- 
tween the bodies of two malevolents. An 
astrological term, so explained in the Gent. 
Rec. i. 101. 

BESIEN. To trouble ; to disturb. 

BESIGHT. Scandal; offence. (A.-S.) 

BESISCHIPE. Activity. 

What hast thou done of besiacJiipe ? 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. ITO. 

BESKUMMER. To daub ; to besmear. Somerset. 

BESKYFTE. Thrust off. {A.-S.) 

And she was ever passynge wery of hym, and 
fayne wold have ben delyverd of hym, for she v/as 
aferd of hym bycause he was a devyls sone, and she 
coude not beskyfte hym by no meane. 

Morte d' Arthur, i.91. 

BESLOBBER. To slobber; to render wet or 
dirty by spilling over the breast. Beslaver, 
Brit. Bibl. i. 498. Beslomered, dirtied, Piers 
Ploughman, p. 476. 

BESLURRY. To smear; to defile. Drayton. 

BESME. A besom. Pompt. Parv. 

BESMIRCH. To soil ; to daub ; to smear. SJiaJc. 
Verstegan has hesmit, besmutted, made foul ; 
and Chaucer, besmotred, smutted. {A.-S.) 
riorio, in v. Caligdre, gives the verbs, to besut, 
to besmoulder. The Salopian dialect has 
besmudge, to dirty. 

BE SO. So be it. Maundevile. 

BESOFTE. Besought. Launfal, 766. 

BESOGNIO. A beggar. {Ital.) 

BESORE. To vex ; to annoy. Fletcher. 

BESORT. (1) To suit ; to fit. Shak. See Lear, 
i. 4, one of the quartos reading before. 

(2) Attendance; society. Shak. 

BESPEAKEN. To speak to. 

When folks the bespeaken, curtesly hem grcte. 

Ta bit; Book, p. 2?7. 

BESPERPLEO. Sprinkled. "All besperpled 
with blood," Morte d' Arthur, i. 167. 



BESPET. Spit upon. {A.-S.) 
BE-SPREDD. Overspread. 

The emperour went to hys bedd. 

In clothys fulle ryche he was be-sprrdd. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 139. 
BESPRENGYD. Besprinkled. Skinner. 
BESPRENT. Besprinkled. See Lydgate's Minor 
Poems, p. 91 ; Brit. Bibl. \. 25 ; Percy's 
Rehques, p. 100 ; Collier's Old Ballads, p. 30. 
BE SPURT. To sprout ; to cast forth. 
BESQUITE. Biscuit. 

Armour thei had plente, and god besquite io meie. 

Lang toft's Chron, p. 171« 

BESSELYCHE. Busily. This form occurs in 

the Chron. Vilodun. p. 137. 
BESSOME. To swim ; to saih {A.-S.) 

Brethly besaomes with byrre in berynes sailles. 

Morte Arthure, Lincoln MS. i- 91. 

BESSY. Female bedlamites were called Bess 
o' Bedlams, and the term is not quite obso- 
lete, being still applied in some parts of the 
provinces to vagrants of that sex. The name 
is also given to one of the characters in the 
sword and plough dances. " Don't be a 
Bessy," said to a man who interferes with 
women's business. Bessy-bad, a person who 
is fond of childish amusements. 

BEST. A beast ; an animal. {A.-N.) An insect 
would be termed a beast, as, " bee, a beste," 
Prompt. Parv. p. 27. 

BESTAD. Circumstanced; situated. {A.-S.) 
Sometimes in an ill sense, distressed ; and in 
later writers, provided. Cf. Prompt. Parv. 
p. 33 ; Cov. Myst. pp. 77, 329 ; Robin Hood, 
i. 26 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 5069 ; Rom. of the 
Rose, 1227, 579G ; Hoccleve's Poems, p. 36. 

BESTARRED. Covered with stars. 

Bestarred over with a few 
Dyamond drops of morning dew. 

Musarum Delicia', lo56. 

BESTE. Deer. Ritson. 

BESTEZ. Beasts. See Sir Perceval, 176. Now 

a common vulgarism. 
BESTIALL. Cattle. Sometimes a beast, and 
occasionally used as an adjective. The word 
is variously spelt. Cf. Maundevile's Travels, 
pp. 224, 284; Morte d' Arthur, i. 147, 152; 
Holinshed, Desc. Scot. pp. 11, 14 ; Anc. Code 
of Mil. Laws, p. 15. 

And eek of that thou herdest say. 
To take a mannis heite awey. 
And sette ther a bestiulle. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 57. 

BESTIALLTCKE. Beastly. Chaucer. 
BESTLY. Belonging to a beast. Chaucer. 
BESTOIKE. To betray. This is given in the 
old dictionaries, but is perhaps an error for 
heswike, q. v. 
BESTOW. To lay up ; to put out of the way ; 
to stow away. East. Hence, to commit sui- 
cide. Line. Forby gives it the meaning, " to 
deliver a woman," the sense it bears in the 
following passage. 

And Josiano, Crist hero bemilde! 
In a wode was bestoude of childo. 

Benes of Ham/i'U)i,j>. 13S. 

BESTRACT. Mad. Mirae. 



BET 



169 



BET 



BESTRAUGHT. ATad ; distracted. See Percy's 

Reliques, p. 49 ; Nomenclator, pp. 423, 424. 
BESTUD. To ornament with studs. 
BESTYLYNESSE. Bestiality. Prompt. Parv. 
BESWIKE. To betray ; to cheat ; to deceive. 
(A.-S.) Cf. Kyng Horn, 296 ; Rehq. Antiq. 
i. 114, 241; Gower, ed. 1532, f. 10; Kyng 
Ahsaunder, 4609, 4727 ; Richard Coer de 
Lion, 5918 ; Wright's PoUtical Songs, p. 158 ; 
Leg. Cathol. p. 79 ; Arthour and Merhn, p. 60 ; 
Sevyn Sages, 2500 ; Langtoft, p. 273. 
Whereof the shippis they hiswike. 
That passen by the costis there. 

Gower, MS. Sue. Antiq 134, f. 41 
I fynde cnsample in a cronicle 
Of hem that love so beswike. Ibid. f. 43. 

Of a poysone whiche they dronke. 
They haddeii that they han beswonka. Ibid. f. 55. 
In wommannysche vols thay synge 
With nootes of so gret likynge,